Riccardo Guidotti

Riccardo Guidotti
Università di Pisa | UNIPI

PhD

About

99
Publications
29,925
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2,735
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2013 - present
Università di Pisa
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
Recent years have witnessed the rise of accurate but obscure classification models that hide the logic of their internal decision processes. In this paper, we present a framework to locally explain any type of black-box classifiers working on any data type through a rule-based model. In the literature already exists local explanation approaches abl...
Article
Full-text available
We present xspells , a model-agnostic local approach for explaining the decisions of black box models in classification of short texts. The explanations provided consist of a set of exemplar sentences and a set of counter-exemplar sentences. The former are examples classified by the black box with the same label as the text to explain. The latter a...
Article
Full-text available
Interpretable machine learning aims at unveiling the reasons behind predictions returned by uninterpretable classifiers. One of the most valuable types of explanation consists of counterfactuals. A counterfactual explanation reveals what should have been different in an instance to observe a diverse outcome. For instance, a bank customer asks for a...
Article
Full-text available
The massive and increasing availability of mobility data enables the study and the prediction of human mobility behavior and activities at various levels. In this paper, we tackle the problem of predicting the crash risk of a car driver in the long term. This is a very challenging task, requiring a deep knowledge of both the driver and their surrou...
Preprint
Full-text available
A key issue in critical contexts such as medical diagnosis is the interpretability of the deep learning models adopted in decision-making systems. Research in eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) is trying to solve this issue. However, often XAI approaches are only tested on generalist classifier and do not represent realistic problems such as...
Article
Full-text available
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are bei...
Article
Full-text available
Identifying the portions of trajectory data where movement ends and a significant stop starts is a basic, yet fundamental task that can affect the quality of any mobility analytics process. Most of the many existing solutions adopted by researchers and practitioners are simply based on fixed spatial and temporal thresholds stating when the moving o...
Chapter
Decision tree classifiers have been proved to be among the most interpretable models due to their intuitive structure that illustrates decision processes in form of logical rules. Unfortunately, more complex tree-based classifiers such as oblique trees and random forests overcome the accuracy of decision trees at the cost of becoming non interpreta...
Chapter
In eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI), several counterfactual explainers have been proposed, each focusing on some desirable properties of counterfactual instances: minimality, actionability, stability, diversity, plausibility, discriminative power. We propose an ensemble of counterfactual explainers that boosts weak explainers, which provid...
Article
Full-text available
Time series classification (TSC) is a pervasive and transversal problem in various fields ranging from disease diagnosis to anomaly detection in finance. Unfortunately, the most effective models used by Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems for TSC are not interpretable and hide the logic of the decision process, making them unusable in sensitive do...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s41060-021-00260-6
Chapter
The last decade has witnessed the rise of a black box society where obscure classification models are adopted by Artificial Intelligence systems (AI). The lack of explanations of how AI systems make decisions is a key ethical issue to their adoption in socially sensitive and safety-critical contexts. Indeed, the problem is not only for lack of tran...
Article
Full-text available
How can big data help to understand the migration phenomenon? In this paper, we try to answer this question through an analysis of various phases of migration, comparing traditional and novel data sources and models at each phase. We concentrate on three phases of migration, at each phase describing the state of the art and recent developments and...
Article
Full-text available
The exponential increase in the availability of large-scale mobility data has fueled the vision of smart cities that will transform our lives. The truth is that we have just scratched the surface of the research challenges that should be tackled in order to make this vision a reality. Consequently, there is an increasing interest among different re...
Chapter
“Tell me what you eat and I will tell you what you are”. Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin was among the firsts to recognize the relationship between identity and food consumption. Food adoption choices are much less exposed to external judgment and social pressure than other individual behaviours, and can be observed over a long period. That makes the...
Preprint
The widespread adoption of black-box models in Artificial Intelligence has enhanced the need for explanation methods to reveal how these obscure models reach specific decisions. Retrieving explanations is fundamental to unveil possible biases and to resolve practical or ethical issues. Nowadays, the literature is full of methods with different expl...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluating local explanation methods is a difficult task due to the lack of a shared and universally accepted definition of explanation. In the literature, one of the most common ways to assess the performance of an explanation method is to measure the fidelity of the explanation with respect to the classification of a black box model adopted by an...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come to prominence as one of the major components of our society, with applications in most aspects of our lives. In this field, complex and highly nonlinear machine learning models such as ensemble models, deep neural networks, and Support Vector Machines have consistently shown remarkable accuracy in solving compl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has come to prominence as one of the major components of our society, with applications in most aspects of our lives. In this field, complex and highly nonlinear machine learning models such as ensemble models, deep neural networks, and Support Vector Machines have consistently shown remarkable accuracy in solving compl...
Chapter
Full-text available
We present xspells , a model-agnostic local approach for explaining the decisions of a black box model for sentiment classification of short texts. The explanations provided consist of a set of exemplar sentences and a set of counter-exemplar sentences. The former are examples classified by the black box with the same label as the text to explain....
Chapter
As Nietzsche once wrote “Without music, life would be a mistake” (Twilight of the Idols, 1889.). The music we listen to reflects our personality, our way to approach life. In order to enforce self-awareness, we devised a Personal Listening Data Model that allows for capturing individual music preferences and patterns of music consumption. We applie...
Preprint
Full-text available
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the phase 2 of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are being...
Article
We present an approach to explain the decisions of black box image classifiers through synthetic exemplar and counter-exemplar learnt in the latent feature space. Our explanation method exploits the latent representations learned through an adversarial autoencoder for generating a synthetic neighborhood of the image for which an explanation is requ...
Chapter
We present an approach to explain the decisions of black box models for image classification. While using the black box to label images, our explanation method exploits the latent feature space learned through an adversarial autoencoder. The proposed method first generates exemplar images in the latent feature space and learns a decision tree class...
Article
The rapid dynamics of COVID-19 calls for quick and effective tracking of virus transmission chains and early detection of outbreaks, especially in the “phase 2” of the pandemic, when lockdown and other restriction measures are progressively withdrawn, in order to avoid or minimize contagion resurgence. For this purpose, contact-tracing apps are bei...
Chapter
Artificial Intelligence systems often adopt machine learning models encoding complex algorithms with potentially unknown behavior. As the application of these “black box” models grows, it is our responsibility to understand their inner working and formulate them in human-understandable explanations. To this end, we propose a rule-based model-agnost...
Preprint
We present an approach to explain the decisions of black box models for image classification. While using the black box to label images, our explanation method exploits the latent feature space learned through an adversarial autoencoder. The proposed method first generates exemplar images in the latent feature space and learns a decision tree class...
Chapter
Today the state-of-the-art performance in classification is achieved by the so-called “black boxes”, i.e. decision-making systems whose internal logic is obscure. Such models could revolutionize the health-care system, however their deployment in real-world diagnosis decision support systems is subject to several risks and limitations due to the la...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the workshops which complemented the 23rd Symposium on Formal Methods, FM 2019, held in Porto, Portugal, in October 2019. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the following workshops: Third Workshop on Practical Formal Verification for Software Dependability, AFFORD 2019; 8th...
Book
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the workshops which complemented the 23rd Symposium on Formal Methods, FM 2019, held in Porto, Portugal, in October 2019. This volume presents the papers that have been accepted for the following workshops: Third Workshop on Practical Formal Verification for Software Dependability, AFFORD 2019; 8th...
Article
The rise of sophisticated machine learning models has brought accurate but obscure decision systems, which hide their logic, thus undermining transparency, trust, and the adoption of AI in socially sensitive and safety-critical contexts. We introduce a local rule-based explanation method providing faithful explanations of the decision made by a bla...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, a hot challenge for supermarket chains is to offer personalized services to their customers. Market basket prediction, i.e., supplying the customer a shopping list for the next purchase according to her current needs, is one of these services. Current approaches are not capable of capturing at the same time the different factors influenci...
Article
Black box AI systems for automated decision making, often based on machine learning over (big) data, map a user’s features into a class or a score without exposing the reasons why. This is problematic not only for lack of transparency, but also for possible biases inherited by the algorithms from human prejudices and collection artifacts hidden in...
Chapter
Given the wide use of machine learning approaches based on opaque prediction models, understanding the reasons behind decisions of black box decision systems is nowadays a crucial topic. We address the problem of providing meaningful explanations in the widely-applied image classification tasks. In particular, we explore the impact of changing the...
Book
This book constitutes revised selected papers from two workshops held at the 18th European Conference on Machine Learning and Knowledge Discovery in Databases, ECML PKDD 2018, in Dublin, Ireland, in September 2018, namely: MIDAS 2018 – Third Workshop on Mining Data for Financial Applications and PAP 2018 – Second International Workshop on Personal...
Chapter
Smart Cities applications are fostering research in many fields including Computer Science and Engineering. Data Mining is used to support applications such as the optimization of a public urban transit network and event detection. The aim of the PErsonal TRansport Advisor (PETRA) EU FP7 project is to develop an integrated platform to supply urban...
Chapter
Docker is on the rise in today’s enterprise IT. It permits shipping applications inside portable containers, which run from so-called Docker images. Docker images are distributed in public registries, which also monitor their popularity. The popularity of an image impacts on its actual usage, and hence on the potential revenues for its developers....
Chapter
Individual well-being strongly depends on food habits, therefore it is important to educate the general population, and especially young people, to the importance of a healthy and balanced diet. To this end, understanding the real eating habits of people becomes fundamental for a better and more effective intervention to improve the students’ diet....
Chapter
Retail data are of fundamental importance for businesses and enterprises that want to understand the purchasing behaviour of their customers. Such data is also useful to develop analytical services and for marketing purposes, often based on individual purchasing patterns. However, retail data and extracted models may also provide very sensitive inf...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we investigate the regularities characterizing the temporal purchasing behavior of the customers of a retail market chain. Most of the literature studying purchasing behavior focuses on what customers buy while giving few importance to the temporal dimension. As a consequence, the state of the art does not allow capturing which are th...
Preprint
Interpretable classification models are built with the purpose of providing a comprehensible description of the decision logic to an external oversight agent. When considered in isolation, a decision tree, a set of classification rules, or a linear model, are widely recognized as human-interpretable. However, such models are generated as part of a...
Article
Globalization can lead to a growing standardization of musical contents. Using a cross-service multi-level dataset we investigate the actual Italian music scene. The investigation highlights the musical Italian superdiversity both individually analyzing the geographical and lexical dimensions and combining them. Using different kinds of features ov...
Preprint
Full-text available
Black box systems for automated decision making, often based on machine learning over (big) data, map a user's features into a class or a score without exposing the reasons why. This is problematic not only for lack of transparency, but also for possible biases hidden in the algorithms, due to human prejudices and collection artifacts hidden in the...
Chapter
Docker is on the rise in today’s enterprise IT. It permits shipping applications inside portable containers, which run from so-called Docker images. Docker images are distributed in public registries, which also monitor their popularity. The popularity of an image directly impacts on its usage, and hence on the potential revenues of its developers....
Preprint
Full-text available
The recent years have witnessed the rise of accurate but obscure decision systems which hide the logic of their internal decision processes to the users. The lack of explanations for the decisions of black box systems is a key ethical issue, and a limitation to the adoption of machine learning components in socially sensitive and safety-critical co...
Article
Full-text available
In the last years many accurate decision support systems have been constructed as black boxes, that is as systems that hide their internal logic to the user. This lack of explanation constitutes both a practical and an ethical issue. The literature reports many approaches aimed at overcoming this crucial weakness sometimes at the cost of scarifying...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The huge quantity of personal data stored by service providers registering customers daily life enables the analysis of individual fingerprints characterizing the customers' behavioral profiles. We propose a framework for recognizing residents, tourists and occasional shoppers among the customers of a retail market chain. We employ our recognition...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Clustering is the subset of data mining techniques used to agnostically classify entities by looking at their attributes. Clustering algorithms specialized to deal with complex networks are called community discovery. Notwithstanding their common objectives, there are crucial assumptions in community discovery-edge sparsity and only one node type,...
Presentation
Full-text available
Nowadays, a hot challenge for supermarket chains is to offer personalized services to their customers. Market basket prediction, i.e., supplying the customer a shopping list for the next purchase according to her current needs, is one of these services. Current approaches are not capable of capturing at the same time the different factors influenci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nowadays, a hot challenge for supermarket chains is to offer personalized services to their customers. Market basket prediction, i.e., supplying the customer a shopping list for the next purchase according to her current needs, is one of these services. Current approaches are not capable of capturing at the same time the different factors influenci...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The avalanche of mobility data like GPS and GSM daily produced by each user through mobile devices enables personalized mobility-services improving everyday life. The base for these mobility-services lies in the predictability of human behavior. In this paper we propose an approach for reproducing the user's personal mobility agenda that is able to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining a large number of datasets recording human activities for making sense of individual data is the key enabler of a new wave of personalized knowledge-based services. In this paper we focus on the problem of clustering individual transactional data for a large mass of users. Transactional data is a very pervasive kind of information that is co...
Article
Carpooling, i.e. the sharing of vehicles to reach common destinations, is often performed to reduce costs and pollution. Recent work on carpooling takes into account, besides mobility matches, also social aspects and, more generally, non-monetary incentives. In line with this, we present GRAAL, a data-driven methodology for GReen And sociAL carpool...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nowadays, a hot challenge for supermarket chains is to offer personalized services for their customers. Next basket prediction, i.e., supplying the customer a shopping list for the next purchase according to her current needs, is one of these services. Current approaches are not capable to capture at the same time the different factors influencing...
Book
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the First International Workshop on Personal Analytics and Privacy, PAP 2017, held in Skopje, Macedonia, in September 2017. The 14 papers presented together with 2 invited talks in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this book and handle topi...
Chapter
In this chapter we describe a proactive carpooling service that combines induction and optimization mechanisms to maximize the impact of carpooling within a community. The approach autonomously infers the mobility demand of the users through the analysis of their mobility traces (i.e. Data Mining of GPS trajectories) and builds the network of all p...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the growing availability of Internet services in the last decade, the interactions between people became more and more easy to establish. For example, we can have an intercontinental job interview, or we can send real-time multimedia content to any friend of us just owning a smartphone. All this kind of human activities generates digital foo...