Ricardo Fernandes

Ricardo Fernandes
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History · Archaeology

PhD

About

67
Publications
25,185
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1,642
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Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
Stable isotope analysis of teeth and bones is regularly applied by archeologists and paleoanthropologists seeking to reconstruct diets, ecologies, and environments of past hominin populations. Moving beyond the now prevalent study of stable isotope ratios from bulk materials, researchers are increasingly turning to stable isotope ratios of individu...
Preprint
The origins and dispersal of the chicken across the ancient world remains one of the most enigmatic questions regarding Eurasian domesticated animals1,2. The lack of agreement regarding the timing and center of origin is due, in large part, to issues with morphological identifications, a lack of direct dating, and poor preservation of thin bird bon...
Article
The period from c. AD 900 to AD 1300 in southern Africa is characterized by transitions from small-scale Iron Age mixed economy communities to the beginnings of more intensive food production and eventually the emergence of complex polities. In Zambia, this coincides with the appearance of larger and more permanent agro-pastoralist villages that be...
Article
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During the Early Bronze Age, populations of the western Eurasian steppe expanded across an immense area of northern Eurasia. Combined archaeological and genetic evidence supports widespread Early Bronze Age population movements out of the Pontic–Caspian steppe that resulted in gene flow across vast distances, linking populations of Yamnaya pastoral...
Article
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The remains of those who perished at Herculaneum in 79 CE offer a unique opportunity to examine lifeways across an ancient community who lived and died together. Historical sources often allude to differential access to foodstuffs across Roman society but provide no direct or quantitative information. By determining the stable isotope values of ami...
Article
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The introduction of farming had far-reaching impacts on health, social structure and demography. Although the spread of domesticated plants and animals has been extensively tracked, it is unclear how these nascent economies developed within different environmental and cultural settings. Using molecular and isotopic analysis of lipids from pottery,...
Article
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Populations in Mongolia from the late second millennium B.C.E. through the Mongol Empire are traditionally assumed, by archaeologists and historians, to have maintained a highly specialized horse-facilitated form of mobile pastoralism. Until recently, a dearth of direct evidence for prehistoric human diet and subsistence economies in Mongolia has r...
Article
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Environmentally transformative human use of land accelerated with the emergence of agriculture, but the extent, trajectory, and implications of these early changes are not well understood. An empirical global assessment of land use from 10,000 years before the present (yr B.P.) to 1850 CE reveals a planet largely transformed by hunter-gatherers, fa...
Article
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The practice of agriculture across the Mediterranean basin has had significant social and economic consequences, including the development of social inequalities. To inform on plant water status and thus on agricultural management techniques and environmental conditions during the first half of the second millennium BCE, we measured stable carbon i...
Article
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The analysis of lipids (fats, oils and waxes) absorbed within archaeological pottery has revolutionized the study of past diets and culinary practices. However, this technique can lack taxonomic and tissue specificity and is often unable to disentangle signatures resulting from the mixing of different food products. Here, we extract ancient protein...
Conference Paper
The ancient Greek world emerged during the Bronze Age and was part of a network of cultures intertwined within the Mediterranean region. Its development was determined by multiple causes but heavily influenced by close interactions with the peoples and cultures of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Ancient Greek political and social dynamics have been prim...
Conference Paper
The number of published δ15N and δ13C stable isotope determinations on archaeological human skeletal material has now reached numbers that allow for statistical analyses. Our study draws on data collected for a recent publication (Scheibner 2016) and additional entries, amounting to more than 2500 individuals of at least infans II age to ensure a p...
Article
Stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of human and animal tooth enamel carbonate has been applied in paleodietary, paleoecological, and paleoenvironmental research from recent historical periods back to over 10 million years ago. Bulk approaches provide a representative sample for the period of enamel mineralization, while sequential samples wi...
Article
This paper describes IsoArcH, a new web-based database of isotopic data for bioarchaeological samples from the Graeco-Roman world and its margins. IsoArcH was designed as a cooperative platform for the dissemination of isotopic data and associated archaeological information. IsoArcH follows the open access model and is freely accessible online (htt...
Conference Paper
IsoArcH is a new open-access and cooperative web-based repository for isotopic data and associated archaeological information of bioarchaeological samples from the Graeco-Roman world and its fringes (http://www.isoarch.eu). Created for paleodietary, paleomobility and paleoenvironmental reconstruction research purposes, IsoArcH gathers up 17,000 pub...
Conference Paper
Isotopic proxies (e.g. δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ34S, 87Sr/86Sr, 14C) are increasingly applied in Roman archaeology to provide additional valuable information on a wide range of past human activities. Examples include, among others, the reconstruction of past human subsistence or mobility and animal or crop management practices. As isotopic data for the R...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Les isotopes stables sont aujourd’hui des outils d’investigation couramment employés pour appréhender les régimes alimentaires, les schémas de mobilité, les activités agricoles, les pratiques d’élevage, et les changements environnementaux durant l’Antiquité. Face à l’augmentation exponentielle des études abordant ces thématiques et des données isot...
Article
Full-text available
Stable isotope analysis has been utilized in archaeology since the 1970s, yet standardized protocols for terminology, sampling, pretreatment evaluation, calibration, quality assurance and control, data presentation, and graphical or statistical treatment still remain lacking in archaeological applications. Here, we present recommendations and requi...
Article
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La necrópolis del oppidum de Monte Bernorio fue uno de los primeros cementerios de la Edad del Hierro excavados en España. No obstante, la atención a los excepcionales materiales metálicos descubiertos en ella, unido a la escasez de restos relacionados con los rituales, ha impedido conocer hasta este momento qué tipo de ceremonias funerarias se des...
Article
Carbon isotope measurements of individual fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) recovered from archaeological pottery vessels are widely used in archaeology to investigate past culinary and economic practices. Typically, such isotope measurements are matched with reference to food sources for straightforward source identification, or simple linear models a...
Article
Full-text available
RATIONALE: Isotopic analysis of archaeological charred plant remains offers useful archaeological information. However, adequate sample pre-treatment protocols may be necessary to provide a contamination-free isotopic signal while limiting sample loss and achieving a high throughput. Under these constraints research was undertaken to compare the pe...
Article
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Carbon is one of the most abundant elements in the biosphere, and a key element for understanding how consumer and resource relationships affect ecosystem functioning. To trace carbon sources, ecologists predominantly rely on stable carbon ratios but variable 13C baselines and diet-to-consumer offsets can lead to ambiguous results. To improve sourc...
Article
AMS-radiocarbon measurements of amino acids can potentially provide more reliable radiocarbon dates than bulk collagen analysis. Nonetheless, the applicability of such an approach is often limited by the low-throughput of existing isolation methods and difficulties in determining the contamination introduced during the separation process. A novel t...
Article
A multidisciplinary research project was undertaken to investigate the subsistence strategies adopted by populations living in the vicinity of Lake Shagara in the forest zone of Eastern Europe during the Eneolithic period and the Bronze Age. The analyses focused on the graves from the Shagara cemetery located near Lake Shagara.
Article
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Se presentan los análisis del contexto funerario del sitio El Gaucho, a partir de un enfoque interdisciplinario. Este sitio se ubica cronológicamente en el período Arcaico VI (3500 -1500 cal a.p.) en la costa de Taltal- Paposo (Salazar et al. 2015). La particularidad del hallazgo reside en que fue descubierto y levantado por aficionados, resguardad...
Article
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From material culture evidence dating as early as 7500 cal BC, it has been established that populations from the interfluvic coast in northern Chile adapted to a maritime economic livelihood. During the 2nd millennium BC, local populations began to experience major social changes arising mainly from an increase in contacts with agropastoral populat...
Article
The island cemetery site of Ostorf (Germany) consists of individual human graves containing Funnel Beaker ceramics dating to the Early or Middle Neolithic. However, previous isotope and radiocarbon analysis demonstrated that the Ostorf individuals had a diet rich in freshwater fish. The present study was undertaken to quantitatively reconstruct the...
Article
Quantitative individual human diet reconstruction using isotopic data and a Bayesian approach typically requires the inclusion of several model parameters, such as individual isotopic data, isotopic and macronutrient composition of food groups, diet-to-tissue isotopic offsets and dietary routing. In an archaeological context, sparse data may hamper...
Article
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Preface—Radiocarbon and Diet: Aquatic Food Resources and Reservoir Effects - Volume 57 Issue 4 - Ricardo Fernandes, John Meadows, Alexander Dreves
Article
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Aquatic landscapes such as rivers, lakes, and seas played an important role in past human behaviour, affecting modes of subsistence, patterns of mobility, access to material resources, and technological choices and their developments. The interaction with aquatic landscapes was also influential in the establishment of economic and social structures...
Article
Stable isotope analysis represents the principal scientific technique used in the reconstruction of ancient human diet. Characterisation of human diet requires that the isotopic baseline is established, i.e. the isotopic signals of consumed food groups. However, cooking may alter the bulk isotopic signal of food groups through the selective loss of...
Article
Full-text available
Radiocarbon reservoir effects (RREs) are observed when the 14 C concentration of aquatic reservoirs is lower than the contemporary atmosphere. Within these reservoirs, aquatic species will also have a 14 C depleted signal, and humans feeding on these species will show a dietary RRE. Human dietary RREs are often viewed as a problem for the establish...
Article
Understanding the origins of gut microbial community structure is critical for the identification and interpretation of potential fitness-related traits for the host. The presence of community clusters characterized by differences in the abundance of signature taxa, referred to as enterotypes, is a debated concept first reported in humans and later...
Article
Full-text available
Human and animal diet reconstruction studies that rely on tissue chemical signatures aim at providing estimates on the relative intake of potential food groups. However, several sources of uncertainty need to be considered when handling data. Bayesian mixing models provide a natural platform to handle diverse sources of uncertainty while allowing t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ancient bone bioapatite is a potential source of diverse and significant elemental and isotopic data that could be used to provide information on ancient chronologies, paleoenvironments, and paleodiets. However, buried bone bioapatite often undergoes diagenesis and foreign contaminants alter the original biogenic signal. Though different meth...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the origins of gut microbial community structure is critical for the identification and interpretation of potential fitness-related traits for the host. The presence of community clusters characterized by differences in the abundance of signature taxa, referred to as enterotypes, is a debated concept first reported in humans and later...
Article
Full-text available
The study of archaeological artefacts using deployed in situ analytical instruments presents some obvious advantages. Including, obtaining an immediate feedback that can be used to redefine in real-time fieldwork strategies. Ideally analytical field instruments should also have characteristics that limit damage to the studied artefact.Here, we pres...
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates the correlation between monthly average temperatures and tithe leasing dates in the Low Countries between 1600 and 1810. The information was obtained from manorial tithe leasing records distributed across the Netherlands and Belgium. Similar research in France and in Switzerland relied on annual dates of grape harvest as a t...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, several case studies have demonstrated the presence of human radiocarbon dietary reservoir effects in inland contexts. Freshwater reservoir effects present a high degree of variability, making it difficult to define local reservoir effect reference values necessary for correcting chronologies based on 14C dating of human bone material. He...
Chapter
Full-text available
The current study considers a mixed environmental/historical statistical model to establish a probabil-ity map for settlement locations in Crete's Malia-Lasithi region during the Minoan Protopalatial period. The work represents the continuation of previous research that focused on site location choices during the Protopalatial and whereby a compari...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon stable isotope ratios (δ 13 C), measured in human bone collagen (δ 13 C collagen) and bioapatite (δ 13 C bioapatite), are commonly used indicators in ancient human diet reconstruc-tion. The underlying assumption is that human tissues broadly reflect the δ 13 C signal of dietary food sources (δ 13 C diet) plus an isotopic offset. However, int...
Article
a b s t r a c t Radiocarbon dating of bone mineral (carbonate in the apatite lattice) has been the target of sporadic research for the last 40 years. Results obtained by different decontamination protocols have, however, failed to provide a consistent agreement with reference ages. In particular, quality criteria to assess bone mineral radiocarbon...
Article
Full-text available
Local reservoir ages are often estimated from the difference between the radiocarbon ages of aquatic material and associated terrestrial samples for which no reservoir effect is expected. Frequently, the selected aquatic material consists of bivalve shells that are typically well preserved in the archaeological record. For instance, large shell mid...
Chapter
Full-text available
The aim of this research was to revisit the existing chronology on Funnel Beaker monumental collecti-ve graves in Northern Germany. Human bone and tooth material was collected within the scope of an ancient DNA (aDNA) research project from three Northern German Funnel Beaker collective burial sites -Odagsen, Großenrode, and Calden. This ma-terial w...
Article
Archaeological bone undergoes alterations after burial (diagenesis) that constitute a problem for the survival of archaeological information. A common method to assess this alteration is Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). However, the commonly applied method (FTIR–KBr) is destructive and sample preparation may influence the results. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, several case studies have demonstrated the presence of human radiocarbon dietary reservoir effects in inland contexts. Freshwater reservoir effects present a high degree of variability, making it difficult to define local reservoir effect reference values necessary for correcting chronologies based on ¹⁴ C dating of human bone material. H...

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Projects (6)
Project
On the borders of Syracuse: Multidisciplinary studies on the ancient town of Akrai/Acrae, Sicily