Richard R Bootzin

Richard R Bootzin
The University of Arizona | UA · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

143
Publications
43,659
Reads
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11,701
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 1987 - present
The University of Arizona
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Infants show robust ability to track transitional probabilities within language and can use this information to extract words from continuous speech. The degree to which infants remember these words across a delay is unknown. Given well-established benefits of sleep on long-term memory retention in adults, we examine whether sleep similarly facilit...
Article
The common assumption that population sleep duration has declined in the past few decades has not been supported by recent reviews, which have been limited to self-reported data. The aim of this review was to assess whether there has been a reduction in objectively recorded sleep duration over the last 50+ years. The literature was searched for stu...
Article
The purpose of this methodological study was to examine the contribution of treatment allocation method (random vs. preference) on the immediate, intermediate, and ultimate outcomes of a behavioural intervention (MCI) for insomnia. Participants were allocated to the MCI randomly or by preference. Outcomes were assessed before, during, and after com...
Article
Preferences for treatment contribute to attrition. Providing participants with their preferred treatment, as done in a partially randomized clinical or preference trial (PRCT), is a means to mitigate the influence of treatment preferences on attrition. This study examined attrition in an RCT and a PRCT. Persons with insomnia were randomly assigned...
Article
Adherence to treatment is critical in determining the effects of behavioural therapy and may be affected by participants' preference for treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which method of allocation to treatment (random vs. preference-based) influences adherence (exposure and enactment) to behavioural therapy. Parti...
Article
Background Insomnia has been associated with mortality risk, but whether this association is different in subjects with persistent versus intermittent insomnia is unclear. Additionally, the role of systemic inflammation in such an association is unknown. Methods We used data from a community-based cohort to determine whether persistent or intermit...
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Full-text available
Background: A need exists, from both a clinical and a research standpoint, for objective sleep measurement systems that are both easy to use and can accurately assess sleep and wake. This study evaluates the output of an automated sleep–wake detection algorithm (Z-ALG) used in the Zmachine (a portable, single-channel, electroencephalographic [EEG]...
Article
Full-text available
Study objectives: To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Design: Randomized contr...
Article
Aim: Good-quality sleep is essential for normal learning and memory. Sleep fragmentation and disrupted sleep architecture are commonly observed throughout the lifespan of individuals with Down syndrome, a condition marked by cognitive deficits emerging within the first few months of life. While obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is known to c...
Article
Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that sleeping < 7 hr and ≥ 8 hr is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The risks of short sleep may be consistent with results from experimental sleep deprivation studies. However, there has been little study of chronic moderate sleep restriction and no evaluation of older adults who migh...
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Many antidepressant medications (ADM) are associated with disruptions in sleep continuity that can compromise medication adherence and impede successful treatment. The present study investigated whether mindfulness meditation (MM) training could improve self-reported and objectively measured polysomnographic (PSG) sleep profiles in depressed indivi...
Article
Investigators of homeopathy have proposed that nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) and complex systems science offer conceptual and analytic tools for evaluating homeopathic remedy effects. Previous animal studies demonstrate that homeopathic medicines alter delta electroencephalographic (EEG) slow wave sleep. The present study extended findings of r...
Article
Recently, the use of multicomponent insomnia treatment has increased. This study compares the effect of single component and multicomponent behavioral treatments for insomnia in older adults after intervention and at 3 months and 1 yr posttreatment. A randomized, controlled study. Veterans Affairs medical center. 179 older adults (mean age, 68.9 yr...
Article
The primary objective was to compare the evoked K-complex response to salient versus non-salient auditory stimuli in combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Three categories of auditory stimuli (standard 1000Hz tones, trauma-related combat sounds, and affectively neutral environmental sounds) were pre...
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Full-text available
To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic primary insomnia. Seventy-nine volunteers with chronic sleep-onset insomnia (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), stimulus con...
Article
Substance abuse is linked to numerous mental and physical health problems, including disturbed sleep. The association between substance use and sleep appears to be bidirectional, in that substance use may directly cause sleep disturbances, and difficulty sleeping may be a risk factor for relapse to substance use. Growing evidence similarly links su...
Article
This study focused on the quality of life experienced by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Previous studies indicate the need for a multi-dimensional approach to the study of quality of life and its subjective indicators. For the SMI, attention should be paid not only to the direct and intentional effects of interventions, but also to the i...
Article
Participants’ preferences for treatment may deter enrollment in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). The Partially randomized clinical trial (PRCT) is proposed as an alternative design to increase enrollment rate and enhance representativeness of the sample. There is limited evidence supporting the advantages of the PRCT. This study aimed to examine...
Article
Homeopathy, a common form of alternative medicine worldwide, relies on subjective patient reports for diagnosis and treatment. Polysomnography offers a modern methodology for evaluating the objective effects of taking homeopathic remedies that clinicians claim exert effects on sleep quality in susceptible individuals. Animal studies have previously...
Article
Despite the high comorbidity of insomnia with psychiatric illness, few studies have examined insomnia or insomnia treatments in psychiatric inpatients. The present study had two overall goals. First, we sought to describe insomnia symptoms in 76 US veterans hospitalized for a wide-range of psychiatric illnesses. Next, we sought to examine whether p...
Article
This article reviews research on the effects of sleep quality on cognitive outcomes in infancy, childhood, and adolescence; the effects of sleep restriction on cognitive measures in children; and experimental studies investigating differences in memory consolidation in sleep and wake states after learning in infant, child, and adolescent population...
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Full-text available
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an effective treatment for reducing depressive relapse as well as residual depressive symptoms among adults with recurrent depression but the specific mechanisms through which this treatment works have yet to be examined. This study investigated MBCT's immediate (pre to post) effects on depressive sympt...
Article
This issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session focuses on the treatment of insomnia and sleep disturbances in a variety of populations. Over the past decade, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of sleep to health and well-being. Despite this recognition, there continues to be a shortage of practitioners with expe...
Article
To examine whether mindfulness meditation (MM) was associated with changes in objectively measured polysomnographic (PSG) sleep profiles and to relate changes in PSG sleep to subjectively reported changes in sleep and depression within the context of a randomized controlled trial. Previous studies have indicated that mindfulness and other forms of...
Article
There is considerable evidence of circadian rhythm abnormalities in mood disorders. Morningness-eveningness, the degree to which people prefer organizing their activity and sleep patterns toward the morning or evening, is related to circadian phase and is associated with mood, with relatively greater psychological distress among evening types. Give...
Article
More chronic mental patients reside in, and more mental health dollars go to, nursing homes than to any other single setting. Yet such care has been little studied. This article presents descriptive longitudinal outcomes from a study of such care for the outcomes of recidivism, symptomatology, social integration, and subjective well-being. The stud...
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Full-text available
Poor sleep is common in substance use disorders (SUDs) and is a risk factor for relapse. Within the context of a multicomponent, mindfulness-based sleep intervention that included mindfulness meditation (MM) for adolescent outpatients with SUDs (n = 55), this analysis assessed the contributions of MM practice intensity to gains in sleep quality and...
Article
Full-text available
Participants’ preferences for treatment may deter enrollment in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). The Partially randomized clinical trial (PRCT) is proposed as an alternative design to increase enrollment rate and enhance representativeness of the sample. There is limited evidence supporting the advantages of the PRCT. This study aimed to examine...
Article
This study focused on the quality of life experienced by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Previous studies indicate the need for a multi-dimensional approach to the study of quality of life and its subjective indicators. For the SMI, attention should be paid not only to the direct and intentional effects of interventions, but also to the i...
Article
Sleep has been shown to aid a variety of learning and memory processes in adults (Stickgold, 2005). Recently, we showed that infants' learning also benefits from subsequent sleep such that infants who nap are able to abstract the general grammatical pattern of a briefly presented artificial language (Gomez, Bootzin & Nadel, 2006). In the present st...
Article
Systematic measurement of treatment preferences is needed to obtain well-informed preferences. Guided by a conceptualization of treatment preferences, a measure was developed to assess treatment acceptability and preference. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the treatment acceptability and preferences (TAP) me...
Article
The literature on preferences for behavioral interventions is limited in terms of understanding treatment-related factors that underlie treatment choice. The objectives of this study were to examine the direct relationships between personal beliefs about clinical condition, perception of treatment acceptability, and preferences for behavioral inter...
Article
Delayed sleep-phase disorder (DSPD) can range from mild to severe and affects not only an individual's sleep but also daytime functioning. A comprehensive assessment is necessary to reliably estimate the degree of circadian-phase delay and thus determine the most effective treatment (morning bright light or chronotherapy). For phase advancing the c...
Article
The authors used the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to track within-day variability in everyday behaviors associated with positive and negative affect across two samples. The EAR is a portable audio recorder that periodically samples snippets of ambient sounds from participants' momentary environments. The recorded sounds are then coded fo...
Article
The relationship between actigraphy- or diary-based sleep parameters and salivary melatonin-based dim light melatonin onsets (DLMOs) was examined in 21 adolescents with a history of substance abuse and current complaints of sleep difficulties. The adolescents displayed relationships between diary-based sleep times and DLMO that were of comparable s...
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Full-text available
Subjective and objective assessments of sleep may be discrepant due to sleep misperception and measurement effects, the latter of which may change the quality and quantity of a person's usual sleep. This study compared sleep times from polysomnography (PSG) with self-reports of habitual sleep and sleep estimated on the morning after a PSG in adults...
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This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were asse...
Article
The relationships between family environment and psychological distress and between psychological distress and sleep disturbance in adolescents are well established. However, less is known about the influence of family environment on sleep disturbance. The authors' goal is to examine the effects of parental involvement on psychological distress and...
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Recognition that psychological and behavioral factors play an important role in insomnia has led to increased interest in therapies targeting these factors. A review paper published in 1999 summarized the evidence regarding the efficacy of psychological and behavioral treatments for persistent insomnia. The present review provides an update of the...
Article
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) is associated with sleep fragmentation and nocturnal hypoxemia. In clinical samples, patients with OSAH frequently are found to have deficits in neuropsychological function. However, the nature and severity of these abnormalities in non-clinical populations is less well defined. One hundred and forty-one part...
Article
Infants engage in an extraordinary amount of learning during their waking hours even though much of their day is consumed by sleep. What role does sleep play in infant learning? Fifteen-month-olds were familiarized with an artificial language 4 hr prior to a lab visit. Learning the language involved relating initial and final words in auditory stri...
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Full-text available
There is evidence that narrowing or collapse of the pharynx can contribute to obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in adults and children. However, studies in children have focused on those with relatively severe SDB who generally were recruited from sleep clinics. It is unclear whether children with mild SDB who primarily have hypopneas, a...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep disturbance is intricately entwined with our sense of well-being, health, emotion regulation, performance and productivity, memory and cognitive functioning, and social interaction. A longitudinal perspective underscores the conclusion that persistent sleep disturbance, insomnia, at any time during the life span from infancy to old age has a...
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To examine whether change in total sleep time during an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention is associated with aggression. Specifically, we tested whether adolescents who reported experiencing aggressive thoughts or actions after treatment had worse treatment trajectories (e.g., less total sleep time across treatment) than adolescents with n...
Article
Abstract Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO), a phase marker of the circadian system can be estimated from sleep diaries of good sleepers. Previous studies have shown a strong relationship between DLMO and midpoint of sleep and wake-up time. The present study investigated these same relationships in a group of sleep onset insomniacs. The correlations...
Article
Cognitive deficits and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are comorbid conditions frequently associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Oxygen free radical release and its differential regulation of cytokine synthesis and immune modulation resulting from OSA-related hypoxic events have been hypothesized as the underlying mechanism(s) for the cognitiv...
Article
Adolescence is a time of change that can be both exciting and stressful. In this review, we focus on the central role that disturbed sleep and daytime sleepiness occupies in interactions involving substance abuse and negative health, social, and emotional outcomes. As a means of improving sleep and lowering risk for recidivism of substance abuse, w...
Article
Placebo and nonplacebo treatments have both positive and negative effects on patient outcomes. To better understand the patterning of treatment effects, three specific interventions will be discussed that are reported to produce more harm than benefit: critical incident stress debriefing, group therapy for adolescents with conduct disorders, and ps...
Article
We consider Walker's thorough review in the context of thinking about future research on the relation between sleep and memory. We first address methodological issues including type of memory and sleep-stage dependency. We suggest a broader investigation of potential signaling molecules that may be critical to sleep-related consolidation. A brief r...
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Full-text available
Insomnia is a highly prevalent, often debilitating, and economically burdensome form of sleep disturbance caused by various situational, medical, emotional, environmental and behavioral factors. Although several consensually-derived nosologies have described numerous insomnia phenotypes, research concerning these phenotypes has been greatly hampere...
Article
The character and content of Northwestern's joint program in methodology research and clinical research is described and the subject matter for the core evaluation courses is discussed.
Article
Many studies in humans suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning, especially functioning in the right temporal lobe, is involved in mystical and religious experiences. We investigated temporal lobe functioning in individuals who reported having transcendental "near-death experiences" during life-threatening events. These individuals were found...
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Full-text available
To describe the distribution of nocturnal sleep characteristics and reports of daytime sleepiness in a large well-defined group of healthy adults. The Sleep Heart Health Study is a multicenter study examining sleep and cardiopulmonary parameters through nocturnal polysomnography in adults enrolled in geographically distinct cardiovascular cohorts....
Article
The diagnosis of breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among American women, elicits greater distress than any other diagnosis regardless of prognosis. Therefore, the present study examined the efficacy of a stress reduction intervention for women with breast cancer. As part of a larger, randomized, controlled study of the effects on measur...
Article
Patients with persistent insomnia are long-suffering and in dire need of treatment. These individuals can be a challenge to treat. Duration and severity of the problem, current and prior use of sleeping medications, medical and psychiatric conditions, and experience with rebound insomnia are just some of the factors that affect treatment. Most of t...
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Full-text available
This paper describes a randomized clinical trial investigating a stress management program for women with breast cancer, which inadvertently turned quasi-experimental. Due to logistical considerations, group assignment was disclosed to participants (n = 63) prior to baseline assessment. Analyses of baseline measures unexpectedly revealed statistica...
Article
The renewed interest in placebo effects from psychological and methodological angles is manifested in two complementary facets: the causal relationship between placebo effects inside and outside of clinical trials and the continual effort to understand how the underlying mechanisms relate to notions of efficacy and effectiveness. The article challe...
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Full-text available
To establish if insomniacs' underestimation of sleep time is due to reduced ability to discriminate between sleeping and waking states. Two night's home polysomnography were compared to sleep diaries. Five laboratory nights employed a series of recorded questions regarding perception of prior sleep-wake state, which were presented during sustained...
Chapter
Full-text available
As indicated throughout this chapter, understanding sleep and sleepiness is crucial to understanding all behavior, including psychopathology. Sleep is a sensitive barometer of the quality of our lives. It is affected by, and in turn affects, developmental, physiological, psychological, and sociocultural processes. To understand sleep disorders, res...
Article
The aim of this article is to shed more light on the relationship between quality of life and aspects of the psychosocial experience for women with breast cancer. The literature is briefly reviewed, including highlights of the psychosocial consequences of cancer, an exploration of the relationship of psychosocial variables to cancer, and a brief re...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of in...
Article
This paper reviews the evidence regarding the efficacy of nonpharmacological treatments for primary chronic insomnia. It is based on a review of 48 clinical trials and two meta-analyses conducted by a task force appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to develop practice parameters on non-drug therapies for the clinical management of in...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to compare specific neuropsychological, psychological, and family history patterns, as well as cardiovascular reactivity of three community-recruited groups of nonsmoking, nonalcoholic middle-aged individuals with and without the symptom of intolerance to low levels of environmental chemicals (CI). CI is a commo...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies indicate that low level chemical intolerance (CI) is a symptom of several different controversial conditions with neuropsychiatric features, e.g., chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, multiple chemical sensitivity, and "Persian Gulf Syndrome". Prior studies suggest that limbic and/or mesolimbic sensitization may contribute to de...
Article
Gotlib and Krasnoperova (1998) review research using information-processing methodologies to determine whether biases in attention and memory are a vulnerability factor in depression. They argue that some aspects of cognitive processing may represent a vulnerability factor for depression and propose treatment and prevention interventions based on t...
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Originally published in Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Books , 1998, Vol 43(12), 818-819. This book was greeted in 1971 with enthusiasm by those who saw it as presenting a new mature behavior therapy, no longer a mechanistic application of learning-based techniques, but a personalized therapy for the entire person. Others, however, saw it d...