Richard J. Estes

Richard J. Estes
University of Pennsylvania | UP · School of Social Policy & Practice

B.A., MSW, DSW, PSW

About

116
Publications
160,539
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1,607
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1973 - present
University of Pennsylvania
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
July 1970 - August 1973
University of California, Berkeley
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Researcher and clinivian
Education
September 1970 - May 1973
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Social Welfare
September 1965 - May 1966
Menninger Foundation
Field of study
  • Psychiatric Social Work
September 1965 - May 1967
University of Pennsylvania
Field of study
  • Social Group Work

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Globalization and international media are potent contributors to the rise of the Islamist global jihad. Among others, a substantial component of globalization is the widespread circulation of digital technologies of communication connecting people all over the world through electronic forms of information. Over the past three decades, "virtual jiha...
Chapter
This chapter reports an analysis of the development and well-being trends of the 162 countries included in the comprehensive analysis. These 162 countries, as previously reported, represent a total of 95% of the world’s population. The only exceptions to this total are the small island developing and, in some cases, land-locked nations of developin...
Chapter
At the beginning of this book, I stated that the world had arrived at a critical turning point, i.e., at a time in our shared histories when critical decisions needed to be made concerning the future of nations and that of the larger community of nations of which we are all part. The situation remains the same today despite five decades of progress...
Chapter
The most dramatic findings on the Weighted Index of Social Progress (WISP) over the entire 50-year period reported in this study are summarized in Fig. 4.1 (renumbered Fig. 1.1 in Chap. 1) and Fig. 4.2 (renumbered Fig. 1.2 in Chap. 1). These 2 figures show the average WISP scores and percent change in WISP scores for each decade over the 50-year pe...
Chapter
Nations are dynamic entities that are constantly changing in response to the needs of often expanding populations (Ghose, 2013; United Nations Population Division, 2018). They also change or realign existing systems in response to the complex social, economic, political, technological, and environmental needs that emerge with increased frequency an...
Chapter
Humanity has arrived at a dramatically different level of well-being in 2019 than that which existed 50 years ago or that which characterized people worldwide at the outset of the twentieth century. And the current century is still young and continues to reveal itself daily. The advances we have the privilege to witness reflect changes in the quali...
Chapter
The famous Bangladeshi economist Muhammad Yunus (Bengali: মুহাম্মদ ইউনূস) began his career as a commercial banker serving mostly well-off individuals, small businesses, and corporations. Following several years of working in the commercial sector, however, he felt little satisfaction with his job as a banker to the economically well off. He turned...
Chapter
Thus far, we have documented major shifts that have occurred in quality of life and well-being worldwide from 1970 to the present. Along with selected estimates for the next 2 years, these data illustrate national trends in well-being by decade over the most recent 50-year period. The author has previously reported on interim trends for the period...
Chapter
The central goal of well-being research, policy, and practice is to improve the conditions under which people live, especially those population groups that are “at risk” of failing to achieve a reasonable level of quality of life and well-being. The population groups at high risk of negative levels of well-being historically have been children and...
Chapter
The twenty-first century is the century of the women. No longer restricted to gendered defined roles, women now are in the workplace in large numbers, own and operate their own businesses, occupy most of the seats in universities and, increasing, have become major contributors to science and technology along with their customary careers in function...
Chapter
Comparative research using the world as the focus of analysis is very complex and requires multiple levels of conceptual and methodological decisions to implement correctly. The study reported in this volume is one of more than 40 such studies that have been conducted by this author at the global, regional, subregional, and national levels of analy...
Article
Full-text available
Social progress and well-being throughout the world has arrived at a critical turning point. Following decades of social losses among the world’s poorest developing countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America, the majority of these and other nations now are experiencing significant social gains. Using the Weighted Index of Social Progress (WISP18),...
Chapter
Wealth inequalities both within and between nations has reached an extreme point and is continuing to increase (Collier P. The bottom billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it. Oxford University Press, New York, 2007; Henneberg S, The wealth gaps. Farmington Hills: Greenhaven Publishing, 2017). Today, approximatel...
Chapter
Analysts have written copiously on ways to counteract radical Islam and Islamist militancy. Current public policy and counterterrorism strategies regarding Islamic militancy have focused mostly on short-term public safety, or what marketers may view as “supply-side” strategies. These are strategies designed to dismantle the marketing organization o...
Chapter
In this introductory chapter, we expose the reader to a quality-of-life model that addresses the drivers of Jihadist terrorism and deduce counterterrorism programs directly from our understanding of these drivers. Specifically, we provide suggestive evidence to show increased incidence of Jihadist terrorism is mostly motivated by increased negative...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on cultural and religious factors related to the rise of the Islamist jihadist movement. We make the distinction between the Islamic worldview and ideology and place much of jihadist beliefs that motivate terrorist action in the category of ideology. We discuss the cultural drivers of jihadism couched in the context of religiou...
Chapter
Are the political actions of authoritarian regimes—tribal and exclusionary—in the MENA region associated with Islamist jihadist terrorist actions? This is the question we will be addressing in this chapter. We do this by describing the history of authoritarian regimes of Libya, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan and jihadist terrorist inci...
Chapter
This chapter summarizes the MENA region’s rich social, political, cultural, and religious history and brings that history up to the present. The purpose of this summary is to demonstrate that the region’s contemporary history of Islamist jihadism and terrorism is rooted in socio-political forces that have been at play for many centuries, and indeed...
Chapter
In this chapter we discuss counterterrorism strategies focusing on the demand side of the terrorism market. We do so by focusing of drivers of market demand: culture, religion, economy, politics, globalization, and media. We propose specific counterterrorism strategies that are directly deduced from our analysis of the drivers of market demand.
Chapter
This chapter discusses five major themes in this chapter directly related to globalization, the media, and their effects on the rise jihadist terrorism in the last 4–5 decades. These themes are (1) globalization and the breakdown of the welfare state; (2) globalization, consumerism, and postmodernism; (3) negative media portrayals of Islam and Musl...
Chapter
The Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) has been one of the most economically dynamic in the world. The region’s rate of economic expansion, due primarily to its rich oil and well-established human capital reserves, has been among the most robust of the world’s 19 major subregions. And this historical pattern persists into the current period...
Book
Full-text available
About this book This book focuses on the drivers of Jihadist terrorism and explains how a better understanding of these drivers can lead to more effective counterterrorism policies all over the world. It builds on results of the extensive body of quality of life studies to document the historical, geo-political, economic, religious, cultural and me...
Article
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This paper documents global progress in human well-being since the end of World War II and, more specifically, since 1950. The paper focuses on the transformative changes in quality of life that have occurred over this period in four of the most critical sectors of well-being: the health, education, economic, and welfare sectors. We also consider t...
Article
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What makes some Muslims in identifiable regions of the world accept Jihadism and, more particularly, Jihadist terrorism as a solution to domestic social, economic, and political problems? We attempt to answer this question using a sample of 32,604 Muslims from 26 countries surveyed in 2011–2012 by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Publi...
Chapter
While positive psychology is a relatively new science, the notion of wellbeing itself is not novel and has always existed across all societies throughout history. In this chapter, we trace the origins of contemporary civilizations across the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region from ancient (c. 9200 BCE) to modern times (2018 CE) and explore thei...
Article
Many scholars and commentators have written on ways to counteract acts of terrorism initiated by Islamist militants associated with Jihadist groups operating predominantly in the Middle East and North Africa Region (hereafter the MENA region). Most of what has been published in the academic literature with respect to slowing, eventually stopping, t...
Chapter
The sexual exploitation of children is not new, but in the last quarter of the twentieth century to the present day, this set of horrific practices has continued to grow. The phenomenon is worldwide and exists as a continuum of sex crimes committed against children: child sexual abuse, child sexual assault, and the exploitation of children for comm...
Chapter
The eight countries of East Asia are among the most socially, politically, economically, culturally, linguistically, and religiously diverse in the world. With a region-wide population of more than 1600 million people, or about 22 % of the world’s total, East Asia includes two communist countries (the People’s Republic of China and North Korea) and...
Chapter
Life satisfaction, quality of life, and happiness are three states of being that contribute to personal and collective well-being. The pursuit of well-being has been one of the most enduring and difficult to achieve quests for people now living and for those of the past. In the main, the quest has taken four forms: (1) arriving at a more complete u...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on well-being in two of the three countries that make up the North American region—Canada and the United States. Well-being trends taking place in Mexico, the third of the three North American countries, and its territories, owing to their shared histories and cultural continuities, are presented in the chapter dealing with Lat...
Chapter
The end of World War II marked a turning point in the history of human consciousness. An era of untold tragedy and human suffering associated with well-being planted the seeds for an awakening not only amongst scholars and policy makers but amongst the general public as well. The awakening was recognition of the need for more scientifically rigorou...
Chapter
The first 19 chapters of this book focus on changes in well-being from national and regional perspectives. This chapter summarizes the book’s major findings concerning global changes in well-being, with special emphasis on the critically important changes that have occurred in global well-being since the end of World War II. The major findings conf...
Book
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This handbook addresses the historical background of the Islamic world and reviews its basic past intellectual achievements. It studies social progress of these regions and sub-regions in comparison with other parts of the world. It uses large data sets and well established statistically weighted Indexes in order to assess the nature and pace of th...
Chapter
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The present chapter discusses the most important forces that led to the rise of Islam’s “Golden Age”, a period of Islamic development that lasted nearly five centuries beginning with the reign of the Abbasid Caliph Harun al-Rashid (c. 786–809) and ended with the collapse of the Abbasid Caliphate following the Mongol invasions and the sack of Baghda...
Chapter
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North Africa links the world’s three continents of Africa, Europe, and Asia to one another. This geo-strategic position, along with a very rich history and an abundance of natural resources, renders the region a potentially major contributor in safeguarding international peace and harmony, albeit considerable political instability exists throughout...
Chapter
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Today, approximately one fourth of the world’s population is part of the expanding Islamic Ummah (1,634 million people). Muslims are found in large numbers in all regions of the world but are concentrated most heavily in Africa and Asia. Muslims also constitute sizeable minority populations in Europe as well as in North and South America and, to a...
Chapter
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This chapter is based on a previously published article in Social Indicators Research written by the same authors: Estes, R. J., & Sirgy, M. J. (2014). Radical Islamic militancy and acts of terrorism: A quality-of-life analysis. Social Indicators Research, 117, 615–652. The chapter examines the relationship that exists between varying degrees of te...
Chapter
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With the goal of outlining the major historical events that led to the genesis of the modern system of nation-states, this chapter gives a very brief historical background of the political situation and the main ruling powers which shared the Islamic land during the centuries following the Abbasid Era (750 CE–1258 CE; 1261 CE–1517 CE). The Abbasid...
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The Fertile Crescent (FC) is one of the world’s oldest and continuously populated regions. Situated around the historic Tigris and Euphrates rivers the countries of the FC are also central to the formation of modern civilization. They also have been the centers of advancements in agricultural and animal husbandry practices, the introduction of writ...
Chapter
Global, national, and community quality of life (CQOL) indicators have a rich history in American and European social science research history since at least 1900. The primary purpose of this body of research has been to provide knowledge-based approaches to “community” intervention (variously defined to include neighborhoods, cities, provinces and...
Article
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Phillip Converse, Warren Miller, and Angus Campbell (left to right) discussing the National Election Study in 1956.(Photo credit: University of Michigan Institute of Social Research).Philip Converse was one of the most esteemed early scholars in the field of survey research and quality of life studies. He was a seminal figure in the field of public...
Data
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Education for social development is emerging as an important component of professional education in the human services. This paper identifies the underlying assumptions, knowledge base, and goals of social development practice. The paper also identifies four models of social development practice of relevance to the education of social workers for s...
Article
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Not since the African famine of the 1970s, has the world witnessed so much human suffering. Fueled by a combination of natural disasters, crop failures, world-wide economic recession, inflation, and regional political instability, the African famine of 1983-1985 affected some 700 million persons in some 20 nations, at least 150 million of which wer...
Article
All societies are confronted with complex, often difficult to overcome, challenges associated with changing population demographics. These challenges have placed increasing demands on society for social protection. Individual citizens, politicians, and scholars alike all are searching for the ideal configuration of the welfare mix, that is, a combi...
Chapter
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Following decades-long patterns of social deterioration, today, social progress is beginning to take hold in many of the 41 socially least developed countries (SLDCs) of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Though still tentative, certainly fragile, the majority of these SLDC social improvements occurred in response to the implementation of the United N...
Article
Full-text available
World social development has arrived at a critical turning point. Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; however, the majority of developing countries have not. Problems of rapid population growth, failing economies, famine, environmental devastation, majority-minority group...
Article
All societies are confronted with complex, often difficult to overcome, challenges associated with changing population demographics. These challenges have placed increasing demands on society for social protection. Individual citizens, politicians, and scholars alike all are searching for the ideal configuration of the welfare mix, that is, a combi...
Article
Full-text available
Richard J. Estes was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. He is a graduate of LaSalle University (1965) with majors in literature and philosophy, the University of Pennsylvania (1967) where he earned a master’s degree in social work, and the University of California at Berkeley (1973) where he earned a doctorate in social welfare. He also recei...
Article
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Horrific acts of terrorism have emerged as defining features of Islamic–Western relations throughout much of this still young century. Arising from decades, indeed centuries, of mutual distrust contemporary patterns of radicalized Islamic terrorism toward the West are rooted in their shared histories, traditions, values, norms and, for some, deeply...
Article
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Today, approximately one-fourth of the world’s population includes 1,620 million persons who are part of the expanding Islamic Ummah. Muslims are found in large numbers in all regions of the world but are concentrated in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and selected successor states to the former Soviet Union. Despite the obvious wealth of some Islami...
Article
Social welfare is a complex, multi-dimensional, field of practice that seeks to promote the well-being of people everywhere. But national responses to social welfare differ dramatically from one society to the next and, often, valid comparisons between different nations and systems of social welfare are difficult to undertake. This paper addresses...
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“Economies in Transition” consist of 31 countries that are in the process of transitioning from centrally planned economies and autocratically controlled political systems to free market economies and democratic forms of political governance. EITs are located in all regions of the world and include (1) the successor states to the former Soviet Unio...
Article
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The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has emerged as one of the world’s most heinous crimes. The problem affects millions of children worldwide and no country or community is fully immune from its effects. This paper reports first generation research of the relationship that exists between CSEC and the phenomenon of missing children...
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This chapter discusses the contribution of social indicators, social reporting, and social indexes to community practice. The chapter is divided into two parts: Part I discusses the development of social in-dicators, social reporting, and social index construction from a historical perspective; Part II identifies the contribution of these innovatio...
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Failed and failing states are sovereign political entities that are unable to provide for the basic security, geographic integrity, social justice, and material needs of their populations, for example, Afghanistan, Burkina-Faso, Burma/Myanmar, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Mexico, Somalia, Sudan, and Uganda. State-directed viol...
Article
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World social development has arrived at a critical turning point. Economically advanced nations have made significant progress toward meeting the basic needs of their populations; however, the majority of developing countries have not. Problems of rapid population growth, failing economies, famine, environmental devastation, majority-minority group...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growing demand for recognition of the international dimension of social work has in-creased in recent years, and the need for international social work education guidelines has in-creased correspondingly. Forces behind this include the current globalization in the world (bringing increased interest in global and international content in the soc...
Article
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The paper introduces readers to the nature and variety of American-based international practice at seven levels of analysis. The paper provides a historical backdrop for contemporary practice and suggests options available to American social workers in integrating the international dimensions of social work in their day-to-day practice both at home...
Article
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“Economies in Transition” (hereafter EIT or EITs) are countries in the process of shifting from “command” to “more open”, liberalized, free market economic systems. In addition to achieving major structural adjustments to their economies, the transformational process requires the introduction of a high degree of transparency in both the economic an...
Article
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Asia is the world’s largest and most culturally diverse region. Consisting of some 53 independent nations with a combined population of more than 3808million persons – 59% of the world’s total population in 2005 – patterns of social and economic development in the region have been comparatively slow, especially with respect to rates of economic exp...
Book
Environmentalissuescontinuedtoloomlargeinthelastdecadeofthetwentiethc- tury,especiallyenvironmentalproblemsrelatedtorisinglevelsofCO emissionsand 2 other greenhouse gases on the planet’s average temperatures and, subsequently, storm patterns. Floods and droughts, in combination with unseasonably high and low temperatures became the norm rather than...
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Following several decades of rapid economic expansion, development in Hong Kong has arrived at a new crossroads. The pace of economic growth is no longer as rapid as during earlier decades, competition with other East Asian societies has grown more acute and many of the territory's recurrent, sometimes hidden, social problems appear to be undermini...
Article
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The editors are very pleased to bring to the quality-of-life research community a new journal, Applied Research in Quality of Life (ARQOL). ARQOL focuses on publishing conceptual and methodological papers dealing with quality-of-life studies in the applied disciplines of the social and behavioral sciences. The field of qualityof-life studies is an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following several decades of rapid economic expansion, development in Hong Kong has arrived at a new crossroads. The pace of economic growth is no longer as rapid as during earlier decades, competition with other East Asian societies has grown more acute and many of the territory's recurrent, sometimes hidden, social problems appear to be undermini...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarizes the contemporary situation of children forced to engage in commercial sex work in the Canada, Mexico, and the United States. The chapter provides both a vivid quantitative and qualitative assessment of the underlying factors that contributes to this phenomenon. The prognosis for many of these exploited children is a bleak on...
Article
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European nations are undergoing rapid and fundamental changesin response to social, political and economic eventsthat are occurring both within and outside the region.These changes are far-reaching in scope and,ultimately, are expected to result in a redefinitionof ``Europe'' and what it means to be ``European.''Using the author's extensively pre-t...
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“Rich” and “poor” are multidimensional concepts of considerable value in comparative social research. This chapter discusses conceptual and methodological issues associated with their use and is divided into three parts. Part I briefly discusses national and international efforts at developing systems of national accounts on which contemporary appr...
Article
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Stakeholder involvement is an essential component in the development ofeffective measures of national and local development. The significance ofthis aspect of social indicator model-building in the construction ofnational/local assessment tools is illustrated through the creation ofa Social Development Index (SDI-2000) for Hong Kong SAR (SpecialAdm...
Technical Report
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The Executive Summary documents the nature, extent, and serious of the commercial sexual exploitation of children in the United States during the period 1995-2001. The full report discusses all aspects of the commercial sexual exploitation of: child pornography, child prostitution, and child trafficking for sexual purposes.
Article
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The bibliography that follow was designed to introduce readers to the very rich theoretical and empirical literatures relating to child abuse, child sexual abuse, child sexual exploitation, and the commercial sexual exploitation of children. The bibliography also contains introductory references to the international child rights movement, including...
Article
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The nations of the Middle East have arrived at a historic crossroad.Anchored in centuries-old political and economic systems, bitterethnic rivalries, recurrent intra-regional warfare, and risingfundamentalism, the majority of the regions countries haveremained largely apart from the transformative processes that areshaping development in other worl...
Article
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The world social situation is characterized by extraordinary disparities in social, political, and economic development. Between 1970 and 1995 economically advanced countries succeeded in advancing their development successes of earlier decades. Indeed, the highly advantaged development pattern observed for the majority of nations located in Northe...
Article
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The European region is undergoing dramatic social change. Among other regional and international forces, these changes are rooted in: the collapse of the former Soviet Union; the sudden appearance of a large number of new – mostly poor and politically unstable – European nations; and, the emergence of economic trading blocs in North America and Asi...
Article
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Community welfare centers are among the most dynamic social institutions worldwide. Through their commitment to locality-based intervention, they keep people at the center of development. In doing so, they provide an institutional link between governments, people and various coalitions of private stakeholders that make up the communities in which t...
Article
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Asia is the world's most rapidly developing region. Even so, the majority of Asian nations continue to experience slow-moderate levels of economic growth, high rates of inflation, rapid population growth, and comparatively high levels of ethnic tension and civil unrest. Comparatively weak levels of intra-regional cooperation on a broad range of soc...
Article
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Asia is the world's most rapidly developing region. Even so, the majority of Asian nations continue to experience slow-moderate levels of economic growth, high rates of inflation, rapid population growth, and comparatively high levels of ethnic tension and civil unrest. Comparatively weak levels of intra-regional cooperation on abroad range of soci...
Article
Full-text available
Education for social development is emerging as an important component of professional education in the human services. This paper identifies the underlying assumptions, knowledge base, and goals of social development practice. The paper also identifies four models of social development practice of relevance to the education of social workers for s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Group work is an essential practice skill area that draws on the strengths of participants. This chapter identifies the sources of many of those strengths and demonstrates the uses to which group workers apply their skills in helping to mobilize resiliency and positive adaptations during periods of great social and emotional stress.
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The author believes sustainable development represents a fundamental and lasting contribution to development theory and practice. This article defines sustainable development, identifies associated intellectual and empirical traditions, clarifies the concept's underlying values and goals, identifies major intervention strategies, and discusses the...
Article
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The need to improve social work practice through systematic research is discussed. Practical approaches for attaining this goal are highlighted.
Article
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This article proffers an expose of the characteristics and contributions of social work ‘internationalists’. The impact of faculty international experiences on the curricula of social work programmes, with particular reference to the implications for American social work education, constitute the main plank of the analysis.

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