Ricardo Torres

Ricardo Torres
Plymouth Marine Laboratory | PML · Marine Ecosystems Models & Predictions

BSc,MSc,PhD

About

90
Publications
18,985
Reads
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2,109
Citations
Introduction
Ricardo has over 20 years’ experience in mesoscale physical oceanography and has worked on shelf seas, upwelling regions and coastal and estuarine environments. Ricardo has successfully combined his extensive experience in field-based oceanography with his modelling skills and applies his unique approach to help understand how the complex marine environment supports and mediates marine ecosystem responses to both anthropogenic interventions and climate change.
Additional affiliations
July 2002 - present
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Position
  • Senior Scientists
July 2002 - May 2016
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Position
  • Senior Researcher
August 1998 - June 2002
University of Wales
Position
  • Research Assistant

Publications

Publications (90)
Preprint
Full-text available
The Western Channel Observatory (WCO) comprises a series of pelagic, benthic and atmospheric sampling sites within 40 km of Plymouth UK, which have been sampled by the Plymouth Institutes on a regular basis since 1903. This longevity of recording and the high frequency of observations provide a unique combination of data; for example temperature da...
Article
Full-text available
Microplastics are a prolific environmental contaminant. Curbing microplastic pollution requires an array of globally relevant interventions, including source-reduction and curative measures. A novel, nature-based solution to microplastics is proposed, in which mussels are deployed in aquatic ecosystems to act as microplastic biofilters, removing wa...
Article
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) intoxicate and asphyxiate marine life, causing devastating environmental and socio-economic impacts, costing at least $8bn/yr globally. Accumulation of phycotoxins from HAB phytoplankton in filter-feeding shellfish can poison human consumers, prompting harvesting closures at shellfish production sites. To quantify long-t...
Article
Harnessing natural solutions to mitigate climate change requires an understanding of carbon fixation, flux and sequestration across ocean habitats. Recent studies suggest that exported seaweed particulate organic carbon is stored within soft sediment systems. However, very little is known about how seaweed detritus disperses from coastlines, or whe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Harnessing natural solutions to mitigate climate change requires an understanding of carbon fixation, flux and sequestration across ocean habitats. Recent studies suggest that exported seaweed particulate organic carbon is stored within soft sediment systems. However, very little is known about how seaweed detritus disperses from coastlines, or whe...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic shelf seas receive greater quantities of river runoff than any other ocean region and are experiencing increased freshwater loads and associated terrestrial matter inputs since recent decades. Amplified terrestrial permafrost thaw and coastal erosion is exposing previously frozen organic matter, enhancing its mobilization and release to near...
Article
Digital twins (DT) are simulation models that so closely replicate reality in their behaviour that experts may believe model output to be real. Plankton offer worthy yet tractable biological targets for digital twinning, due to their relatively simply physiology and significant role in ecology from theoretical studies through to planetary scale bio...
Article
Full-text available
Surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements are used to compute the oceanic air–sea CO2 flux. The CO2 flux component from rivers and estuaries is uncertain due to the high spatial and seasonal heterogeneity of CO2 in coastal waters. Existing high-quality CO2 instrumentation predominantly utilises showerhead and percolating style equilibrators o...
Article
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) can have severe ecological, societal and economic impacts upon marine ecosystems, human health and the seafood industry. We evaluated changes in marine plankton communities with prevailing physico-chemical conditions throughout an exceptionally warm summer (2018), to elucidate key factors governing HABs and their impacts...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines how land use affects water quality and how this impacts the viability of shellfish mariculture (marine aquaculture) in the UK through a synthesis of the current literature, stakeholder workshops and targeted engagement of cross-sector organisations across a case study in South West England. We examine the importance of water qua...
Article
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Arctic warming is causing ancient perennially frozen ground (permafrost) to thaw, resulting in ground collapse, and reshaping of landscapes. This threatens Arctic peoples' infrastructure, cultural sites, and land-based natural resources. Terrestrial permafrost thaw and ongoing intensification of hydrological cycles also enhance the amount and alter...
Article
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) provides a mechanism by which CO2 can be removed from the atmosphere and stored in reservoirs. Regulations and stakeholder assurance require monitoring to show storage is robust. The marine environment is heterogeneous and dynamic, and baselines are extremely variable. Hence, distinguishing anomalous CO2 from natura...
Preprint
Full-text available
Surface ocean CO2 measurements are used to compute the oceanic air–sea CO2 flux. The CO2 flux component from rivers and estuaries is uncertain. Estuarine and coastal water carbon dioxide (CO2) observations are relatively few compared to observations in the open ocean. The contribution of these regions to the global air–sea CO2 flux remains uncertai...
Preprint
Full-text available
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) intoxicate and asphyxiate marine life, causing devastating environmental and socio-economic impacts costing at least $8bn/yr globally. Accumulation of phycotoxins from HAB phytoplankton in filter-feeding shellfish can poison human consumers, prompting site harvesting closures if concentrations in shellfish exceed safe le...
Article
Full-text available
This work evaluates the sensitivity of CO 2 air–sea gas exchange in a coastal site to four different model system configurations of the 1D coupled hydrodynamic–ecosystem model GOTM–ERSEM, towards identifying critical dynamics of relevance when specifically addressing quantification of air–sea CO 2 exchange. The European Sea Regional Ecosystem Model...
Article
Full-text available
Larval dispersal data are increasingly sought after in ecology and marine conservation, the latter often requiring information under time limited circumstances. Basic estimates of dispersal [based on average current speeds and planktonic larval duration (PLD)] are often used in these situations, usually acknowledging their oversimplified nature, bu...
Article
Temporal variations in the numbers of foraging seabirds usually coincide with concurrent variations in physical processes influencing prey availability. Responses to periodic tidal currents are commonly reported, with certain tidal states being favoured. By contrast, responses to intermittent meteorological events have rarely been reported, even th...
Article
Full-text available
The contemporary air‐sea flux of CO2 is investigated by the use of an air‐sea flux equation, with particular attention to the uncertainties in global values and their origin with respect to that equation. In particular, uncertainties deriving from the transfer velocity and from sparse upper ocean sampling are investigated. Eight formulations of air...
Article
Full-text available
The transport of dissolved organic matter (DOM) across the land-ocean-aquatic-continuum (LOAC), from freshwater to the ocean, is an important yet poorly understood component of the global carbon budget. Exploring and quantifying this flux is a significant challenge given the complexities of DOM cycling across these contrasting environments. We deve...
Article
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector globally and protein provisioning from aquaculture now exceeds that from wild capture fisheries. There is clear potential for the further expansion of marine aquaculture (mariculture), but there are associated risks. Some naturally occurring algae can proliferate under certain environmental conditions,...
Article
High-turbidity water is a common feature in the estuary and inner shelf. Sediment suspension functions as a modulator that directly influences the interactions among nutrients, phytoplankton and other related ecosystem variables. A physical-biological coupling model system was applied to examine the impact of sediment front on interactions among on...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we demonstrate the many strengths of scale analysis: we use it to evaluate the Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean model skill in representing sea surface temperature (SST) in the Southern Ocean by comparing three model resolutions: 1/12°, 1/4°, and 1°. We show that while 4–5 times resolution scale is sufficient for each model...
Preprint
Full-text available
Larval dispersal data are increasingly sought after in ecology and marine conservation, the latter often requiring information under time limited circumstances. Basic estimates of dispersal are often used in these situations acknowledging their oversimplified nature. Larval dispersal models (LDMs) are now becoming more popular and may be a tempting...
Poster
Full-text available
As part of the STRAMIX project, an observing system (OS) of currents and waves based on an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was installed in the Ría de Vigo. The OS collected bottom pressure, bottom temperature and velocity profiles with a 600 kHz RDI ADCP with Waves Array module. The instrument was connected to land (IIM pump station at th...
Data
Tidal harmonic analysis of ADCP currents from june 2013 to August 2014 in the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberia, Atlantic Ocean), STRAMIX project. Horizontal velocities were screened for errors greater than 20cm/s following Gilcoto et al., 2009. Afterwards, each of the 55 current-velocity vertical levels (75 cm bin size) were averaged every 5 minutes. Finally...
Data
Average directional wave spectrum from 28118 wave spectra obtained from ADCP currents between june 2013 and August 2014 in the Ría de Vigo (NW Iberia, Atlantic Ocean), STRAMIX project. Waves Monitor Software (RDI) was used to obtain the 28118 individual wave spectra. Criteria applied to compute parameters were: 20 minutes bursts with tilt and curre...
Article
The eastward-flowing Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) plays a central role in the global ocean overturning circulation and facilitates the exchange of water between the ocean surface and interior. Submesoscale eddies and fronts with scales between 1 and 10 km are regularly observed in the upper ocean and are associated with strong vertical circu...
Article
Full-text available
The eastward-flowing Antarctic circumpolar current (ACC) plays a central role in the global ocean overturning circulation and facilitates the exchange of water between the ocean surface and interior. Submesoscale eddies and fronts with scales between 1 and 10 km are regularly observed in the upper ocean and are associated with strong vertical circu...
Article
Full-text available
Observations made within a cold filament in the Mauritanian upwelling system demonstrate that intense submesoscale circulations at the peripheral edges of the filament are likely responsible for anomalously high levels of observed primary productivity by resupplying nutrients to the euphotic zone. Measurements made on the shelf within the recently...
Article
Full-text available
Observations made in the Scotia Sea during the May 2015 Surface Mixed Layer Evolution at Submesoscales (SMILES) research cruise captured submesoscale, O(1-10) km, variability along the periphery of a mesoscale O(10-100) km meander precisely as it separated from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and formed a cyclonic eddy ~120 km in diameter....
Article
Bays/estuaries forced by local wind show bi-directional exchange flow. When forced by remote wind, they exhibit uni-directional flow adjustment to coastal sealevel. ADCP observations over one year show the Ria de Vigo (Iberian Upwelling) responds to coastal wind events with bi-directional exchange flow. The duration of the upwelling and downwelling...
Article
The Ría de Vigo is a bay strongly influenced by upwelling-downwelling cycles along the adjacent coast of NW Iberia. Moored and ship-board observations during September 2006 showed that subduction, initially associated with an estuarine circulation, strengthened when a strong downwelling circulation, resulting from northward wind over the coastal oc...
Article
We are in an era of unprecedented data volumes generated from observations and model simulations. This is particularly true from satellite Earth Observations (EO) and global scale oceanographic models. This presents us with an opportunity to evaluate large scale oceanographic model outputs using EO data. Previous work on model skill evaluation has...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tidal and wind influences on the velocity field in the Ría de Vigo were assessed using atmospheric data from two meteorological stations located at Bouzas port and on an oceanic buoy off Silleiro Cape along with oceanic data from an ADCP moored in the Ría for a 72-day period. A two-layer circulation pattern was observed. Near-surface and near-botto...
Poster
Full-text available
Tidal and wind influences on the velocity field in the Ría de Vigo were assessed using atmospheric data from two meteorological stations located at Bouzas port and on an oceanic buoy off Silleiro Cape along with oceanic data from an ADCP moored in the Ría for a 72-day period. A two-layer circulation pattern was observed. Near-surface and near-botto...
Article
Full-text available
Tidal stream turbines could have several direct impacts upon pursuit-diving seabirds foraging within tidal stream environments (mean horizontal current speeds > 2 ms−1), including collisions and displacement. Understanding how foraging seabirds respond to temporally variable but predictable hydrodynamic conditions immediately around devices could i...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Meeting the world’s energy demand is a major challenge for society over the coming century. To identify the most sustainable energy pathways to meet this demand, analysis of energy systems on which policy is based must move beyond the current primary focus on carbon to include a broad range of ecosystem services on which human well-being d...
Article
Full-text available
Shelf seas comprise approximately 7% of the world's oceans and host enormous economic activity. Development of energy installations (e.g. Offshore Wind Farms (OWFs), tidal turbines) in response to increased demand for renewable energy requires a careful analysis of potential impacts. Recent remote sensing observations have identified kilometre-scal...
Article
Full-text available
The European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) is one of the most established ecosystem models for the lower trophic levels of the marine food web in the scientific literature. Since its original development in the early nineties it has evolved significantly from a coastal ecosystem model for the North Sea to a generic tool for ecosystem simula...
Article
Full-text available
1.The rapid increase in the number of tidal stream turbine arrays will create novel and unprecedented levels of anthropogenic activity within habitats characterized by horizontal current speeds exceeding 2 ms−1. However, the potential impacts on pursuit-diving seabirds exploiting these tidal stream environments remain largely unknown. Identifying s...
Conference Paper
The construction of anthropogenic structures within coastal regions, in particular those associated with marine renewable energy installations, will change these environments physically through the alteration of hydrodynamic regimes and the removal of energy. Top-predators (cetaceans and seabirds) exploiting coastal regions seem to depend upon hydr...
Conference Paper
Tidal and wave energy have the potential to generate 60-86 GW [1]. However, the nature of the tides means the timing of energy use in the UK is often out of phase with the tides (maximum tidal energy is sometimes available when the demand is at its lowest). The proposed sites for tidal energy development have been analysed using the M 2 tidal const...
Article
Full-text available
The ERSEM model is one of the most established ecosystem models for the lower trophic levels of the marine food-web in the scientific literature. Since its original development in the early nineties it has evolved significantly from a coastal ecosystem model for the North-Sea to a generic tool for ecosystem simulations from shelf seas to the 5 glob...
Article
The degree to which advection modulates the distribution of plankton populations at a 1-D coastal observatory was assessed at station L4 in the western English Channel (50° 15′ N 4° 13′ W, depth 50 m), part of the Western Channel Observatory (WCO). Five tidal-cycle surveys were conducted, three in spring and two in summer 2010. Observations of the...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we evaluate whether the assimilation of remotely-sensed optical data into a marine ecosystem model improves the simulation of biogeochemistry in a shelf sea. A localized Ensemble Kalman filter was used to assimilate weekly diffuse light attenuation coefficient data, Kd(443) from SeaWiFs, into an ecosystem model of the western English...
Article
Full-text available
Concentrations and flux densities of methane were determined during a lagrangian study of an advective filament in the permanent upwelling region off western Mauritania. Newly upwelled waters were dominated by the presence of North Atlantic Central Water and surface CH4 concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.3 nmol L−1 were largely in equilibrium with atmospher...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Biogeochemical processes in shelf seas and coastal areas can determine the health and productivity of local systems and are important terms of the global carbon budget. The quantitative characterization of the spatial-temporal evolution of biogeochemical variables in shelf-seas is thus relevant in the framework of marine system management and clima...
Article
We carried out 16 photochemical experiments of filtered surface water in a custom-built solar simulator and concomitant measurements of in vitro gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R) in the Mauritanian upwelling during a Lagrangian study following three sulfur hexafluoride–labeled patches of upwelled water (P1 to P3). Oxygen photolysis...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The estuarine systems in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) delta have been classified into three different sub systems such as Eastern estuary system (EES), Central estuary system (CES) and Western estuary system (WES) on the basis of their connectivity with the upstream rivers. The EES are dominated by the Lower Meghna systems, WES are dominated...
Article
Full-text available
We used a numerical model to investigate if and to what extent cellular photoprotective capacity accounts for succession and vertical distribution of marine phytoplankton species/groups. A model describing xanthophyll photoprotective activity in phytoplankton has been implemented in the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model and applied at the stati...
Chapter
Full-text available
FLOWBEC is a three year NERC & DEFRA funded project that aims to identify the physical conditions influencing the behaviour of fish, their predators, and benthic communities using developments in high resolution physical modelling and state of the art observation systems. The development of an understanding of these linkages and the potential chang...
Article
Full-text available
A key factor in understanding both the environmental impact of a leak from a CCS system and how to design appropriate monitoring tools is an understanding of the dispersal of a CO2 plume in seawater. The natural, tidally driven dynamics of regions such as the CCS targeted North Sea make this highly non-trivial. In the work described here we have ad...
Article
[1] Dissolved iron (dFe) distributions and atmospheric and vertical subduction fluxes of dFe were determined in the upper water column for two meridional transects of the Atlantic Ocean. The data demonstrate the disparity between the iron biogeochemistry of the North and South Atlantic Ocean and show well-defined gradients of size fractionated iron...
Article
Concentrations of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and its precursor dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) are highly variable in time and space. What is driving the variability in DMS(P), and can those variability be explained by physical processes and changes in the biological community? During the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange Experiment (SO GasEx) in the austra...
Article
Full-text available
The Mauritanian upwelling system is one of the most biologically productive regions of the world’s oceans. Coastal upwelling transfers nutrients to the sun-lit surface ocean, thereby stimulating phytoplankton growth. Upwelling of deep waters also supplies dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), high levels of which lead to low calcium carbonate saturatio...
Article
Full-text available
The hydrographical and dynamical properties of the upwelling filaments forming off Cap Blanc (Mauritania) are investigated using remotely sensed and in situ data collected in April/May 2009 during the strongest upwelling season. The area is situated at the southern edge of the NW African upwelling system, where the Cape Verde Frontal Zone (CVFZ) se...
Article
Full-text available
A numerical model describing xanthophyll dynamics in phytoplankton has been developed and used to investigate cellular photoprotective response. The model assumes that, under the transition from limiting to supra-saturating light, the xanthophyll cycling pigments (PX) synthesis implies first (on a time scale of tens of minutes) a stoichiometric con...
Chapter
This chapter covers a range of hydrodynamic modeling techniques with applications to estuarine and coastal waters. It begins with a discussion of the fundamental three-dimensional (3D) equations that are used to describe water movements in coastal waters and in estuaries. The conditions required for closing the Navier–Stokes system of equations are...