Richard K. Dadzie Ephraim

Richard K. Dadzie Ephraim
University of Cape Coast | UCC · Medical Laboratory Science

PhD; MPH

About

135
Publications
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Introduction
Richard K. Dadzie Ephraim is with the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Cape Coast, Ghana. Richard research into non-communicable diseases, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and acute kidney injury. Currently, I am working on the prescription patterns of hypertensive and diabetic nephropathies’.'

Publications

Publications (135)
Article
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Background: Dyslipidaemia is a key comorbid condition of type 2 diabetes mellitus that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the pattern of dyslipidaemia and factors associated with elevated levels of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ho. Methods: This hospi...
Article
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Aims Although traditional tests such as serum urea, creatinine, and microalbuminuria have been widely employed in the diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy, their sensitivity and accuracy are limited because kidney damage precedes the excretion of these biomarkers. This study investigated the role of serum free light chains in the disease manifestation...
Article
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Introduction: The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effect. Vitamin D is implicated in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its deficiency leads to increased inflammation. Moreover, its production is dependent on concentration of calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Cytokines mediates infla...
Article
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to obesity and defects in insulin action. Significant complications of DM include kidney disease due to its association with hypertension and obesity. Thus, the contribution of the various obesity phenotypes to the kidney impairment observed among hypertensi...
Preprint
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Background: Because of the essential nature of the work of medical laboratory professionals, continuing development in knowledge and skills is indispensable. The study aimed at identifying and prioritizing current development and training needs of medical laboratory professionals in Ghana in order that there can be a focused continuing professional...
Preprint
Background: The incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) seems to be increasing in Ghana as with the rest of the world. This study compared the sociodemographic features, diagnostic characteristics (clinical, biochemical and imaging) and clinical outcomes of ESKD patients who chose either renal replacement therapy (RRT) or conservative therapy...
Article
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Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis could be at a higher risk of acquiring viral infections such as hepatitis B, C (HBV, HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study investigated the prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV and identified the determinants of these viral infections among end stage renal disease (...
Article
Schistosoma haematobium continues to pose a significant public health burden despite ongoing global control efforts. One of several barriers to sustained control (and ultimately elimination) is the lack of access to highly sensitive diagnostic or screening tools that are inexpensive, rapid, and can be used at the point of sample collection. Here, w...
Preprint
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Schistosoma haematobium continues to pose a significant public health burden despite ongoing global control efforts. One of several barriers to sustained control (and ultimately elimination) is the lack of access to highly sensitive diagnostic or screening tools that are inexpensive, rapid, and can be utilized at the point of sample collection. Her...
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The study determined the frequency of dry eye, its clinical subtypes and risk factors among pregnant women. This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of pregnant women visiting the antenatal clinic of the University of Cape Coast hospital. Clinical dry eye tests were performed along with the administration of a symptom questionnaire. Fr...
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Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has had a greater psychological impact on patients with chronic ailments such as diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS compared to those without chronic conditions. We explored the psychological impacts of COVID-19 among people living with diabetes mellitus in Ghana. Methods: this study employed a hospital-b...
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Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is routinely diagnosed by creatinine-based guidelines, which is sub-optimal marker after injury due to renal and non-renal factors. This has necessitated the need for more specific and sensitive biomarkers for early detection of AKI in at risk patients. This prospective cross-sectional study used the biomarkers...
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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome associated with high morbidity, mortality and high hospital costs. Despite its adverse clinical and economic effects, only a few studies have reported reliable estimates on the incidence of AKI in sub-Sahara Africa. We assessed the incidence and associated factors of AKI among medical and surgica...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and its associated factors among pregnant women. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of consecutive pregnant women visiting the University of Cape Coast hospital's antenatal clinic. Meibomian gland assessment and tear function test were...
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Background: Diabetes mellitus is an important risk factor associated with tuberculosis (TB). This study investigated the prevalence and determinants of hyperglycemia among newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the Agona Swedru Municipality. Method: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2015 to April 2016. O...
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Background. Vitamin D is a steroid hormone important for the normal functioning of the body. It is produced through skin exposure to sunlight and from the diet. Although Ghana is located in the tropics where sunlight is abundant, factors like culture, diet, skin pigmentation, variation in the ozone layer, and geographical area influence the optimiz...
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Background Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is the commonest of the hereditary kidney diseases and mostly ensues in utero with signs delayed until after several decades. This study assessed the demographic, diagnostic (clinical and biochemical features) and therapeutic patterns among ADPKD patients who attended the nephrology un...
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Background: Hypofibrinolysis resulting from the up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) usually occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), rendering them hypercoagulable. This study assessed the plasma antigen and activity levels of the PAI-1 enzyme in T2DM patients in a district hospital in Ghana. Methods This was...
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Background: The effect of prolonged tourniquet application on lipid profile parameters (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)) among healthy students in the University of Cape Coast was assessed in this study. Methods: A total of 30 participants were sampled and...
Article
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Background The association between prolong metformin usage and B12 deficiency has been documented. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed substantial disparity among studies due to varied study definitions of vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin blocks the calcium dependent absorption of the vitamin B12-In...
Article
Purpose: This study evaluates in a cross-section of pregnant women the frequency of posterior blepharitis, its predisposing factors and how lipid profile impacts the occurrence of posterior blepharitis in pregnancy. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study of pregnant women. Results: In this study, 201 pregnant women were recruited...
Article
Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are likely to develop kidney disease. The need to identify more accessible and cheaper diagnostic biomarkers cannot be overemphasized. This study investigated the ability of serum uric and uric acid to creatinine ratio in assessing the kidney function of T2DM patients and determined the relationsh...
Article
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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder, characterized by persistent elevation of blood glucose either due to insulin resistance or insulin insufficiency. Metformin is the recommended first choice of drug for the management of T2DM and is known to improve insulin sensitivity and prevents hyperglycemia by reducing chronic inflammatio...
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Introduction: vascular access (VA) and its maintenance is of optimum priority in haemodialysis patients. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed to evaluate the types of vascular access used by patients on haemodialysis at the dialysis unit of a teaching hospital in Ghana. Methods: a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 80 patients ́ dat...
Article
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease which predisposes affected people to the acquisition of intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of intestinal parasites (ITPs) infection among DM patients and to identify their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 152...
Article
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Background Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the Ghanaian people. Evidence abounds in Ghana that temperatures in all the ecological zones are rising, whereas rainfall levels have been generally reducing and patterns are increasingly becoming erratic. The study estimated the impact of climate variation between seasons on bioche...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The association between prolong metformin usage and B12 deficiency has been documented. However, the prevalence estimates of metformin-induced vitamin B12 deficiency showed substantial disparity among studies due to varied study definitions of vitamin B12 deficiency. Metformin blocks the calcium dependent absorption of the vitamin B12-I...
Article
Full-text available
Schistosomiasis has been associated with kidney diseases leading to serious health problems especially in advanced cases. Most studies have used renal biopsy, and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of renal damage among urogenital schistosomiasis affected individuals. This study assessed serum urea, creatinine, and eGFR as biochemical markers of rena...
Preprint
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Background: The study evaluated the risks for developing low birth weight (LBW), preeclampsia (PE) and postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) in relation to maternal socio-demographic, obstetric characteristics and clinical laboratory information obtained at 1st antenatal care (ANC) visit. Methods: The study included 268 pregnant women attending 1st ANC visit...
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Background: Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Evidence indicates that endothelial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This study assessed the level of the components of the arginine-nitric oxide pathway to evaluate endothelial dysfunction in normotensive pr...
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Abstract Background Studies over the past decades have observed a sharp rise in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A highly sensitive and specific predictive tool for risky populations is essential. This study assessed two significant diabetes mellitus predictive tools for effectiveness and accuracy among people livin...
Article
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Blood (5ml) was collected from suspected malaria patients (n=2272) into K 3-EDTA tube. Samples were grouped as malaria infections in normal haemoglobin (malaria-HbAA), malaria infections in sickle cell disease (malaria-SCD), malaria infections in sickle cell trait (malaria-SCT) and non-malaria with normal haemoglobin (controls). The aim of the stud...
Article
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Background: Paediatric sepsis remains a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality especially in developing countries. Clinical symptoms associated with sepsis are unreliable and laboratory parameters unspecific, making an early diagnosis of paediatric sepsis difficult. The lack of definitive biomarker(s) for early diagno...
Article
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Purpose. To explore the relationship between serum prolactin, testosterone level, and tear film parameters. The potential impact of these hormones on the health of the ocular surface in pregnant women was evaluated. Methods. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study in which ocular symptoms (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)), tear function...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Climate change is a significant threat to the health of the Ghanaian people. Evidence abounds in Ghana that temperatures in all the ecological zones are rising, whereas rainfall levels have been generally reducing and patterns are increasingly becoming erratic. The study estimated the impact of climate variation between seasons on bioch...
Article
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Background. Renal diseases over the years have become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this study, we assessed the spectrum and clinical characteristics of Ghanaians with renal diseases at the nephrology unit of Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Kumasi. Methods. This was a retrospective hospital-based study co...
Article
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: Foetal macrosomia is known to contribute to various perinatal and maternal complications. Additionally, it has been proven to be a primary determinant of the survival of a newborn baby. We sought to determine the prevalence and associated factors of fetal macrosomia in Eikwe, a rural community in the Western part of Ghana. This hospital-based cro...
Preprint
Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming an epidemic disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. DM causes vision loss due to diabetic retinopathy (DR), which can be largely delayed in its onset or progression and even preventable if the potential risk factors for the disease are identified early and the appropriate therapy and lifestyle changes are made....
Article
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a highly fatal complication of malaria. We used the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) and Pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease (pRIFLE) guidelines to assess AKI among children. One hundred children with Plasmodium falciparum malaria were recruited from the St. Andrew's Catholic...
Article
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Objectives: The nutritional status of women affects pregnancy outcomes. Preconception care adequately prepares women for the demands of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prepregnancy iron status of nulliparous women in Ghana to provide empirical data to inform policy formulation. Methods: We recruited 336 nulliparous women of...
Article
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Background: The quest to enhance agricultural productivity and crop yields has led to increased use of agrochemicals on a global scale. Long-term use of these agrochemicals may be associated with adverse health implications. Objective: To assess haematological indices, renal function, heavy metal bioaccumulation in farmers and sprayers, and thei...
Preprint
Background: Head and neck Tumour (HNT) are tumour of the paranasal sinuses, the salivary glands and the upper aero¬digestive tract. EGF can stimulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell growth, migration, and inhibit apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of EGFR in head and neck tumour. Method: EGFR expressio...
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Hepatitis B viral infection (HBV) remains a global health threat. About 257 million people currently living with HBV worldwide. HBV is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa with prevalence of >8% established including West Africa. Though Anti-HBV vaccines existed since 1982, as the single most important Hepatitis B prevention measure. Ghana started activ...
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Background: People with primary invasive breast cancer receive both local (surgery and radiation therapy) and systemic treatment (chemotherapy and hormonal therapy). However, there are substantial short-and long-term side effects from chemotherapy as documented in several studies. This study assessed the effects of chemotherapy on clinical, haemato...
Article
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Background Acute and chronic exposure to wood smoke is associated with adverse health effects. This study investigated the potential effect of persistent exposure to woodsmoke on hematological and biochemical indices among regular wood burners in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Methodology A total of 101 consenting participants were recruited in...
Article
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Introduction: Comorbidities among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) increases with disease severity. This may be attributed to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) toxicity and HIV/AIDS-related infections. Aim: We investigated the presence of comorbidities among PLWHA and reported their clinical and biochemical characteristics. Methods: T...
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Aims/introduction We compared the diagnostic performance and correlation between salivary, serum and capillary blood glucose of diabetes and non-diabetes patients. Early detection of diabetes mellitus (DM) contributes to the prevention of complications and management. Materials and methods This case-control study was conducted among a total of 13...
Article
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Background: Mortality in HIV/AIDS patients have increasingly been attributed to noncommunicable causes. Since the dawn of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) infection and antiretroviral drugs, there has been conflicting data on the role of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) use across the globe with no data in...
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Despite the availability of several homogenous LDL-C assays, calculated Friedewald’s LDL-C equation remains the widely used formula in clinical practice. Several novel formulas developed in different populations have been reported to outperform the Friedewald formula. This study validated the existing LDL-C formulas and derived a modified LDL-C for...
Article
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Background: Despite increasing prevalence of hyperglycemia leading to a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the urban areas, relatively little is known about its actual prevalence and associations in the rural population. This study sought to determine hyperglycemia and its associated risk factors among rural dwellers in the Effutu Municipality. Met...
Article
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Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of human mortality particularly in association with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Nocardia spp. has emerged as an opportunistic infection especially in HIV patients. 'e high prevalence of TB and HIV coupled with the lack of a definitive laboratory diagnosis for Nocardia spp. could lead to misdiagnosed pu...
Preprint
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Introduction Malaria and sickle cell disease (SCD) co-morbidity have previously been reported in Ghana. However, there is paucity of data on haematological profiles and oxidative stress in co-morbidity states. This study identified novel inflammatory biomarkers associated with malaria in SCD and analyzed the levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α oxidat...
Conference Paper
Background: An elevated concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) is a well-known atherogenic risk factor with a high predictive value for coronary heart disease. Though a number of homogenous assay are available for estimation of LDL-c, use of calculated LDL-c by Friedewald’s formula (FF) is common in Ghanaian laboratories for l...