Richard Duschl

Richard Duschl
Southern Methodist University | SMU · Caruth Inst of Engineering Education

PhD

About

105
Publications
46,960
Reads
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9,405
Citations
Introduction
K-12 Integrated STEM education with an Engineering lead context; Coupling Science and Engineering Practices in Educational Lessons, Units, and Curriculum Materials
Additional affiliations
August 2018 - present
Southern Methodist University
Position
  • Managing Director
Description
  • K-12 integrated STEM education, West Dallas STEM School Project Collaborative: Toyota Foundation, SMU, Dallas ISD, West Dallas Community; Epistemic Practices in STEM disciplines
July 2008 - June 2020
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • Professor Emeritus
Description
  • With Greg Kelly our research group examines discourse and assessment processes in K-12 science education. Current work is focusing on systems thinking, quantitative reasoning and model-based reasoning.
June 2005 - July 2008
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Full-text available
T wo major reform efforts in K–12 science education have taken place during the past 50 years. The first was the 1950–1970 curriculum reform efforts motivated by the launching of Sputnik and sponsored by the newly formed National Science Foundation (NSF) in the United States and by the Nuffield Foundation in the United Kingdom. The signature goal f...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from science inquiry to science practices as recommended in the US reports A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas and the Next Generation Science Standards has implications for classroom/school level instruction and assessment practices and, therefore, for teacher’s professional developmen...
Article
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Grounded within current reform recommendations and built upon Giere’s views (1986, 1999) on model-based science, we propose an alternative approach to science education which we refer to as the Evidence-Explanation (EE) Continuum . The approach addresses conceptual, epistemological, and social domains of knowledge, and places emphasis on the episte...
Chapter
Advances in science education research and development examining cognitive reasoning, epistemic practices, and formative and summative assessment tools and methods are fundamentally repositioning the conceptualization and design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. However, with the rapid emergence of technologies and tools for supporting da...
Chapter
This chapter examines how guiding conceptions for educational research and inquiry have varied and progressed over the 20th century and influenced educational practices and policy. Researchers and policymakers have taken various stances to represent how knowledge is established, refined, transmitted, and changed. Such stances influenced what is con...
Article
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The recognized importance of computational thinking has helped to propel the rapid development of related educational efforts and programs over the past decade. Given the multi-faceted nature of computational thinking, which goes beyond programming and computer science, however, approaches and practices for developing students’ computational thinki...
Article
Knowledge building dynamics are central to scientific communities and involve dialog, debate, inquiry, and contested reasoning. Refining and developing knowledge is an oft missing dynamic in precollege educational programs. Practical reasoning and human decision making are essential epistemic and social dynamics in knowledge-building struggles and...
Chapter
Scientific argumentation has been an actively researched topic for almost 30 years. Predominant school science argumentation interventions focus on students constructing arguments using a component’s template to produce good scientific arguments. In recent years, researchers have called for a shift toward interpreting argumentation as an epistemic...
Article
Full-text available
Computational thinking is widely recognized as important, not only to those interested in computer science and mathematics but also to every student in the twenty-first century. However, the concept of computational thinking is arguably complex; the term itself can easily lead to direct connection with “computing” or “computer” in a restricted sens...
Article
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The coupled influences of scholarship in the fields of Psychology, Philosophy, and Pedagogy beginning in the 1950s, set in motion the emergence of new images, methodological perspectives, theories, and design principles about learners and learning. Advances in cognitive and sociocultural psychology, shifting images of the nature of science, recogni...
Article
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Design and design thinking are vital to creativity and innovation, and have become increasingly important in the current movement of developing and implementing integrated STEM education. In this editorial, we build on existing research on design and design thinking, and discuss how students’ learning and design thinking can be developed through de...
Conference Paper
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Taking a critical stance toward public information in the post-truth era is essential for citizens' decision making. Such a critical stance stems from problematising the evidence-consideration of what might be uncertain and thus problematic about a claim. This paper contributes to existing research on problematising by reporting on a discourse anal...
Conference Paper
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Developing students’ critical stance towards scientific knowledge claims is a challenge. School science investigations typically present limited opportunities for students to struggle with making epistemic decisions when planning and carrying out investigations. This paper reports on a study testing the conjecture, the extent to which teachers guid...
Article
Full-text available
The rapidly evolving and global field of STEM education has placed ever-increasing calls for interdisciplinary research and the development of new and deeper scholarship in and for STEM education. In this editorial, we focus on the topic of thinking, first with a brief overview of related studies and conceptions in the past. We then problematize a...
Presentation
This is an oral presentation about the extents to which the PDE-CC guiding principles are incorporated in group discussions during a scientific poster review activity. Look out for a possible book chapter in the near future!
Conference Paper
While science education researchers acknowledge scientific argumentation comprises both construction and critique practices, existing literature emphasises constructing arguments. This study addresses this gap by examining critique practices in the science classroom. Student/teacher discourse during a poster review activity is examined between grou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There is a call for school science argumentation interventions to shift from a focus on argument framework towards epistemic criteria valued by the scientific community. One way for leading students to construct scientifically sound arguments is through a focus on peer critique. This paper reports initial findings from a study aimed at testing the...
Article
Full-text available
Neste artigo, exploramos ideias que se encontram ao pensar sobre o ensino de ciências. Nossas considerações iniciam por descrever e analisar alguns aspectos das ciências e das escolas, assim defendemos a importância de que o ensino de ciências ocorra por meio do desenvolvimento de práticas epistêmicas para a abordagem de conceitos, leis, modelos e...
Article
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This chapter reframes the notion of teacher quality to encompass teacher qualities and teaching quality in the context of current demands on teacher and student learning. The chapter includes an exemplary case study of a program that depicts the kinds of qualities and practices that would be needed for effective teaching and learning in an era char...
Article
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An intensive dialogue between US, German and other European scholars on topics of didaktik and curriculum took place during 1990s. Here, we review this dialogue and extend it into current post-2000 conversations to examine how the two education traditions are being affected by global trends in education. We employ content analysis to examine public...
Article
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En este artículo se presenta un modelo gradual del carácter y el mecanismo de la reestructuración del conocimiento y, a continuación, se describe un modelo de práctica educativa (la evaluación por carpetas) diseñado para facilitar esta forma de reestructuración. Este modelo educativo crea oportunidades para que enseñantes y sobre todo estudiantes p...
Article
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Our focus is on the effects that dated ideas about the nature of science (NOS) have on curriculum, instruction and assessments. First we examine historical developments in teaching about NOS, beginning with the seminal ideas of James Conant. Next we provide an overview of recent developments in philosophy and cognitive sciences that have shifted NO...
Article
Full-text available
Our paper is an analytical review of the design, development and reporting of learning progressions and teaching sequences. Research questions are: (1) what criteria are being used to propose a ‘hypothetical learning progression/trajectory’ and (2) what measurements/evidence are being used to empirically define and refine a ‘hypothetical learning p...
Article
Full-text available
The dominant practices in science are not discovery and justification but rather the broadening and deepening of explanations via theory development and conceptual modification. New tools, theories, and technologies are fundamentally changing the methods and inquiry practices of science. In turn, the forms of evidence and criteria for what counts a...
Article
The dominant practices in science are not discovery and justification but rather the broadening and deepening of explanations via theory development and conceptual modification. New tools, theories, and technologies are fundamentally changing the methods and inquiry practices of science. In turn, the forms of evidence and criteria for what counts a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The construction and evaluation of scientific models, together with the iterative modification of these models in response to evidence, constitute paradigmatic scientific practices. If inquiry instruction is to engage students in authentic scientific reasoning, these practices need to become routine in the science curriculum. This paper reports on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We report on a large study of how U.S. middle-school students learned to reason scientifically in a science curriculum centered around models and argumentation. We discuss the design of our curriculum, the method of the study, and present selected results related to overall curriculum effects and to methods of promoting growth in students' reasonin...
Article
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We summarize a conference on scientific inquiry bringing together science educators, cognitive scientists and philosophers of science with three goals: 1. to establish how much consensus exists about scientific inquiry, 2. to discuss implications of that consensus for teaching science, 3. to identify areas where consensus is lacking to establish wh...
Chapter
The language of science is not exclusively the enunciation of terms and concepts, facts and laws, principles and hypotheses. The language of science is closely related to the restructuring character of scientific claims about method, goals, and explanations, a character firmly established in the history, philosophy and sociology of science (Duschl,...
Article
Full-text available
The standards movement arrived in the mid-1980s and new curriculum frameworks of instruction were crafted for the reform of science and mathematics curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for teachers. Today, the clarion warning calls about science and mathematics education, the fading STEM (science, technology, engineerin...
Chapter
The application of history of science to inform the design/curriculum, implementation/instruction and learning/assessment of science education is a process full of choices. What history and whose history to select and for what purposes ultimately defines the models of curriculum, instruction and assessment employed. Three organisational approaches...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a cross-sectional study of Taiwanese physics students' understanding of subatomic phenomena that are explained by quantum mechanics. The study uses students' explanations of their answers to items in a questionnaire as a proxy for students' thinking. The variation in students' explanations is discussed as is the development in th...
Article
This paper set emerged from an international symposium that aimed to shed light on issues associated with the enactment of inquiry both as means (i.e., inquiry as an instructional approach) and as ends (i.e., inquiry as a learning outcome) in precollege science classrooms. The symposium contributors were charged with providing perspectives from the...
Article
While studies of learning and learning environments have predominantly taken place in laboratories and formal educational settings, there is a growing community of researchers conducting studies in non-school settings such as museums, after school programs, homes, zoos, workplaces, and other informal learning environments (e.g., Callanan & Jipson,...
Article
Recent arguments in science education have proposed that school science should pay more attention to teaching the nature of science and its social practices. However, unlike the content of science, for which there is well-established consensus, there would appear to be much less unanimity within the academic community about which “ideas-about-scien...
Article
During the second half of the twentieth century we have witnessed the emergence of new scholarly disciplines and methods of inquiry that have shaped our images of science education. While I agree with Fensham that it may be time to change drivers, we also need to think carefully about the new highways being charted by new scientists and new science...
Article
Full-text available
Recent arguments propose that school science should pay more attention to teaching epistemic aspects of science. However, unlike the content of science, little is known about the extent of consensus within the science education community on which ‘ideas-about-science’ are essential elements of the science curriculum. This study sought to answer thi...
Article
This article focuses on the capacity of students to develop and assess arguments during a high school genetics instructional sequence. The research focused on the locating distinction in argumentation discourse between doing science vs. doing school or doing the lesson (Bloome, Puro, & Theodorou, 1989). Participants in this classroom case study wer...
Article
This article focuses on the capacity of students to develop and assess arguments during a high school genetics instructional sequence. The research focused on the locating distinction in argumentation discourse between “doing science” vs. “doing school” or “doing the lesson” (Bloome, Puro, & Theodorou, 1989). Participants in this classroom case stu...
Article
Full-text available
Eric Schwitzgebel presents an attractive argument for the use of affective indicators to both assess and extend the ''theory theory'' research agenda. A key component of his argument is an account of explanation that can be applied to both children and adults, few of whom possess the attributes and behaviors that warrant being called scientists. Th...
Article
Effective argumentation is the distinguishing feature of a classroom that employs discovery teaching and student inquiry methodologies. In the long term, the objective of the program is to understand how to design learning environments and curriculum, instruction, and assessment models that promote student self-reflection. The study evaluates the e...
Article
Full-text available
Argumentation schemes for presumptive reasoning are used to analyze stu- dents' small group discourse during the evaluation of a science investigation project. Sev- enteen triads of middle school students participated in a structured 45-60 minute long inter- view. The broad set argumentation schemes employed by students, such as argument from sign...
Chapter
A classroom study is reported about the use of microscope in the context of Biology practical work in High School. The focus is the performance of operations by the students which can be considered «doing science». such as data construction and procedural operations. The relation to a problem-solving environment is discussed.
Article
This paper discusses the elaboration and application of "scientific culture" categories to the analysis of students' discourse while solving problems in inquiry contexts. Scientific culture means the particular domain culture of science, the culture of science practitioners. The categories proposed include both epistemic operations and procedural a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper suggest focusing curriculum instruction and assessment models on the epistemic goals coupled with concept and perforpance goals. It discusses the design of learning environments that support students «doing science», in particular the role of assessment and the promotion of students development and evaluation of scientific claims.
Article
The improvement of science education in accord with the current science reform agenda requires the development of sophisticated instructional strategies that are grounded in a clear recognition of student understanding. We describe a pedagogical strategy, the assessment conversation, that helps teachers elicit student understanding and then use eli...
Article
Full-text available
As part of a project to identify opportunities for reasoning that occur in good but typical science classrooms, this study focuses on how sixth graders reason about the goals and strategies of experimentation and laboratory activities in school. Collaborating with teachers, we explore whether reasoning can be deepened by developing instruction that...
Article
Full-text available
Ninety‐four winners of a highly prestigious American science talent search were followed longitudinally from the time they received the award in 1983 to the present. The subjects, 57 male and 37 female, were mailed a 20‐item questionnaire designed to monitor changes and consistencies in the values underlying decisions to pursue or not pursue scienc...
Article
Frameworks that seek to understand how knowledge restructuring occurs and how to build a learning environment that facilitates this restructuring raise important philosophical, psychological and pedagogical questions and issues about how conceptual change occurs and what characteristics of knowledge growth ought to be a part of curricula and learni...
Article
Cognitive psychology's descriptions of an individual's knowledge resemble those philosophers’ offer of scientific theory. Both offer resources for conceptual change teaching. Yet the similarities mask tensions ‐philosophers stress rationality and psychologists focus on causal structure. Both domains distinguish two kinds of change in knowledge stru...
Article
The process of conceptual change, in learners and in scientific knowledge, indicates that: (1) change involves complex and varied commitments to methods of investigation, aims and goals of investigation, and prior knowledge; (2) change leads to consensus forming or dissensus forming activities; (3) knowledge claims and procedures for testing knowle...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper examines the ill-structured problem solving strategies used by high school students. The problems were presented as a computer-based biological identification game. A think-aloud methodology was used to gather data about students thinking during the game.
Article
The focus of this study was to investigate the manner and the degree to which science teachers consider the nature of the subject matter in their decision making addressing the planning and the delivery of instructional tasks. An assumption of the study is that considerations for the nature of the subject matter should be a factor in a teacher's de...
Article
The purpose of this research was to search for a learning hierarchy among skills comprising formal operations and the integrated science processes. Ordering theoretic and probabilistic latent structure methods were used to analyze data on five process skills and six logical thinking skills collected from 700 science students. Both linear and branch...
Article
Interest in the application of the history and philosophy of science to science education raises important questions about the effect such considerations will have on educational practice. In this paper, the application emphasizes concepts related to theory testing and theory development specifically and to the growth of knowledge generally. This p...
Article
Ethnographic research methodologies were used to examine the training of elementary education majors in science in an attempt to gain insight on whether or not their training in science contributes to the apprehension elementary teachers have toward science. The field study consisted of 14 weeks of weekly observations in the elementary education ma...

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
In view of the Practices of Science (POS) to be introduced in the revised Singapore lower secondary science curriculum (secondary 1 and 2, grades 7 and 8 equivalent), this project aims to design and test curriculum resources for integrative activities in several Singapore secondary schools.