Riccardo Polosa

Riccardo Polosa
University of Catania | UNICT · Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine

MD, PhD

About

528
Publications
80,001
Reads
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14,860
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2011 - present
University of Catania
Position
  • Director of the School of Specialization in Rheumatology
January 2008 - present
Azienda Ospedaliero - Universitaria Policlinico - Vittorio Emanuele
Position
  • Director of the Institute of Internal and Emergency Medicine
March 2006 - December 2006
University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust
Position
  • Fellow
Description
  • Co-PI in aphase 2 clinical trial in asthma patients

Publications

Publications (528)
Article
Full-text available
Hemoglobin and iron overload is considered the major contributor to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury. Accumulation of iron in the brain leads to microglia activation, inflammation and cell loss. Current available treatments for iron overload-mediated disorders are characterized by severe adverse effects, making such conditions an...
Article
Cigarette smoking is associated with impairment of repair mechanisms necessary for vascular endothelium homeostasis. Reducing the exposure to smoke toxicants may result in the mitigation of the harmful effect on the endothelium and cardiovascular disease development. Previous investigations evaluated in vitro the effect of electronic cigarette (EC)...
Article
Full-text available
It is well known that airborne transmission of COVID-19 in indoor spaces occurs through various respiratory activities: breathing, vocalizing, coughing, and sneezing. However, there is a complete lack of knowledge of its possible transmission through exhalations of e-cigarette aerosol (ECA), which is also a respiratory activity. E-cigarettes have b...
Article
Importance: Evidence of effective smoking cessation interventions in patients with diabetes is limited. The unique behavioral and metabolic characteristics of smokers with type 2 diabetes warrants a randomized clinical trial of the smoking cessation drug varenicline. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of varenicline in patients with...
Article
The purpose of this scoping review is to create a single narrative that describes the impact of smoking cessation on metabolic parameters in people with diabetes. It is generally well accepted that smoking enhances the harmful effects of elevated blood glucose levels, accelerating the vascular damage seen in patients with diabetes. Smoking cessatio...
Article
(word count 231) Vaping by adolescents and young adults is a legitimate concern as there is a risk that some may start smoking and that electronic cigarette (EC) use may have adverse effects in the developing lungs of adolescents. This commentary provides updated information on vaping patterns among adolescents and young adults in the United States...
Article
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Globally, around half the adult asthma population are current or former cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking and asthma interact to induce an ‘asthma-smoking phenotype(s)’, which has important implications for diagnosis, pathogenic mechanisms, and management. The lack of progress in understanding the effects of smoking on adults with asthma is due...
Article
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) can reduce the health risks associated with chronic smoke exposure, and their potential benefits are the subject of intense scientific debate. The international "Replica Study Group" replicated independently three relevant studies from the tobacco industry on the cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of ciga...
Article
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Previous research yielded conflicting results on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Since the prevalence of smoking is high globally, the study of its impact on COVID-19 pandemic may have considerable implications for public health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the SARS-CoV-...
Preprint
Inter-laboratory comparison is widely used to ensure quality control among laboratories. In in vitro toxicology studies for tobacco harm reduction (THR), exposure system performance and laboratory proficiency along with product smoke and aerosol stream are tested for variability to assess accuracy. Here we aim to test a novel inter-laboratory setup...
Article
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Cigarette smoke is associated to severe chronic diseases. The most harmful components of cigarette smoke derive from the combustion process, which are significantly reduced in the electronic cigarette aerosol, thus providing a valid option in harm reduction strategies. To develop safer products, it is therefore necessary to screen electronic cigare...
Article
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The prevalence of vaping, also known as using e-cigarettes, vapes and vape pens, has prompted a demand for reliable, evidence-based research. However, published literature on the topic of vaping often raises concerns, characterized by serious flaws and a failure to adhere to accepted scientific methodologies. In this narrative review, we analyze po...
Article
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Cigarette smoking contributes to poor oral health and dental discoloration. Therefore, stopping smoking may translate into measurable amelioration of dental shade indices. We compared dental shade parameters by digital spectrophotometry among current, former, and never smokers and verified their repeatability at 7 and 30 days. Dental shade paramete...
Article
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While the role of active smoking on response to vaccines is yet to be fully understood, some real-world studies have outlined a possible link between smoking and humoral response to COVID-19 vaccines. Thus, the present rapid systematic review aimed at summarizing the current epidemiological evidence on this association. Following PRISMA and WHO gui...
Article
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible impact of smoking on the humoral response to the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (also known as the BioNTech-Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine). Study design: A longitudinal sero-epidemiological study was conducted in sample of Italian healthcare workers (HCWs). Methods: HCWs who were admi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cigarette smoking is associated with impairment of repair mechanisms necessary for vascular endothelium homeostasis. Reducing the exposure to smoke toxicants may result in the mitigation of the harmful effect on the endothelium and cardiovascular disease development. Previous investigations performed by the tobacco industries evaluated in vitro the...
Article
Full-text available
Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) may reduce health risks associated with chronic exposure to smoke and their potential benefits have been the matter of intense scientific debate. We aimed to replicate three published studies on cytotoxic and inflammatory effects of cigarette smoke and ENDS aerosol in an independent multi-center ring stud...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Saccharin test (ST) is a convenient method to assess the efficiency of mucociliary clearance, the primary defense mechanism of the upper airways’ tract. The study objectives are to: (1) substantiate its short- (3 days) and long-term (30 days) repeatability; (2) assess its tolerability; (3) conduct a systematic literature review and to co...
Article
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Introduction The objective was to systematically review studies on health outcomes from smokeless tobacco (SLT) products. Methods We analysed published literature on the health outcomes from SLT use between 01/01/2015 to 01/02/2020, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol using PubMed, Embase,...
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Background In preparation for the 2021 revision of the European Union Tobacco Products Directive, the Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) has posted its Preliminary Opinion on Electronic Cigarettes . They concluded that e-cigarettes only achieve a sub-optimal level of protection of human health. In this paper,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduction No previous study provides compelling evidence to convince surgeons to opt for one procedure over another for the treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM). Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) adjunct to surgery for MPM has no definite role. The primary objective of this randomized pilot trial was to evaluate the f...
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This sero-survey describes the level and time-trend of antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine up to 6 months. A strong seroconversion was seen at 30-day serology, with persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG through 6 months from vaccination. However, the level of vaccine induced antibodies started to decrease from the second month.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in an Italian teaching hospital. 444 participants were surveyed with either multiple RT-PCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swabs or serology testing for the research of virus-specific immunoglobulins. Adverse eve...
Article
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We conducted a scoping review of studies on health outcomes from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The objective was to identify, narratively synthesize, assess the strength and quality of evidence and critically appraise studies that have reported disease end points associated with the use of ENDS. We included published literature on th...
Article
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Background Tobacco smoking impairs mucociliary clearance (MCC) efficiency as shown by prolonged saccharin test transit time (STTT). Avoiding exposure to tobacco smoke from combustible cigarettes may restore MCC function and former smokers have been shown to exhibit similar STTT as never smokers. The impact on STTT of switching from smoking to combu...
Article
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Background After the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, research has highlighted several aspects of the pandemic, focusing on clinical features and risk factors associated with infection and disease severity. However, emerging results on the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility or COVID-19 outcomes are conflicting, and their robustness...
Preprint
BACKGROUND After the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, research has highlighted several aspects of the pandemic, focusing on clinical features and risk factors associated with infection and disease severity. However, emerging results on the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility or COVID-19 outcomes are conflicting, and their robustness...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the plausibility of aerial transmission of pathogens (including the SARS-CoV-2 virus) through respiratory droplets that might be carried by exhaled e-cigarette aerosol (ECA). Given the lack of empiric evidence on this phenomenon, we consider available evidence on cigarette smoking and respiratory droplet emission from mouth breathing thr...
Article
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), i.e., electronic-cigarettes (e-cigs) and Tobacco Heating Products (THPs), are rapidly growing in popularity. Nonetheless, comprehensive quality and safety requirements for regulatory purposes are still under development. Cytotoxicity studies are important initial steps in appraising the potential ENDS to...
Article
Cigarette consumption in the general population has shown a sustained decline over the past 20 years, but despite this, it is essential to monitor consumption among smokers at their workplace. There is an association between cigarette addiction and work-related stressors, with high prevalence rates for smokers, at least double those of other adults...
Article
Full-text available
Background Despite the clear risks of tobacco use, millions of people continue to smoke. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly called e-cigarettes, have been proposed as a substitute for those who are unwilling or unable to quit. Current systematic and narrative reviews on the health effects of ENDS use, particularly respiratory and...
Preprint
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) may reduce health risks associated with chronic exposure to smoke and their potential benefits have been the matter of intense scientific debate. Here we replicated three key published studies from the Tobacco Industry on cytotoxic an...
Preprint
Full-text available
After the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS−CoV−2), research has highlighted several aspects of the pandemic, focusing on clinical features and risk factors associated with infection and disease severity. However, emerging results on the role of smoking in SARS−CoV−2 infection susceptibility or COVID−19 outcomes...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Reducing exposure to cigarette smoke is an imperative for public health and for patients with diabetes. Increasingly, combustion-free nicotine delivery systems (C-F NDS) such as e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products are substituting conventional cigarettes and accelerating the downward trends in smoking prevalence. However, there is...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Despite the clear risks of tobacco use, millions of people continue to smoke. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly called e-cigarettes, have been proposed as a substitute for those who are unwilling or unable to quit. Current systematic and narrative reviews on the health effects of ENDS use, particularly respiratory and...
Article
Full-text available
Given that many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) smoke despite their symptoms, it is important to understand the long-term health impact of cigarette substitution with heated tobacco products (HTPs). We monitored health parameters for 3 years in COPD patients who substantially attenuated or ceased cigarette consumption aft...
Preprint
Background. E-cigarettes are an important harm reduction tool that provides smokers an alternative for nicotine consumption that is much safer than smoking. It is important to asses its safety under preventive and containment measures undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods. We develop a theoretical risk model to assess the contagion risk b...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Despite the clear risks of tobacco use, millions of people continue to smoke. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly called e-cigarettes, have been proposed as a substitute for those who are unwilling or unable to quit. Current systematic and narrative reviews on the health effects of ENDS use, respiratory and cardiovascu...
Article
Full-text available
Reducing exposure to cigarette smoke is an imperative for public health and for diabetic patients. Patients with diabetes who continue to smoke face challenges at quitting and the delivery of effective smoking cessation interventions is a major unmet need. The high-affinity α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline in combin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. E-cigarettes are an important harm reduction tool that provides smokers an alternative for nicotine consumption that is much safer than smoking. It is important to asses its safety under preventive and containment measures undertaken during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. We develop a theoretical risk model to assess the contagion risk...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction An estimated 60%–90% of people with schizophrenia smoke, compared with 15%–24% of the general population, exacerbating the already high morbidity and mortality rates observed in this population. Aims and Methods This study aimed to assess the feasibility of using a new-generation high strength nicotine e-cigarette to modify smoking be...
Article
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This article reviews contemporary issues in survey research, connecting established methods to innovative tools and technologies like real-time sensors and computer vision. This link takes into account the idea about the “organical” nature of Big Data, which represents a challenge toward a modernization of population studies in the light of technol...
Article
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Sero-epidemiological surveys are valuable attempts to estimate the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in general or selected populations. Within this context, a prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different categories of workers and factors associated with positivity, through t...
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Background Smartphone misuse, also known as Nomophobia is the fear of not being able to consult your own mobile phone, of not being connected or traceable. During the Italian lockdown caused by COVID-19, while the use of technology was the fundamental basis of adaptation for smart working, school and professional training, leading to a change in th...
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Despite the growing numbers of studies on cigarettes and electronic nicotine delivery products (ENDs), no standard assessment of nicotine stability in various matrix post exposure is currently available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimal standard condition to store Cambridge Filter Pads (CFPs) before chemical analysis in orde...
Article
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Prevalence studies of current smoking, among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, demonstrated an unexpectedly low prevalence among patients with COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of smoke from cigarettes on ACE-2 in bronchial epithelial cells. Normal bronchial epithelial cells (H292) were exposed to smoke by an air-liqui...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), i.e., electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) and Tobacco Heating Products (THPs), are rapidly growing in popularity. The marketing of these products is regulated by specific rules in the European Union and in the US, which permit their legal sales. Nonetheless, comprehensive quality and safety requirements for r...
Preprint
It is clear that vaping (e-cigarette use) poses little if any health risk, and in particular is far less harmful than smoking. However, it is not clear whether there is some small health risk from vaping. Most research on health outcomes has involved people who formerly smoked, and thus who have residual health risks that are far greater than any p...
Article
Full-text available
We discuss the implications of possible contagion of COVID-19 through e-cigarette aerosol (ECA) for prevention and mitigation strategies during the current pandemic. This is a relevant issue when millions of vapers (and smokers) must remain under indoor confinement and/or share public outdoor spaces with non-users. The fact that the respiratory flo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although the detrimental health effects of smoking on human health are well described, the impact of smoking on dental plaque build-up lacks consistent records. This is because dental research on periodontal health has primarily relied on subjective indices with poor discriminatory power. Novel digital imaging techniques for the objective quantitat...
Preprint
Full-text available
Despite the negative impact of cigarette smoking on oral health and teeth appearance, there is no data available on dental shade changes in smokers who quit smoking. Dental discoloration caused by smoking may be permanent, with minimal restoration after stopping smoking. If this is valid, former smokers can show dental shade values equivalent to th...