Ricardo Nitrini

Ricardo Nitrini

About

673
Publications
114,763
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
12,386
Citations

Publications

Publications (673)
Article
Full-text available
Preliminary methodologically limited studies suggested that taste and smell known as chemosensory impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms are associated in post-COVID-19. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether chemosensory dysfunction and neuropsychiatric impairments in a well-characterized post-COVID-19 sample. This is a cohort study...
Article
Objective: To establish a microcephaly cut-off size in adults using head circumference as an indirect measure of brain size, as well as to explore factors associated with microcephaly via data mining. Methods: In autopsy studies, head circumference was measured with an inelastic tape placed around the skull. Total brain volume was also directly...
Article
Background Despite the multitude of clinical manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), studies applying statistical methods to directly investigate patterns of symptom co-occurrence and their biological correlates are scarce. Methods We assessed 30 symptoms pertaining to different organ systems in 749 adults (age = 55 ±...
Article
Associations between age-related neuropathological lesions and adult-onset lifetime major depressive disorder (a-MDD), late-life MDD (LLD), or depressive symptoms close to death (DS) were examined in a large community sample of non-demented older adults. 741 individuals (age at death=72.2±11.7 years) from the Biobank for Aging Studies were analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is defined as a self-perception of a progressive cognitive impairment, which is not detected objectively through neuropsychological tests. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study developed the Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) to evaluate individuals with SCD. The CFI consists of two versions, namely, a self-r...
Preprint
Dementia is more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites, likely due to a combination of environmental and biological factors. Paradoxically, clinical studies suggest an attenuation of APOE ϵ4 risk of dementia in African ancestry (AFR), but lack of neuropathological data preclude the interpretation of the biological factors underlying these findings, in...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, much attention has been drawn to the importance of the impact of infectious disease on human cognition. Several theories have been proposed, to explain the cognitive decline following an infection as well as to understand better the pathogenesis of human dementia, especially Alzheimer’s disease. This article aims to review the state of th...
Article
Objective: This study aimed to compare causes of death in the most prevalent neuropathologically diagnosed dementias. Methods: We analyzed causes of death in a community-based cohort of participants aged 50 or older, submitted to full-body autopsy and a comprehensive neuropathologic examination of the brain. Individuals with Alzheimer disease (A...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The present study aims to investigate the occurrence of psychiatric and cognitive impairments in a cohort of survivors of moderate or severe forms of COVID-19. Method 425 adults were assessed 6 to 9 months after hospital discharge with a structured psychiatric interview, psychometric tests and a cognitive battery. A large, multidisciplin...
Article
Introduction: Education, and less frequently occupation, has been associated with lower dementia risk in studies from high-income countries. We aimed to investigate the association of cognitive impairment with education and occupation in a low-middle-income country sample. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cognitive function was assessed b...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted older adult's health and well-being worldwide. We explored the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on daily activities and mental health and its relationship with cognitive performance in older adults. Methods One-hundred individuals 60 years and older, without cognitive impairment and enrolled in the Braz...
Article
Full-text available
The increase in senescent cells in tissues, including the brain, is a general feature of normal aging and age-related pathologies. Senescent cells exhibit a specific phenotype, which includes an altered nuclear morphology and transcriptomic changes. Astrocytes undergo senescence in vitro and in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, but little...
Article
The increase in life expectancy implies the emergence of chronic‐degenerative and disabling conditions, such as cognitive impairment and dementia. Among the frequent disorders in clinical practice, the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) may be challenging, which justifies t...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR) is one of the most used assessment scales in the care of dementia but it still lacks a detailed analysis of construct validity. We aimed to analyze evidences of construct validity of the CDR to assess the level of cognitive decline by informants. We analyzed 650 records of elderly subjects belonging to the Brazi...
Article
Objective Teleneuropsychology (teleNP) could potentially expand access to services for patients who are confined, have limited personal access to healthcare, or live in remote areas. The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the use of teleNP for cognitive assessments. The main objective of these recommendations is to ident...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are highly prevalent and may complicate clinical managements. Objective: To test whether the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI) could detect change in neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver's distress in patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dem...
Article
Introduction Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are frequent causes of dementia and, therefore, instruments for differential diagnosis between these two conditions are of great relevance. Objective To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) for differen...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives To investigate the natural history and outcomes following treatment for spontaneous amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-like in cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation (CAA-ri). Methods A multicenter, hospital-based, longitudinal, prospective observational study of inpatients meeting CAA-ri diagnostic cr...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The historical development, frequency, and impact of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are less clear in Latin America than in high-income countries. Although there is a growing number of dementia studies in Latin America, little is known collectively about FTD prevalence studies by country, clinical heterogeneity, risk factors, and genet...
Article
Objective To describe the postmortem neuropathological findings of a patient with Kufor Rakeb Syndrome (KRS) due to ATP13A2 mutation. KRS is characterized by juvenile-onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism associated with pyramidal signs, supranuclear gaze palsy, and cognitive impairment. Methods Detailed neuropathological analysis of the brain....
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is a progressive neurological disorder related to multiple underlying pathologies, including four-repeat tauopathies, such as corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Speech and language are commonly impaired, encompassing a broad spectrum of deficits. We a...
Article
Background and purpose: Youthful memory performance in older adults may reflect an underlying resilience to the conventional pathways of aging. Subjects having this unusual characteristic have been recently termed "superagers." This study aimed to explore the significance of imaging biomarkers acquired by 1H-MRS to characterize superagers and to d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: In the last 10 months, due to the Covid-19 pandemic, several studies have shown that health education and virtual support strategies for caregivers of patients with dementia, in the management of home care, can be viable. Low and middle income countries, in particular, have sought to use these means to reduce the daily burden of caregiv...
Article
Introduction: Few dementia incidence studies have been performed in Latin America. We aimed to provide the incidence of dementia in a Brazilian community-dwelling elderly population. Methods: This study was conducted in urban and rural areas of Tremembé. The 520 participants without dementia at baseline were invited to participate in the follow-...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction COVID-19 may lead to persistent and potentially incapacitating clinical manifestations (post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC)). Using easy-to-apply questionnaires and scales (often by telephone interviewing), several studies evaluated samples of COVID-19 inpatients from 4 weeks to several months after discharge. However, s...
Article
Objective Spatial disorientation is common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and preclinical individuals with AD biomarkers. However, traditional neuropsychological tests lack ecological validity for the assessment of spatial orientation and to date, there is still no gold standard. The current study aimed to determine t...
Article
The short-term memory binding (STMB) test involves the ability to hold in memory the integration between surface features, such as shapes and colours. The STMB test has been used to detect Alzheimer's disease (AD) at different stages, from preclinical to dementia, showing promising results. The objective of the present study was to verify whether t...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Superagers are older adults presenting excellent memory performance that may reflect resilience to the conventional pathways of aging. Our contribution aims to shape the evidence body of the known distinctive biomarkers of superagers and their connections with the Brain and Cognitive Reserve and Brain Maintenance concepts. Methods: We p...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Body mass index (BMI) in midlife is associated with dementia. However, the association between BMI and late-life obesity is controversial. Few studies have investigated the association between BMI and cognitive performance near the time of death using data from autopsy examination. We aimed to investigate the association between BMI and...
Preprint
Full-text available
The increase in senescent cells in tissues, including the brain, is a general feature of normal aging and age-related pathologies. Senescent cells exhibit a specific phenotype, which includes an altered nuclear morphology and transcriptomic changes. Astrocytes undergo senescence in vitro and in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases, but little...
Article
Full-text available
Diagnosis of cognitive impairment is usually difficult in low-educated individuals. The Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB) was designed as a screening tool for the evaluation of cognitive impairment in low-educated individuals, but it may also be used for evaluating individuals with high educational level. Objectives: To perform a narrative...
Article
Full-text available
Judgment is the ability to make sound decisions after consideration of relevant information, possible solutions, likely outcomes, and contextual factors. Loss of judgment is common in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The Test of Practical Judgment (TOP-J) evaluates practical judgment in adults and the elderly, with 15- an...
Article
Full-text available
Dementia is becoming increasingly prevalent in Latin America, contrasting with stable or declining rates in North America and Europe. This scenario places unprecedented clinical, social, and economic burden upon patients, families, and health systems. The challenges prove particularly pressing for conditions with highly specific diagnostic and mana...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We aimed to evaluate, by immunohistochemistry, astrocytes, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and structural proteins expression (neurofilaments and microtubules — MAP2) changes in postmortem brain samples of individuals with Lewy body pathology. Methods: Braak PD stage≥III samples, classified by neuropathology analysis, from The Biobank for Agi...
Article
Full-text available
Across Latin American and Caribbean countries (LACs), the fight against dementia faces pressing challenges, such as heterogeneity, diversity, political instability, and socioeconomic disparities. These can be addressed more effectively in a collaborative setting that fosters open exchange of knowledge. In this work, the Latin American and Caribbean...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The increasing evidence of SARS‐CoV‐2 impact on the central nervous system (CNS) raises key questions on its impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementia. Methods The Alzheimer's Association and representatives from more than 30 countries—with technical guidance from the World Health...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To describe the clinical, neurological, neuroimaging, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with encephalopathy in patients admitted to a COVID-19 tertiary reference center.Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of consecutive patients with COVID-19 evaluated by a consulting neurology team from March 30, 2020 through May...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The increasing evidence of SARS-CoV-2 impact on the central nervous system (CNS) raises key questions on its impact for risk of later life cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other dementia. Methods: The Alzheimer's Association and representatives from more than 30 countries-with technical guidance from the World Healt...
Conference Paper
Background: The Brazilian Surveillance for Prion Disease began in 2005 with compulsory notification of suspected cases. Objective: To determine the diagnosis of reported patients to the Brazilian Surveillance for Prion Disease and evaluate the clinical and genetic data. Methods: Data from the notification sheet were collected and patients were clas...
Conference Paper
Background: Age is the most important risk factor for development of dementia and the recommendation is that the elderly be cognitively tested in order to detect impairment in the initial phase for adequate treatment. The demand for the care of these elderly people is great, drawing attention to the need for rapid tests, with good accuracy and simp...
Conference Paper
Background: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS) is neurodegenerative disorder related to multiple underlying pathologies. Objective: To investigated if dividual FDG-PET patterns could distinguish CBS due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) from other pathologies based on [11C]Pittsburgh Compound-B (PIB)-PET. Methods: Forty-five patients with probable CBS were pros...
Conference Paper
Background: Some older adults with subjective decline (SCD) had a positive amyloid biomarker indicating a preclinical stage of Alzheimer’s disease. Objectives: To assess the accuracy of Delayed Recall of Figure Memory Test (DR-FMT) of Brief Cognitive Screening Battery to predict amyloid status in SCD older adults. Objective: To assess the accuracy...
Conference Paper
Background: The differential diagnosis between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is challenging, justifying improvement of cognitive tools for use in clinical practice. Objective: To develop a new logarithm based on discriminative items of the ACE-R. Methods: The ACE-R was administered to 102 patients w...
Conference Paper
Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with cognitive alterations, usually related to memory, but can affect other domains such as executive functions (EFs), which are less explored in the literature. It is an intermediate condition between healthy aging and dementia and does not significantly affect an individual’s activities of...
Conference Paper
Background: According to the recent NIA-AA, a probable predictor of Alzheimer’s disease convertor in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the Aβ protein deposit in PET PIB exam. However, there is a lack of studies investigating functional connectivity in PIB +/- MCI patients. Objectives: to investigate differences in functional connectivity during re...
Conference Paper
Background: MCI can be classified as amnestic (aMCI) or non-amnestic (naMCI). Patients with aMCI are at increased risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The clinical diagnosis encompasses episodic memory decline with preservation of activities of daily living, in addition to possible changes in other cognitive domains. Nevertheless, there is...
Conference Paper
Background: In the last 10 months, amid the Covid-19 pandemic, several studies have demonstrated the viability of health education and virtual support strategies for caregivers of dementia patients to provide home care. Low and middle-income countries in particular, have sought to use these approaches to reduce the daily burden of caregivers, throu...
Conference Paper
Background: There’s a growing body of research evaluating chronic stress as potentially preventable risk factor for dementia. Objective: To investigate whether chronic stress or cortisol measures are associated with cognitive status and dementia biomarkers. Methods: Transversal analysis to evaluate the relation between cortisol levels, amyloid path...
Conference Paper
Background: Some psychological and personality characteristics of individuals, seem to determine behavioral patterns that are associated with better health throughout life and, consequently, prevent the progression of early cognitive changes to dementia. Objective: Identify factors that interfere in the evolution of cognitive disorders. Methods: Vo...
Conference Paper
Background: We observe Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) when patients perceive a decline in their cognitive functions, but this decline is not detected in neuropsychological assessments. Few studies have investigated the prevalence of SCD in the Brazilian population. Objective: Analyze the profile of 50+ years Brazilian people regarding SCD throu...
Conference Paper
Background: Visual atrophy scales from the medial temporal region are auxiliary biomarker methods in Alzheimer’s Disease(AD).They may correlated with progression from preclinical to clinical AD. Objective: We aimed to compare medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and entorhinal cortex atrophy (ERICA) scales for magnetic resonance image as a useful too...
Conference Paper
Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are highly prevalent and may complicate clinical managements. Objective: We tested whether the Neuropsychiatry Inventory (NPI) could detect change in neuropsychiatric symptoms and caregiver´s distress in patients diagnosed with behavioral variant frontotemporal dem...
Conference Paper
Background: Social distancing measures related to COVID-19 pandemic have challenged older adults’ social connectedness and mental health. Loneliness and social isolation have been reported, but their impact on cognition is unclear. Objective: To explore changes on daily activity, mental health and its relationship with cognitive performance in olde...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: People with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia have impaired sleep. However, the characteristics of sleep in the early stages of AD are not well known, and studies with the aid of biomarkers are lacking. We assessed the subjective sleep characteristics of non-demented older adults and compared their amyloid profiles. Methods: We enrolled...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Reduced cognitive reserve (CR) due to very low educational (VLE) levels may influence high dementia rates in low-middle income environments, leading to decreased cognitive resilience (RES) to Alzheimer´s disease (AD) pathology. However, in vivo findings in VLE groups confirming this prediction are lacking. Methods: Cognitively impa...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are still incompletely understood. Neurological manifestations may be due to direct viral effect on neurons and glial cells, to an immune-mediated response to the virus, or to a hypercoagulable state and associated endothelial damage, as well as to severe systemic disease with prolonged intensive...
Article
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with cognitive alterations, usually related to memory, but may affect other domains. It is an intermediate condition between healthy aging and dementia and does not significantly affect an individual's activities of daily living (ADL) (Petersen,2016). This study aimed to investigate the cognitive perfor...
Article
The Brazilian Aging and Memory Study (BRAMS) is a single center, population‐based initiative to address memory and cognitive impairment in Brazil. Volunteer controls and subjects with either subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are being followed up under a strict protocol that involves cognitive, general health, bi...
Article
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a tauopathy associated with repeated brain injuries. The presence of co‐pathologies is not uncommon in individuals with CTE. Here, we described clinical and neuropathological findings of amateur soccer with a history of progressive parkinsonism and dementia. 63‐years old male with no family history of neuro...
Article
The cerebellum has not been extensively studied in the setting of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As the disease progresses, the cerebellum is one of the last brain regions to accumulate β‐amyloid (βA) deposits usually as diffuse plaques. However, distinct morphologies are described in the cerebellum in early‐onset Alzheimer’s disease (EOAD). To investig...
Article
Clinical symptoms in early‐onset dementia occurs before than 65 years of age and represents around 10% of the dementia cases. The evidence of tau lesions in young individuals from nonselected autopsy studies supports that AD‐type pathology can start much earlier than previously thought. However, the majority of studies in dementia are focused in ca...
Article
Visual atrophy scales are useful as auxiliary methods in Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Atrophy of temporal medial region is an established risk factor for conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD dementia. Our aims were to compare two visual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scales and establish accuracy of these scales in classif...
Article
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive tauopathy mostly described in military personnel, boxers and American football players. Soccer / European football players are also exposed to long‐term repetitive mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI), which can lead to CTE. We hypothesized that retired soccer players may present with brain da...
Article
Dementia detection in indigenous populations, represents a challenge worldwide, due to the absence of culturally adapted cognitive tests. The Kimberley Indigenous Cognitive Assessment (KICA) was developed and validated to evaluate global cognitive performance in Aboriginal Australians. We aimed to determine reliability and validity of the KICA, and...
Article
The recent development of IQ‐CSF, the second generation of Real Time Quaking‐Induced Conversion (RT‐QuIC) using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), for the diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease (CJD) represents a major diagnostic advance in the field. High accuracy results have been reported with encouraging reproducibility among different centers. The aim...
Article
Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) is a neurodegenerative disease which phenotype is related to multiple pathologies, including 4‐repeat tauopathies ‐ Corticobasal Degeneration (CBD) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) ‐ and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Previous works with post‐mortem analysis established [18F]FDG‐PET patterns closely related to CBD, PS...