Richard Carter

Richard Carter
Valdosta State University | VSU · Department of Biology

Doctor of Philosophy, Vanderbilt University

About

64
Publications
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668
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1984 - present
Valdosta State University
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
Weedy Cyperaceae adversely affect natural plant communities and the health of humans and livestock and are major deterrents to agricultural and forest productivity. Most weeds are exogenous and have traits that give them biological and reproductive advantages over other plants. Weeds cost $ billions in agriculture, forestry, and urban areas and thr...
Article
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Se describe e ilustra Eleocharis reznicekii (Cyperaceae, subg. Eleocharis, serie Eleocharis), especie con características morfológicas intermedias entre las de Eleocharis densa y las de dos especies de la subserie Eleocharis (E. macrostachya y E. palustris). Se distingue por tener tallos conspicuamente comprimidos (3-5 veces más anchos que gruesos...
Article
In 2018-19, cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) was reported from several cotton-producing states in the southern United States. An extensive survey was conducted in the spring, summer, and fall of 2019 to identify weeds and overwintering cotton as sources for primary inoculum for the next season crop. Foliage samples of 57 different weed species w...
Article
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Premise: With digitization and data sharing initiatives underway over the last 15 years, an important need has been prioritizing specimens to digitize. Because duplicate specimens are shared among herbaria in exchange and gift programs, we investigated the extent to which unique biogeographic data are held in small herbaria vs. these data being re...
Article
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Twenty-seven species, new to the flora of Georgia, are reported here and validated by cited voucher specimens at the University of Georgia (GA) and Valdosta State University (VSC) herbaria, the two largest herbaria in the state. Reassessment and comparison of these collections data have been greatly facilitated by specimen digitization efforts, esp...
Article
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Premise of the Study | Herbarium specimens provide a robust record of historical plant phenology (the timing of seasonal events such as flowering or fruiting). However, the difficulty of aggregating phenological data from specimens arises from a lack of standardized scoring methods and definitions for phenological states across the collections comm...
Article
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The digitization of biocollections is a critical task with direct implications for the global community who use the data for research and education. Recent innovations to involve citizen scientists in digitization increase awareness of the value of biodiversity specimens; advance science, technology, engineering, and math literacy; and build sustai...
Article
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Widely distributed in the New World, Zornia gemella ranges from South and Central America to the Caribbean. In the USA, it has previously been known only from southern Texas. We report the first known occurrence of this species from Florida.
Article
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Cyperus richardii Steud. is reported new to Florida, U.S.A., and the Western Hemisphere. A revised dichotomous key to the kyllingoid Cyperus in the continental United States, a technical description, distributional and habitat data, and illustrations, photographs, and scanning electron micrographs are provided to aid in identification. Observations...
Article
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To access a full text version of this paper plus supplementary materials, navigate to: http://www.bioone.org/toc/apps/3/9 Effective workflows are essential components in the digitization of biodiversity specimen collections. To date, no comprehensive, community-vetted workflows have been published for digitizing flat sheets and packets of plants,...
Article
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We analyzed nuclear ITS sequences of 95 samples representing 85 taxa of Cyperus sensu lato under maximum likelihood and Bayesian frameworks. This work is exploratory in nature with the objectives of gaining insight into relationships among New World Cyperus and targeting problematic clades for future research. In our resulting phylogenetic hypothes...
Article
Sphenoclea zeylanicais described and its phenology, habitat, and distribution documented in North America, based upon data from voucher specimens and original field observations. The species, an exotic native to Asia, has been in the United States since the mid-1800s, with the earliest records from Louisiana where it was most likely introduced as a...
Article
Wetland habitats currently cover about one-fifth of Georgia and have been reduced in acreage by as much as twenty-five percent over the past two centuries due to anthropogenic activities. Accurate identification and careful study of these areas arc crucial for their preservation and for compliance with federal and state environmental regulations. S...
Article
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De 2000 a 2008 se realizaron estudios de invernadero, de cámara de crecimiento y de campo en Stoneville, MS, para determinar la tasa de crecimiento, el potencial reproductivo y de supervivencia durante el invierno y el control de la maleza Cyperus entrerianus. En los estudios de cámara de crecimiento, la tasa de crecimiento (altura) de C. entrerian...
Article
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Greenhouse, growth chamber, and field studies were conducted at Stoneville, MS, in 2000 to 2008, to determine the growth rate, reproductive and overwintering potential, and control of deeproot sedge. In growth chamber studies, deeproot sedge growth rate (ht) and plant dry wt were greatest at 25/35 C (night/day temperatures), when compared with regi...
Article
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Brown flatsedge (Cyperus fuscus) is widely distributed in Europe, Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and the Mediterranean region of Northern Africa. It was apparently introduced into North America in the late 1800s and has steadily moved southward and westward. Brown flatsedge is reported new to Arkansas and Mississippi herewith. Field observations fr...
Article
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The potential dispersal of Benghal dayflower seeds by mourning doves was studied in southern Georgia, U.S.A. The gut contents (both crop and gizzard) of mourning doves harvested in the autumn months were investigated to determine if mourning doves fed on Benghal dayflower and whether seeds can survive conditions in the bird gut. Research indicated...
Article
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Voucher specimens and herbarium collections provide the foundation for many aspects of research in the plant sciences. Available for study and verification by contemporary and future workers, voucher specimens promote reproducibility in scientific method because permanent records document identification, distribution, and interspecific and intraspe...
Article
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Cyperus pilosus is reported new to Texas and a dichotomous key is presented to distinguish it from congeners in that state.
Article
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Cuban club-rush is an invasive aquatic weed that is spreading northward in the southeastern United States. It is reported for the first time from Mississippi and from significantly farther northward in Alabama than was previously known. Cuban club-rush dissemination and rapid population growth are attributed to two types of reproduction: corky floa...
Article
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Additions to the flora of Georgia, U.S.A., and other noteworthy records are reported. Voucher specimen data are cited to document species from Georgia previously not known to occur in the state; additional records of poorly known or infrequently collected native and exogenous naturalized species; and additional populations of rare,threatened, and e...
Article
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Abstract - We characterized the tree community of a mesic hardwood hammock in south-central Georgia as an oak-pine-hickory forest, with Liquidambar styracifl ua (Sweetgum), Magnolia grandifl ora (Southern Magnolia), and Ilex opaca Ait. (American Holly) as subdominants. We surveyed this forest for colonies of the most northerly distributed epiphytic...
Article
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A taxonomic synopsis and review of nomenclature is provided for Eleocharis cellulosa, E. mutata, and E. spiralis, three closely related species belonging to subgenus Limnochloa. One heterotypic synonym of E. mutata and the basionym and a heterotypic synonym of E. spiralis are lectotypified. The taxonomic treatment includes a key, detailed descripti...
Poster
Full-text available
Abstract: Brown flatsedge (Cyperus fuscus L.) is native to Europe, Asia, Indian subcontinent, and the Mediterranean Region of Northern Africa, from Greenland and Iceland to China, south to Spain, Iran, Egypt, Algeria, and northern India. It was apparently introduced into North America in ballast or around wharfs and was first discovered in the U.S....
Article
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A taxonomic study of Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb.) Schult, was conducted in order to better define this poorly understood and variable pantropical species. Multivariate statistical analysis, and ecological and distributional data of worldwide collections of E. acutangula provided the basis for its segregation into E. acutangula subsp. acutangula, E...
Article
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Recent noteworthy collections of Cyperus drummondii from the Texas Gulf Prairies and Marshes, Piney Woods Natural Regions, and a first record from Mexico are reported.
Article
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Cyperus entrerianus, a native of temperate South America, has become a tenacious weed in the southeastern United States. Herbarium and field studies revealed records of C. entrerianus from an additional 39 counties in the southeastern United States, increasing the number of counties where it is known by 118%. Vegetation sampling at two southeast Te...
Article
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Biological processes and characteristics are important factors in the introduction, spread, and establishment of invasive weeds. These biological traits include reproduction, dispersal, phenol- ogy, physiology, protection from herbivores, tolerance to environmental extremes, and intersoecific interactions. Measures and methods tu pre\ent rJispersal...
Article
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Fie d studies show Cyperus louisionensis i\ ocally common and weedy in eastern Louisiana and southern l\,4ississippi and extend its range into Alabana and Georgia-(4orphometric and herbar)um studie5 show C idngulralentus and C.lauisianenils are taxonomically indistlnguishab e, and C /ouliidnenJlJ is treated as a synonym of C 5dngulnolerfui. The wid...
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Cyperus hyalinus Vahl is reported from Dade County, Florida, U.S.A. This paleotropical species has not been previously reported from the Western Hemisphere. Its taxonomy and pest potential are discussed. A dichotomous key to the subgenera of Cyperus in the United States, technical description, and photographs are provided, and collection data and v...
Article
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Data for 20 morphological characters taken from recent collections of the Cyperus virens group from the southeastern United States were statistically analyzed using principal components analysis and discriminant analysis. Based upon results of the analyses and recent field observations, it is concluded that C. drummondii and C. virens are distinct...
Article
Field and herbarium studies have documented Cyperus fuscus as new for Missouri and Nevada. Localities, habitat data, lists of associated species, description, illustrations, photo of habit, and discussion of weedy potential are presented.
Article
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The sedge genus Kyllinga consists of 40 to 45 species distributed in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions around the world (KUkenthal 1936; Tucker 1987). This genus of low rhizomatous perennials or cespitose annuals is classified in the large cosmopolitan family Cyperaceae. Many Kyllinga species are considered weedy (Holm et al. 1979;...
Article
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This poorly understood and confusing group is centered around Cyperus retroflexus, until recently known as C. uniflorus. Typification of C. uniflorus var. pumilus is discussed, and the following new combination is made: C. retroflexus var. pumilus. Two varieties of C. uniflorus are discussed and elevated to species: C. floribundus and C. pseudothyr...
Article
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Four of the world's worst weeds are in the genus Cyperus . These are smallflower umbrella sedge ( C. difformis L.), yellow nutsedge ( C. esculentus L.), riceflatsedge (C. iria L.), and the world's worst weed, purple nutsedge (C. rotundus L.) (7). Fourteen additional Cyperus species are listed in the Composite List of Weeds ¹ . Cyperus is in the sed...
Article
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Filed explorations have yielded Carex austrina new to North Carolina and Tennessee, Carex fissa var. aristata, Cyperus ochraceus, and Eleocharis macrostachya new to Mississippi, Carex oklahomensis new to Tennessee, Cyperus lanceolatus new to Georgia and Mississippi, Cyperus difformis, C. oxylepis, and C. pumilus new to Georgia, Cyperus eragrostis n...
Article
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Cogongrass [ Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. # IMPCY] is an aggressive, pernicious, rhizomatous perennial in the Poaceae (Graminae). It is native to tropical and subtropical areas of the eastern hemisphere. Introductions of cogongrass into the southeastern United States have been tracked to several separate sources, both accidental and intentional,...
Article
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A suite of characteristics of Cyperus plukenetii, which facilitate zoochory (animal dispersal), is described and illustrated. Dispersal experiments with C. plukenetii show an average of 46.4 spikelets initially adhered to the human disperser's clothing. Of these, 38.8% were transported at least 10 m from the source, and 15.2% were dispersed at leas...
Article
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Cyperus ovularis (Michx.) Torr. and C. globulosus Aubl. are presently applied to common and widespread eastern North American sedges. Herein we lectotypify the names Kyllinga ovularis Michx. [basionym of Cyperus ovularis (Michx.) Torr.], Scirpus echinatus L. [basionym of Cyperus echinatus (L.) Wood], and Cyperus globulosus Aubl. We conclude that Cy...
Thesis
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Vanderbilt University, 1984. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 261-266). Photocopy.

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Projects

Projects (6)
Project
Study of the plant biodiversity within pine savannas and associated habitats, which contribute most (~85%) of the endemic plant species in the North American Coastal Plain biodiversity hotspot. How are some fiery ecosystems so full of endemic species? There must be a long evolutionary history in association with fire. The more abundant and dominant plant species influence characteristics of fire regimes via effects on fuels: amounts, continuity over space, and flammability. As a result, the fire regimes are highly modified, actually engineered, in ways that benefit the dominant life forms. The dominant grasses - C4 warm season grasses such as Schizachyrium scoparium & S. tenerum, Sorghastrum nutans & S. elliotttii, Andropogon gerardi, and Aristida stricta/beyrichiana provide a matrix of rapidly drying and flammable fuels in the ground layer. These fuels are mixed with shed needles of longleaf pine, which by itself greatly alters fire characteristics, especially at ground level. Dominant shrubs, such as palms (Serenoa repens) and hollies like Ilex glabra and I. vomitoria, add incendiary fuels that explode upon reaching a critical ignition temperature. The real biodiversity, however, results from the speciation in the NACP of a number of genera of plants (graminoids & forbs), both widespread and localized, that do not add substantially to the fuel mixture and thus do not strongly influence the fire regimes. These species do appear to respond to the generation of environmental conditions that change over small scales and facilitate co-occurrence of different species along often very subtle gradients and in localized edaphic conditions. Frequent fires, by removal of litter and above-ground vegetation, expose the fine-grain differences in environmental conditions, to which the forbs appear to have responded.
Project
To contribute to the taxonomy of vascular plants, particularly the sedge family (Cyperaceae)