Richard Bateman

Richard Bateman
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew · Jodrell Laboratory

BSc(x2), PhD, DSc

About

239
Publications
124,881
Reads
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8,423
Citations
Citations since 2016
50 Research Items
3409 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400500600
Introduction
I am a 'retired' scientist of exceptional breadth and experience. I have worked in universities and systematics institutes on both sides of the Atlantic, operating as an independent researcher, scientific manager and policy advisor. My publications extend from evolutionary-developmental genetics and evolutionary theory through speciation and phylogenetics of orchids to anatomical palaeobotany. I despise the recent inversion of the academic pyramid that has ceded power to pragmatic philistines.
Additional affiliations
November 2006 - September 2007
Biosciences Federation
Position
  • Head of Policy
July 2005 - October 2006
Natural History Museum, London
Position
  • Individual Merit Researcher (Professor)
December 1999 - August 2004
Natural History Museum, London
Position
  • Head of Department
Education
September 2001
University of London
Field of study
  • Plant phylogenetics and evolution, palaeobotany and palaeoenvironments
September 1984 - August 1988
University of London
Field of study
  • Mississippian palaeobotany
September 1982 - July 1984
Birkbeck, University of London
Field of study
  • Geology

Publications

Publications (239)
Chapter
Full-text available
Further developing a controversial neoGoldschmidtian paradigm that we first published in 1994, we here narrowly define saltational evolution as a genetic modification that is expressed as a profound phenotypic change across a single generation and results in a potentially independent evolutionary lineage termed a prospecies (the "hopeful monster" o...
Article
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Background and aims: Bee orchids (Ophrys) have become the most popular model system for studying reproduction via insect-mediated pseudo-copulation and for exploring the consequent, putatively adaptive, evolutionary radiations. However, despite intensive past research, both the phylogenetic structure and species diversity within the genus remain h...
Chapter
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The developmental morphology and genetics of the orchid flower is described in order to explore the evolutionary 'no man's land' that separates the Extended Synthesis from the Modern Synthesis. The gynostemium, ubiquitous among orchids and developed through congenital fusion (and dorsal suppression) of fertile reproductive organs, is an unbreakable...
Article
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Several recent palaeobotanical studies claim to have found and described pre-Cretaceous angiosperm macrofossils. With rare exceptions, these papers fail to define a flower, do not acknowledge that fossils require character-based rather than group-based classification, do not explicitly state which morphological features would unambiguously identify...
Article
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Plastid sequences have long dominated phylogeny reconstruction at all time depths, predicated on a usually untested assumption that they accurately represent the evolutionary histories of phenotypically circumscribed species. We combined detailed in situ morphometrics (124 plants) and whole-plastome sequencing through genome skimming (71 plants) in...
Chapter
Cryptic species are organisms which look identical, but which represent distinct evolutionary lineages. They are an emerging trend in organismal biology across all groups, from flatworms, insects, amphibians, primates, to vascular plants. This book critically evaluates the phenomenon of cryptic species and demonstrates how they can play a valuable...
Article
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Rhizomorphic lycopsids constitute the most derived lycophyte clade and some of the world’s best-known plant fossils. Arboreous taxa within the clade evolved independently of other nonlycophyte trees. Their rootstocks (rhizomorphs) have distinctive morphologies and anatomies and unusually canalized ontogenies, leading to debates regarding homology a...
Article
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Prompted by concurrent completion of the latest plant atlas for Britain and Ireland, the orchid flora of these islands is reviewed in detail, focusing on 21st century progress in both systematics research and formal conservation categorisation under IUCN criteria. DNA-based phylogenies consistently circumscribe monophyletic groups that constitute o...
Article
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The detailed results of a field survey of the native orchid flora of Hertfordshire performed between 1977 and 1980.
Article
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The first study of the taxonomically critical European orchid genus Dactylorhiza to use next-generation DNA sequencing generated the statistically best-supported reconstruction of its phylogeny to date. However, the two competing topologies obtained within the monophyletic Section Maculatae differed radically in the placement of the D. maculata s.s...
Article
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Although conceptual whole-plants are occasionally reconstructed, disarticulation means that palaeobotanical taxo-nomy remains primarily the preserve of fragmented organ-species, each bearing a Linnaean binomial. Thus, a "natural" taxon that would in any neobotanical classification bear a single valid binomial (any other epithets automatically being...
Article
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Despite limited exposures, detailed field mapping and sedimentological analyses – particle size, clast petrography and fine-sand mineralogy (plus limited coarse silt and clay mineralogy) – have elucidated the ages, provenance and depositional environments of the complex and controversial Quaternary deposits covering the Ayot Paleogene Outlier. Most...
Article
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Recent phylogenetic trees of the phenotypically diverse Eurasian orchid genus Gymnadenia s.l., based on Sanger sequencing of nrITS and next-generation RAD-seq data, largely agree on species boundaries but disagree radically regarding relationships among those species. Moreover, both contrasting topologies receive support from a recent transcriptome...
Article
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Circumscriptions of both the genus Gymnadenia and the 11–27 species that it contains are highly controversial. These Eurasian terrestrial orchids are nectar-rewarding and pollinated primarily by Lepidoptera. Opinions expressed on the number of species occurring in the British Isles range from one to four, though there exists broad agreement that at...
Article
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Paralycopodites Morey & Morey, a Carboniferous‐age arboreous lycopsid that grew in the tropical wetlands of Pangea, is the phylogenetically basalmost member of the Carboniferous stigmarian lycopsids to be conceptually reconstructed. We update its description through reciprocal illumination between anatomy (coal‐balls) and gross morphology (adpressi...
Article
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Recent application of next-generation sequencing technology to Eurasian taxa of the primitive epidendroid orchid clade Epipactis section Epipactis has further advanced our knowledge of what has become a model system for studying the origins of numerous autogamous taxa from within arguably only one allogamous ancestral species, E. helleborine s.s. C...
Article
Poor morphological and molecular differentiation in recently diversified lineages is a widespread phenomenon in plants. Phylogenetic relationships within such species complexes are often difficult to resolve because of the low variability in traditional molecular loci. Furthermore, biological phenomena responsible for topological incongruence such...
Article
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Disentangling phylogenetic relationships proves challenging for groups that have evolved recently, especially if there is ongoing reticulation. Although they are in most cases immediately isolated from diploid relatives, sets of sibling allopolyploids often hybridize with each other, thereby increasing the complexity of an already challenging situa...
Article
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Background and aims: The terrestrial orchid genus Epipactis has become a model system for the study of speciation via transitions from allogamy to autogamy, but close phylogenetic relationships have proven difficult to resolve through Sanger sequencing. Methods: We analysed with RAD-seq 108 plants representing 29 named taxa that together span th...
Article
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Premise of research. The evolutionary origin of the seed habit coincided with profound physiological and structural changes associated with underlying developmental patterns. A coenocyte is formed during megagametophyte development in many vascular plants, including some lycophytes and all spermatophytes; this structure compares closely with simila...
Article
Himantoglossum adriaticum H. Baumann is a long-lived perennial orchid with an adriato-mediterranean distribution. The species-level separation of this species from the more geographically widespread H. hircinum has only recently been confirmed via a combination of molecular and morphometric techniques, which are further developed here. To provide a...
Article
Pulsatilla (Anemoneae, Ranunculaceae) is sister to Anemone s.s. and contains ca 40 perennial species of considerable horticultural and medical importance. We sequenced 31 of those species, plus nine subspecies, two cultivars and six outgroups, for two nuclear regions (high-copy nrITS and low-copy MLH1) and three plastid regions (rbcL, accD–psaI, tr...
Article
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Stomata play a critical ecological role as an interface between the plant and its environment. Although the guard‐cell pair is highly conserved in land plants, the development and patterning of surrounding epidermal cells follow predictable pathways in different taxa that are increasingly well understood following recent advances in the development...
Article
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The digitate-tubered clade (Dactylorhiza s.l. plus Gymnadenia s.l.) within subtribe Orchidinae is an important element of the North-temperate orchid flora and has become a model system for studying the genetic and epigenetic consequences of organism-wide ploidy change. Here, we integrate morphological phylogenetics with Sanger sequencing of nrITS a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Poor morphological and molecular differentiation in recently diversified lineages is a widespread phenomenon in plants. Phylogenetic relationships within such species complexes are often difficult to resolve because of the low variability in traditional molecular loci, as well as various other biological phenomena responsible for topological incong...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung/Summary: Bateman, R. M. (2018): Two bees or not two bees? An overview of Ophrys systematics.-Ber. Arbeitskrs. Heim. Orchid. 35(1): 5-46. Die Diskussion darüber, ob die europäische Gattung Ophrys neun phylogenetische Arten (plus zahlreiche Unterarten) oder mindestens 350 "ethologische" Arten umfasst, dauert an. Unglücklicherweise ver...
Article
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Background and aims: Recent tissue-level observations made indirectly via flow cytometry suggest that endoreplication (duplication of the nuclear genome within the nuclear envelope in the absence of subsequent cell division) is widespread within the plant kingdom. Here, we also directly observe ploidy variation among cells within individual petals...
Article
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Two decades have passed since DNA evidence first demonstrated an intimate relationship between the circumboreal species 'Coeloglossum' viride and the temperate Eurasian genus Dactylorhiza s.s. Most subsequent molecular phylogenies showed 'C.' viride to diverge after the D. incarnata group. The law of monophyly therefore dictated inclusion in Dactyl...
Article
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We describe the first reported hybrid to occur in nature between Dactylorhiza praetermissa and Gymnadenia borealis as × Dactylodenia lacerta R.M. Bateman & Tattersall. This vigorous plant was found and digitally imaged on a roadside verge of Crousa Downs on the Lizard Peninsula of Cornwall by Barry Tattersall in June, 2016, and tentatively identifi...
Article
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Although the majority of taxonomic studies of European orchids treat Pseudorchis as a monotypic genus, some observers have argued that the apparently circumboreal segregate P. straminea should also be treated as a full species. Here, we compare detailed in vivo measurements of 55 plants from nine populations of P. albida in Britain with ten plants...
Article
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Background and Aims The charismatic Himantoglossum s.l. clade of Eurasian orchids contains an unusually large proportion of taxa that are of controversial circumscriptions and considerable conservation concern. Whereas our previously published study addressed the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of every named taxon within the clade, here...
Article
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Premise of the study: Noeggerathiales are an extinct group of heterosporous shrubs and trees that were widespread and diverse during the Pennsylvanian-Permian Epochs (323-252 Ma) but are of controversial taxonomic affinity. Groups proposed as close relatives include leptosporangiate ferns, sphenopsids, progymnosperms, or the extant eusporangiate f...
Chapter
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Over the past decade, the various potential practical benefits offered by DNA ‘barcoding’ have been rehearsed ad nauseam, typically with at least modest exag- geration. However, definitions of barcoding, most of which remain rooted in the already passé holy grail of identifying the perfect genic region to characterize (and thereby identify) all lif...
Article
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Background and Aims. The largely Mississippian strata of the Kilpatrick Hills, located at the western end of the Scottish Midland Valley, enclose several macrofossil floras that together contain ca 21 organ-species of permineralised plants and ca 44 organ-species of compressed plants, here estimated to represent 25 whole-plant species (Glenarbuck =...
Article
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In most seed plants, cotyledons formed within the seed act as haustorial organs, as well as playing a key role in releasing the shoot apex from the seed coat on germination. Emergence of the shoot apex often results from asymmetric intercalary growth of the cotyledon bases. This process avoids the principal spatial constraint on germination in seed...
Article
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• Triassic and Jurassic fossils record structural changes in conifer seed cones through time, provide the earliest evidence for crown-group conifer clades, and further clarify sister-group relationships of modern conifer families. A new and distinct seed-cone from the Isle of Skye in western Scotland provides the oldest detailed evidence for the an...
Article
Hybridization is a fundamental process in biology and can lead to new evolutionary lineages. However, if the parental taxa involved are rare, difficult decisi- ons may have to be made regarding the conservation of the biological process versus the conservation of the parental taxa. The genus Orchis in Europe is a good example of a group of species...
Article
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Background: Tribe Orchideae dominates the orchid flora of the temperate Northern Hemisphere but its representatives in East Asia had been subject to less intensive phylogenetic study than those in Eurasia and North America. Although this situation was improved recently by the molecular phylogenetic study of Jin et al., comparatively few species wer...
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Background and Aims. This paper concludes our series of publications comparing island and mainland speciation in European butterfly-orchids, by studying the morphology, phylogenetics and reproductive biology of the controversial circum-arctic species Platanthera (Limnorchis) hyperborea—the most frequent of seven Icelandic orchids. We draw particula...
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Opportunistic observations of the longest-standing British population of Orchis militaris L. suggest that bumblebees (Bombus spp.) may have become the primary pollinators of the orchid at the site. We document pollination by (female) workers of B. pratorum and males of the brood parasite B. vestalis. Placement of the pollinaria on the bodies of the...
Article
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Background and Aims Lizard orchids of the genus Himantoglossum include many of Eurasia's most spectacular orchids, producing substantial spikes of showy flowers. However, until recently the genus had received only limited, and entirely traditional, systematic study. The aim of the current work was to provide a more robust molecular phylogeny in ord...
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• Premise of the study: Most orchid species native to the Macaronesian islands reflect immigration from western Europe or North Africa followed by anagenesis. The only putative exception is the butterfly orchids (Platanthera) of the Azores, where three species apparently reflect at least one cladogenetic speciation event. This multidisciplinary stu...
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Background and Aims. The Macaronesian islands represent an excellent crucible for exploring speciation. This dominantly phenotypic study complements a separate genotypic study, together designed to identify and circumscribe Platanthera species (butterfly-orchids) on the Azores, and to determine their geographic origin(s) and underlying speciation m...