Richard Croucher

Richard Croucher
Middlesex University, UK · Middlesex University Business School

PhD

About

150
Publications
76,812
Reads
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1,339
Citations
Introduction
I'm interested in international companies and how they operate, in work on a global basis, in the history of labour and in how capitalism works. I'm also interested in the mechanics of scholarly publication and how to help people publish their research. See my little book: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Publishing-Your-Research-Scholarly-Journals-ebook/dp/B00X7LEKIW/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=UTF8&qid=1430983384&sr=1-1&keywords=publishing+your+research+a+street+fighter%27s+guide
Additional affiliations
May 2005 - present
Middlesex University, UK
Position
  • Professor of Comparative Employment Relations;Director of Research
August 1996 - May 2005
Cranfield School of Management
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
June 1973 - August 1976
The University of Warwick
Field of study
  • industrial relations

Publications

Publications (150)
Article
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terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article maybe used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or m...
Article
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Widespread and profound changes in the ways that work is carried out have occurred across recent decades, resulting in a cumulative revolution in the ways that employees are treated. This editorial introduces the first ever virtual special issue of the British Journal of Management, which brings together articles addressing employee responses to ch...
Article
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Compensation systems, such as individualized pay-for-performance (I-PFP) schemes for employees, represent an important approach to aligning employer-employee interests. However, the adoption of I-PFP is much less common in many countries than in the United States. Employing a multilevel analysis of over 4,000 firms in 26 countries, we explore deter...
Article
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Low pay poses issues for managers internationally. We examine productivity in low-paying sectors in Britain, since the national minimum wage’s (NMW) introduction. We use a multiple channel analytical strategy, emphasising the wage-incentives channel and linking it to a model of unobserved productivity. We estimate firm-specific productivity measure...
Article
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We investigate women’s introduction to skilled production jobs in Norway’s largest shipyard, 1965–80, estimating the experiment’s success. We analyse the difficulties experienced in adapting working conditions and culture to the women entrants, using a theoretical industrial relations/occupational health and safety lens. Working conditions resulted...
Article
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We research the antecedents of relative success among small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in avoiding temporary or permanent closure during the COVID‐19 pandemic. We investigate the roles of firm‐specific resources and state support policies in influencing SME fortunes, in a sizeable group of European countries covered in the World Bank Enterprise...
Article
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We examine whether a high wage-high employee intrapreneurial inputs model remains a significant feature of the Russian economy. We do so by estimating the evolution of employee ‘intrapreneurial’ contributions to companies in Russia,1994-2015, using Akerlof’s theory of ‘partial gift exchange’. Akerlof (1982) suggests that employee discretionary cont...
Article
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We examine human resource management (HRM) in a large Bangalore project‐based software company. Diverse adaptations of organisation‐level HRM exist in projects, generating heterogeneous HRM practices across the organisation, resulting in management–employee tensions. Paradoxes are managed through a comprehensive, detailed and complementary set of s...
Article
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We question notions of the ‘Americanization’ of employment relations in Slovenia, Slovakia and Croatia. First, we examine the roles of unions, the use of US strategic approach to Human Resource Management (SHRM), and management perceptions of their organisations' innovativeness in the establishment of Works Council (WCs). Second, we employ the same...
Article
The traditional view of economists is that unions cause market failures, thereby reducing economic efficiency. Freeman and Medoff challenged this overly negative view, suggesting unions address market failures associated with the ‘public goods’ aspects of terms and conditions in the workplace for members and non-members alike. This article builds u...
Article
Work Health and Safety Inspectors are at the forefront of efforts to protect workers from harm from psychosocial hazards, yet the application of regulatory theory to their practice has been limited. Drawing on models of responsive regulation and strategic enforcement, we analyze extensive (N = 46,348) complaint and incident notification data from a...
Article
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In the post-war years, to the 1970s, most historians’ verdict on the Second World War was abundantly clear: it represented a watershed in social and political relations, shifting Britain in a social-democratic and more egalitarian direction. In more recent years, this verdict has increasingly been called into question. Some historians began to judg...
Research
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Né le 26 juillet 1936 à Rose-Hill (Ile Maurice) ; décédé le 21 juillet 2014 à Quatre-Bornes (Ile Maurice) ; Co-fondateur et co-responsable de l’Organisation fraternelle/Les Verts fraternels ; culturiste professionnel. Published in Maitron Dictionary
Article
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We study M&As, resilience and performance, identifying links between managers’ perceptions of performance and resilience, using trans‐national organisational‐level survey evidence (N = 3613) and follow up semi‐structured in‐depth interviews with managers involved in M&As and demerger. Drawing on the resilience and M&A literature, we identify reason...
Article
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Factories remain significant sites of employment, crucial to capitalism. In the twentieth century, scholars registered achievements in documenting their history, but since the late 1980s, and for a generation, the field lost impetus within labour history although insights continued to accumulate through work in adjacent disciplines. The factory has...
Article
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The article critically examines the argument that slavery was 'legal at the time' in the context of Mauritius. It shows that this was not the case and suggests avenues for legal redress by slave descendants
Article
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Purpose Joint consultative committees (JCCs) involving employee representatives exist to stimulate positive employee relations and unlock employee involvement to build organisational performance. They are rare in Africa. Mauritius is a successful, beacon economy for Africa. We therefore investigate which categories of an organisation implemented th...
Article
We investigate migrant construction workers’ experiences in the Former Soviet Union, examining their attitudes to other ethno‐national groups, unions and collective action. Industrial relations and migration studies view migrant workers’ hypermobility and diversity, under conditions of low union coverage and rising nationalism, as potentially obstr...
Article
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This article provides an innovative defence of codetermination by way of exploring two of the most significant theorised objections to it from neo‐liberal and libertarian perspectives, namely the defence of the right to manage as freely chosen by employees and employers alike, and the right to manage being the most efficient, lowest transaction cos...
Article
Full-text available
Factories remain significant sites of employment, crucial to capitalism. In the twentieth century, scholars registered achievements in documenting their history, but since the late 1980s, and for a generation, the field lost impetus within labour history although insights continued to accumulate through work in adjacent disciplines. The factory has...
Article
Key EU agencies have successfully urged member states to scale back employment protection legislation as a solution to unemployment. The economic arguments for this reform are mixed, with recent empirical evidence largely unsupportive. Critics have also raised doubts about the accuracy of the OECD’s Employment Protection Legislation Index, which is...
Presentation
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seeks to show the variety and quality of management research methods.
Article
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Workers are defaulted to being non-union in employment relationships across the world. A non-union default likely has substantial negative effects, consistent with the empirical literature reviewed, on union membership levels, because of switching costs, inertia, social norms and loss aversion. A union default would likely have positive effects on...
Chapter
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The development of works councils has been a singularly European development but it has not taken the same trajectory in each country. In some such as Denmark, it has been as an outgrowth of the national culture, whereas in others, works councils were brought into being by legislation. In the German case for example, initially, it was as a politica...
Article
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We investigate the alignment of work groups of knowledge workers with organisational goals in two large Norwegian companies. We explore whether negotiation processes are associated with positive organisational outcomes. We further explore whether clear management goals are necessary for successful negotiations. Finally, over and above goal clarity,...
Article
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We use recent research and two 2018 arbitration cases to argue that the 2013 Bangladesh Accord on Fire and Building Safety represents a regulatory model that is in principle worthy of extension to other countries and sectors. .It has achieved considerable membership from purchasing multinationals and other stakeholders, and has successfully secured...
Article
Full-text available
Compensation systems, such as individualized pay-for-performance (I-PFP) schemes for employees, represent an important approach to aligning employer-employee interests. However, the adoption of I-PFP is much less common in many countries than in the United States. Employing a multilevel analysis of over 4,000 firms in 26 countries, we explore deter...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the precise role of intrinsic motivation and autonomy in relation to intellectual stimulation in creating a creative climate in a professional services firm. The intention is to discover whether theories that stress the primacy of the need for intrinsic motivation and autonomy over other manageri...
Article
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There has been an emerging view that the quality of state institutions can influence technology transfer in host countries. The bulk of such studies have ignored the role of intermediate institutions which bridge government and industry. We compare academic and local expert views of how technology and knowledge (T&K) transfer could be enhanced in t...
Article
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This paper examines how far the workplace inspection program established under the 2013 Accord on Fire and Building Safety has served to improve safety in Bangladesh garment factories, and the extent to which its operation has been influenced by factors that the literature suggests are important in shaping the outcomes of private regulatory initiat...
Article
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We analyse four propaganda films designed to support women’s conscription into British arms production in 1941–1942, examining their approach and comparing that to women’s lived experience on entry to factories. The films recognised minor difficulties, stressed the support network available and the need for sacrifice. They sought to inspire but pro...
Article
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We test Shattock’s legacy reputation thesis that non-leading universities in the UK face insuperable resource barriers to entering the leading group. Employing regression analysis, we examine whether prioritizing research performance is a viable strategy for non-leading UK universities aiming to improve their organizational effectiveness. The depen...
Article
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This article revisits contemporary union renewal/revival debates through comparison with the late 1930s resurgence of trade unionism in the UK’s engineering industry. It is argued that the 1930s union renewal arose from more favourable contextual conditions than those currently obtaining. It was led by political activists, with better-articulated o...
Technical Report
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Government and firms may not grasp the potential for significant productivity advances. Online access via: http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/businessreview/2017/01/18/national-minimum-wages-improve-productivity/
Article
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We assess the sole substantial film documenting the history of socio-economic relations in Mauritius, a history stamped by long experiences of slavery and bonded labour. We argue that it represents an important crystallisation of a triumphalist ethnic interpretation of Mauritian history. We show the filmic devices used to underline the ethnic narra...
Article
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We anatomise the culture of skilled work in the Solheimsviken shipyard in Bergen, Norway, from 1945 to 1990, linking it to democratic impulses within the workforce. This independent culture had strong if bounded democratic elements that were ultimately reflected in the institutions of a worker’s cooperative which operated from 1985. However, a shif...
Article
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We reflect upon Malaysian labour’s efforts in advocating reform. Its actions to focus political attention on labour issues at the 2013 general election are analysed. Although the election presented a rare opportunity for labour to bring workers’ issues to centre stage, it did not do so. Piven’s theory of “interdependent” power provides a useful len...
Article
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This article uses framing theory to examine how activists and trade unions have framed labour’s political agenda in Malaysia. A polity grounded in ethnicity continues to hinder the formation of cross-ethnic collective worker identities and labour politics. However, inclusive popular democratising movements have strengthened in recent years, providi...
Article
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This article investigates how ethnicity, gender and other characteristics affect low-paid workers’ perceptions of their employability in London’s labour market, examining self-efficacy, ethnic and dual labour market theories. The authors find that perceptions vary considerably, both between genders and ethnicities and in the extent to which they ar...
Article
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We compare how far companies based in Africa, India and the ‘global North’ operating in Mauritius adopt high-trust flexible working practices, and how these are linked to different clusters of wider labour management practice. Using comprehensive firm-level data collected in late 2011, we find that African/Indian company practices are closer to tho...
Article
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We examine compulsory reduced working time (CRWT) in five Belarussian factories , to assess its impact on employment relationships and evaluate arguments about 'soviet legacies' and labour 'patience'. Local use of CRWT increased between 2001 and 2012, and took a form more inimical to worker interests, thereby differing from official macro statistic...
Article
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We examine trends in investment in personnel in Belarussian enterprises and the impact they have on companies’ capacity to attract FDI and modernise. Others have argued in favour of the economy's robust fundamentals, using macro-level data. They have suggested that Belarussian industry has attracted considerable FDI, due in part to high investment...
Research
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Analyses trends in women's collective voice in South Korea.
Research
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Analyses trends in women's collective voice in South Korea.
Article
We critically examine the right‐to‐manage as a legal default rule. Identifying its deficiencies, we then assess the merits of process and content defaults and identify potentially non‐waivable terms and conditions. Finally, we suggest how different options may be combined within systems.
Book
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This pathbreaking book provides both an invaluable resource on the history of global union federations, and new insights on current issues and contestations. It will be of great interest to all with an interest in the state of unions worldwide, commentators and critics of globalization, and those concerned with fairness at work in a wide range of c...
Article
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The paper examines labour relations in Kazakhstan's oil and gas TNCs, contributing to recent debates on the Global Union Federations’ (GUFs) and national unions’ roles in building a global system of industrial relations. These debates suggest a need for GUFs to involve national unions in organisation within and dialogue with TNCs but the GUF judged...
Article
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This article provides an overview of interpretive approaches to the historic development of tripartism globally. Locating tripartism firmly within four broad approaches to labour management, we seek to qualify those strands that regard the phenomemon as lacking in current relevance. We argue that elements of post-war compromises persist and indeed...
Article
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The uprisings of 1989 in the Soviet sphere were momentous in their political impact. Examination of this prolonged transformation is timely. We progress from case study analysis of the workplace – important in the early stages of transformation – to reflective overviews which consider the accumulated experience of a quarter of a century of post-com...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the associations between management direct communication to employees, unionization, foreign direct investment (FDI) and company performance in Mauritius, Africa’s most successful economy. Design/methodology/approach – The authors use firm data from a survey conducted in Mauritius in late 2011. The...
Article
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We analyse how far Argentina’s worker-recovered companies (WRCs) have sustained themselves and their principles of equity and workers’ self-management since becoming widespread following the country’s 2001–2 economic crisis. Specialist Spanish-language sources, survey data and documents are analysed through four key sociological themes. We find tha...
Article
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We measure whether, in a developing country, existence of a ‘hard’ strategic human resource management (SHRM) strategy developed at high organizational levels or one designed to enhance employee knowledge inputs and thereby promote employer–employee interdependence (EEIN) is a stronger antecedent of direct communication to employees. We use data fr...
Article
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This article critiques the "legal at the time" argument used by states and companies which historically practised slavery to defend themselves against claims for restitution, examining the Mauritian case. Although slavery was largely legal there before its abolition by the British, torts were common under slavery and, during the years of historic r...
Chapter
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We introduce the concept of political congruence as predictor or explanatory factor of trade union renewal. Strategic change is more likely to succeed when political congruence exists between the values, expectations and intended outcomes of the three sub-sets of leaders, activists and members in a union. We define political congruence (P/c) as con...
Article
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The transnational turn in the humanities and social sciences has had slender impact on the study of trade unionism in Britain. In industrial relations and labor history, the fields where most research into trade unions has been conducted, approaches have remained insular. This article reaffirms that national unions are building blocks in a global m...
Article
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We approach the recent argument put in this journal that teaching assistants (TAs) should be more strongly trained, monitored and supervised when teaching on intervention programmes. We suggest that the argument sits uneasily with wider management and educational literature. We examine TAs' experience of delivering important intervention programmes...
Article
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The dramatic outcome of the Malaysian 2008 elections has been interpreted within a Gramscian framework. It has, for example, been suggested that the hegemony created by the Malaysian ruling class is being contested, leading to a weakening of its legitimacy, and that an active class of organic intellectuals is emerging and helping to develop potenti...
Article
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This article analyses the sociopolitical interactions that shaped an early colonial union statute that constituted a milestone because of its early passage, draconian nature and wider influence in the British Empire. We analyse the interactions between the Governor on the one hand and local and international actors on the other, to create the first...
Article
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Unionlearn and union learning representatives were developed by the British TUC to match workers with education and training opportunities, strengthen the economy, foster market inclusion and facilitate social mobility. Their contribution to union revitalisation was emphasised. This article questions whether, with unions confronting global crisis,...
Book
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This independent research review was commissioned by ILO in order to contribute to establishing a solid empirical basis for future research and interventions. It reviews the empirical relevance of the assumption that a win-win scenario exists in SMEs, especially in the context of developing economies. It also seeks to identify the factors or condit...
Article
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We investigate the Labor Relations Commissions (LRCs) system as a mechanism for resolving individual labor disputes in South Korea. We examine their effectiveness for workers and hence how far they represent a credible alternative to trade unionism and industrial action. Internationally, literature examining such systems' effectiveness, i.e., their...
Chapter
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This case was selected for two reasons: first, because prima facie it allowed detailed examination of how a GUF acted as a major and indeed indispensable partner for an MNC. The MNC followed a conscious partnership strategy with the GUF at the latter's initiative, a path that differed radically from information was obtained through the long-term in...
Chapter
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This case study illustrates the relationship between a Global Union Federation, the ICEM, and a Multinational company, Anglo American plc (AA), analysing how the GUF, national unions in South Africa, Ghana and Colombia and the company interacted with positive results for all concerned.
Article
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Literature on comparative capitalism remains divided between approaches founded on stylized case study evidence and descriptions of broad trends, and those that focus on macro data. In contrast, this study explores the relevance of Amable’s approach to understanding differences in employment relations practice, based on firm-level micro data. The a...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of political congruence is introduced as predictor or explanatory factor of trade union renewal. Strategic change is more likely to succeed when political congruence exists between the values, expectations and intended outcomes of the three sub-sets of leaders, activists and members in a union. Political congruence (P/c) is defined as c...
Article
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The paper is organised as follows. In Section 2 we introduce a theoretical framework similar to that of Forth and Mahoney4, defining labour productivity and decomposing it into capital deepening and TFP. In Section 3 we describe the data and report summary statistics for each of the LPC sectors and our counterfactuals. We also present the relations...
Article
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Examining enterprise-level union influence in post-socialist countries, the authors hypothesize that calculative human resource management (HRM) is more strongly associated with low levels of union influence than collaborative HRM. Using the United Kingdom as a benchmark, they find that in the countries under study, calculative HRM is indeed more d...
Article
The authors introduce the concept of political congruence and apply it to the Amalgamated Engineering Union (AEU), during rearmament and war. Political congruence requires the alignment of union leaders, activists and members with a common political project. This is likely to bring strategic renewal, as was the case in the AEU. A platform of left r...
Article
We examine management and labor process changes in a Moldovan factory to examine their impact on the trade union as institution. Changes in management structures and work organization have hollowed out key legacies, notably the “labor collective” and informal bargaining, and evoked resistance from workers. The union is disconnected from worker resi...
Article
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John Rawls's Theory of Justice is the most influential work of political philosophy of recent times. Rawls does not, however, consider the issue of labour rights. This paper considers the applicability of the rights of workers to join unions, bargain collectively, and to strike under Rawls's theory, in the context of empirical research showing how...