Ricardo M. Czekster

Ricardo M. Czekster
Aston University · School of Informatics and Digital Engineering

Computer Science PhD
Researching dependability plus cyber-security in critical infrastructure.

About

87
Publications
22,385
Reads
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278
Citations
Citations since 2016
53 Research Items
166 Citations
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Introduction
Ricardo M. Czekster works in the intersection of performance evaluation, simulation, and system modeling. Ricardo has received distinguished honors and awards for his researches throughout the years. Under the doctorate, he was awarded two visiting research invitations: one at Grenoble/France, on LIG (with Dr Bruno Gaujal and Dr Florence Perronnin) and another on LFCS at Edinburgh/Scotland (working with Dr Jane Hillston and Dr Stephen Gilmore). He was a visiting researcher in Siemens Corporate Research (Princeton/USA) where he conducted modelling and simulation with practical research results with Dr Alberto Avritzer and Dr Kishor Trivedi. For the past years, Dr Czekster has directed his attention towards high-level modelling and evaluation of systems.
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - January 2022
Newcastle University
Position
  • Research Associate
Description
  • Working on Modelling & Simulation of security incidents in Smart Infrastructures.
March 2011 - January 2014
Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Lecturer on Programming, Operating Systems, Performance Evaluation.
July 2010 - December 2010
Siemens Corporate Research, Princeton, United States
Position
  • Researcher
Education
July 2010 - December 2010
Siemens Corporate Research
Field of study
  • Performance Testing
March 2006 - March 2010
March 2004 - January 2006

Publications

Publications (87)
Data
The file shows all the matches of the National Brazilian Football Championship ("Brasileirão"), from 2003 to 2022 (20 years worth of data). Mind that beginning in 2006 the model followed 20 teams altogether, before that, a different number of teams participated the event: in 2003 (24 teams & 46 matches), in 2004 (24 teams & 46 matches), in 2005 (22...
Article
Full-text available
Active buildings can be briefly described as smart buildings with distributed and renewable energy resources able to energise other premises in their neighbourhood. As their energy capacity is significant, they can provide ancillary services to the traditional power grid. As such, they can be a worthy target of cyber-attacks potentially more devast...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber threat intelligence (CTI) is practical real-world information that is collected with the purpose of assessing threats in cyber-physical systems (CPS). A practical notation for sharing CTI is STIX. STIX offers facilities to create, visualise and share models; however, even a moderately simple project can be represented in STIX as a quite compl...
Book
Full-text available
This book is a gentle introduction to Markov Chains for programmers. It describes the basics of the formalism and demonstrate numerical methods using the C Programming Language (presented as 'coding challenges' for programming enthusiasts). The code is then validated using MATLAB and CTMC/DTMC models in the PRISM Statistical Model Checker tool. The...
Preprint
Full-text available
System-wide level integration encompassing several layers of Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) intermingled with computing and energy components is directing designs around the globe. Faster, responsive, cleaner, and greener mixed with secure operations mandate system operators and smart building stakeholders to reconsider l...
Article
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Recent cyber-attacks in critical infrastructures have highlighted the importance of investigating how to improve Smart-Grids (SG) resiliency. In the future, it is envisioned that grid connected micro-grids would have the ability of operating in 'islanded mode’ in the event of a grid-level failure. In this work, we propose a method for unfolding agi...
Chapter
Full-text available
The technology integrated in modern smart infrastructures makes them vulnerable to malicious cyber attacks and misuse of information systems. Active Buildings (AB) are no exception. AB implement the vision of 'buildings as power stations', aiming for operational efficiency in generation, storage, release, and conservation of energy collaboratively...
Preprint
Full-text available
It contains the abstract and a brief analysis of all papers from the Practical Applications of Stochastic Modelling (PASM) workshop series between 2004 to 2019.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Security officers employ adversarial modelling techniques to drive analysis over complex attack surfaces. One technique for modelling safety and security is Attack Trees (AT) that uses logic gates to address the likelihood of malicious actions and outcomes. However, attack progression over time is not considered in AT analysis. To cope with this, t...
Preprint
Full-text available
References.
Preprint
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Cyber-security incident metrics carries several difficulties to leverage for yielding quantitative outcomes. When compared to straightforward dependability metrics such as the Mean Time to Failure (MTTF) or the Mean Time to Repair (MTTR), the computation of the Mean Time to Compromise (MTTC) gets blurred when assessing its actual value. Reasons var...
Article
Full-text available
Electric Vehicles (EVs) can help alleviate our reliance on fossil fuels for transport and electricity systems. However, charging millions of EV batteries requires management to prevent overloading the electricity grid and minimise costly upgrades that are ultimately paid for by consumers. Managed chargers, such as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) chargers, al...
Preprint
Full-text available
Electric Vehicles (EVs) can help alleviate our reliance on fossil fuels for transport and electricity systems. However, charging millions of EV batteries requires management to prevent overloading the electricity grid and minimise costly upgrades that are ultimately paid for by consumers. Managed chargers, such as Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) chargers, al...
Chapter
Full-text available
Philanthropic hospitals in Brazil are in great part funded by the government and are daily accessed by a large portion of the population. As the Brazilian economy faces deep cuts in healthcare, managers are adjusting budgets and focusing on less expensive alternatives such as process improvements. Hospitals are even more impacted by the recent COVI...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) plus energy are the enabling technology of modern power systems also known as the Smart Grid (SG). A SG may consist of thousands of interconnected components communicating and exchanging data across layers that stretch beyond technical capabilities , for instance, markets and customer intera...
Preprint
Full-text available
The excess of components belonging to Smart Grids (SG) compel the use of combined analysis tools. There is a need to abstract these infrastructures so modellers and managers usually resort to co-simulation. It integrates and synchronises different simulation engines coupled into one global solution amenable for analysis. Over the years several fram...
Preprint
Full-text available
Tackling cyber-physical security properly is mandatory in today's critical infrastructures and services provision. It wraps applications and solutions with cybersecurity protections that safeguard stakeholders across levels. However, documentation on the subject is extensive, requiring additional effort to grasp introductory notions or learn what i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Smart Grid (SG) is a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) considered a critical infrastructure divided into cyber (software) and physical (hardware) counterparts that complement each other. It is responsible for timely power provision wrapped by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for handling bi-directional energy flows in electric power g...
Article
Full-text available
The Smart Grid (SG) is a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) considered a critical infrastructure divided into cyber (software) and physical (hardware) counterparts that complement each other. It is responsible for timely power provision wrapped by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for handling bi-directional energy flows in electric power g...
Article
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are present in many settings addressing a myriad of purposes. Examples are Internet-of-Things (IoT) or sensing software embedded in appliances or even specialised meters that measure and respond to electricity demands in smart grids. Due to their pervasive nature, they are usually chosen as recipients for larger scope c...
Article
Full-text available
Inter-networked control systems make smart buildings increasingly efficient but can lead to severe operational disruptions and infrastructure damage. It is vital the security state of smart buildings is properly assessed so that thorough and cost effective risk management can be established. This paper uniquely reports on an actual risk assessment...
Conference Paper
Philanthropic hospitals in Brazil are in great part-funded by the government and are daily accessed by a large part of the population. As the Brazilian economy faces deep cuts in healthcare, managers are forced to adjust budgets and invest more in process improvements. Hospitals are even more impacted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic with widespread...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Brazilian Championship A Series (BCAS, or "Brasileirão") is played on its current format since 2003 using cross matches encompassing 20 teams. Several statistical analysis are carried out by professionals and amateurs with the intention of predicting the next winner in advance. It is usual to use team's historical data as input for models where...
Preprint
Full-text available
Systematic Literature Review is a widely adopted methodology to select relevant research in digital libraries using specific steps. Unlike a survey which is a comprehensive literature report on the body of works pertaining a eld, an SLR aims to select particular works according to pre-defined, specific criteria. In an SLR, relevant meta-data is ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is an ongoing effort to define quantitative Performance Evaluation (PE), written to clarify the understanding of some concepts on terminology thus avoiding ambiguity in daily efforts when investigating systems characteristics. For a glossary of terms and definitions provided by standard bodies, it is highly suggested to peruse information offe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are present in many settings addressing a myriad of purposes. Examples are Internet-of-Things (IoT) or sensing software embedded in appliances or even specialised meters that measure and respond to electricity demands in smart grids. Due to their pervasive nature, they are usually chosen as recipients for larger scope c...
Data
This is an introduction to Stochastic Automata Networks (SAN) using the GTAexpress tool. It explains the Markovian based formalism and allows users to model and evaluate systems where parallelism and concurrency are present. The presentation explains the main modelling primitives present in SAN as well as how to use the tool to compile and solve mo...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is a presentation about modelling and evaluating dispersed software development teams across the globe. This presentation has a close relation to the following work: https://doi.org/10.1145/2955093
Data
Presentation for the paper entitled "Restructuring tensor products to enhance the numerical solution of structured Markov Chains".
Preprint
Full-text available
Modelling and Simulation are inexpensive and computationally efficient manners to analyze virtually any system. The technique has attracted the attention of cross-disciplinary practitioners due to easiness when abstracting systems to models and its fast and reliable solution mechanisms for assessing performance. The present work discusses a metamod...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose an educational framework to combine different disciplines such as Software Engineering, Operating Systems, and Simulation to teach project management, modular programming, and system decomposition to students. We present guidelines for the framework implementation and insights as to how plan simulations of virtualized operating systems....
Preprint
Full-text available
The choice of virtualized solutions (e.g. the use of virtual machines over physical machines) for systems execution under different contexts is a commonly used approached for several domain applications. The possibility to abstract entire platforms, infrastructures, or software as a service has become a valid technique for application execution usi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present paper addresses the transformation of modeling primitives in structured Markovian based formalisms such as Queueing Networks, Stochastic Petri Nets, Performance Evaluation Process Algebra, and Stochastic Automata Networks. Since all of those formalisms share the same underneath Markov Chain, there is a formal correspondence that yields...
Data
This is a model that should be opened by the Decisor tool - download it at https://github.com/czekster/Decisor/releases
Data
This is a model that should be opened by the Decisor tool - download it at https://github.com/czekster/Decisor/releases
Article
Full-text available
The applications requirements are becoming more rigorous, demanding the execution of concurrent tasks that must also take into account modularity and flexibility. A fundamental part of the operating system development concerns the implementation of scheduling algorithms. In an embedded system context, it is essential to consider the scheduling algo...
Article
Full-text available
Selecting ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software is crucial to enhance productivity because it provides high-quality services for end users. The choice of an ERP is a problem that should undertake deeper scrutiny. For example, several criteria are usually present , having different tradeoffs. Analysts and managers, when deciding which ERP to a...
Article
Full-text available
Addressing consistent and reliable decision making are crucial activities when choosing seemingly related alternatives for a set of criteria. Models and methods for aiding decisions such as Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) were developed to handle quantified assessments of quality attributes, usually intangible and numerically hard to cope. We intr...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is an unquestionable need to improve healthcare processes across all levels of care in order to optimise the use of resources whilst guaranteeing high quality care to patients. However, healthcare processes are generally very complex and have to be fully understood before enhancement suggestions can be made. Modelling with widely used notatio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Este artigo foca na análise do processo de faturamento de contas hospitalares de internação, em uma investigação que combina os temas gestão de processos de negócio (BPM) e simulação de eventos discretos (DES) para apoiar iniciativas de melhorias em processos de negócio em hospitais filantrópicos. Para condução da fase de mapeamento utilizou-se a n...
Data
This is the presentation for DataMod 2018 conference held at Toulouse, France on June/2018.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Resumo: Este artigo apresenta o Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem Experimental (AVAE) utilizado em uma disciplina do Curso de Licenciatura em Computação para potencializar a construção de conhecimentos na área. O ambiente possibilitou que os estudantes atuassem como professores responsáveis por turmas virtuais e, concomitantemente, como estudantes d...
Patent
Full-text available
Software que define um modelo decisório usando o método AHP - Analytic Hierarchy Process para situações multicriteriais com diferentes alternativas. O seu uso é amplo, por exemplo, para decidir qual pessoa contratar, qual é o melhor fornecedor de matérias-prima ou qual candidato votar na próxima eleição.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Healthcare involves complex decision making from planning to resource management. Resources in hospitals are usually allocated by experienced managers, however, due to an inherent process complexity, decisions are surrounded by uncertainties, variabilities, and constraints. Information Systems must be robust enough to provide support to stakeholder...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
No Brasil, o Total Quality Management (TQM), passou a exigir das empresas maior eficiência e, consequentemente, maior rapidez e assertividade nas tomadas de decisões. Desta maneira, surge a necessidade de se empregar métodos de auxílio à decisão tais como o Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). O presente artigo é de caráter exploratório e tem por obje...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring productivity in globally distributed projects is crucial to improve team performance. These measures often display information on whether a given project is moving forward or starts to demonstrate undesired behaviors. In this paper we are interested in showing how analytical models could deliver insights for the behavior of specific distr...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, security concerns are becoming extremely important as attacks and intrusions to systems and computers networks increase significantly. Different measures and countermeasures are employed to guarantee server security as well as new techniques and tools. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are expert software broadly used by system administr...
Article
Full-text available
Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a power architecture that emerged to solve communication issues present in modern Systems-on-Chip (SoCs). NoC based architectures are very scalable and offer high levels of communication parallelism, among other features. Every efficient NoC implementation requires several design steps to accomplish indices of performance....
Article
Full-text available
A virtualização através do uso de máquinas virtuais sobre máquinas físicas, para executar diferentes sistemas em diferentes domínios de aplicação tem sido uma abordagem comumente adotada em diferentes contextos. A possibilidade de se abstrair plataformas, infraestrutura ou software como um serviço passou a ser uma técnica válida para executar siste...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A tomada de decisão não pode ser centrada em apenas uma perspectiva. O problema de decisão multicritério avalia múltiplos objetivos, de forma integrada. Em um problema de decisão existe pelo menos duas alternativas, para o decisor efetuar uma escolha. Para que uma empresa escolha seus clientes de forma adequada, ela estabelece critérios para realiz...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A escolha de soluções virtualizadas para executar diferentes sistemas em diferentes contextos tem sido uma abordagem comumente adotada para uma gama de aplicações. O uso de ambientes virtualizados é relevante e crucial, entretanto, em muitos casos estas tecnologias são escolhidas sem verificação prévia de desempenho ou outros atributos não funciona...
Research
Full-text available
A escolha de soluções virtualizadas para executar diferentes sistemas em diferentes contextos tem sido uma abordagem comumente adotada para uma gama de aplicações. O uso de ambientes virtualizados é relevante e crucial, entretanto, em muitos casos estas tecnologias são escolhidas sem verificação prévia de desempenho ou outros atributos não funciona...
Patent
Full-text available
Sistema de Informação que trabalha com dados do CAGED (Cadastro Geral de Empregados e Desempregados) do Ministério do Trabalho.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The emergence of wireless networks has contributed to a growing number of studies and protocols regarding its performance and reliability requirements, among others. Several issues have to be considered when deploying such devices under harsh environmental conditions. These issues often force the designer to adopt decisions that are usually difficu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Software aging and rejuvenation research has shown that the application of approaches for software aging modeling, monitoring, and rejuvenation has the potential to significantly increase software resilience. In this chapter, we present an overview of important analytical models and measurement approaches for software aging and rejuvenation. We sta...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical analysis of Markovian models is relevant for performance evaluation and probabilistic analysis of systems’ behavior from several fields in science and engineering. These models can be represented in a compact fashion using Kronecker algebra. The Vector-Descriptor Product (VDP) is the key operation to obtain stationary and transient soluti...
Chapter
Full-text available
Avaliar o desempenho de sistemas é um ponto-chave para detectar gargalos de execução, possíveis otimizações e, sobretudo para prover aplicações com alto grau de confiabilidade e desempenho. Muitas são as formas para se avaliar o desempenho de sistemas, por exemplo,monitoração, medições, simulações e modelagem analítica. Muitas vezes, não se dispõe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Performance testing involves knowledgement not only about the application to be tested, its usage, and the execution infrastructure; it also requires understanding of the performance test automation tools employed – scripting, monitoring and configuration details. Performance script generation is highly technology-dependent, with great variations f...
Article
Full-text available
The description of large state spaces through stochastic structured modeling formalisms like stochastic Petri nets, stochastic automata networks and performance evaluation process algebra usually represent the infinitesimal generator of the underlying Markov chain as a Kronecker descriptor instead of a single large sparse matrix. The best known alg...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stochastic modeling of globally distributed projects has become a way to evaluate the performance of teams working in different time zones. The interest in extracting and analyzing quantitative data from geographically dispersed teams has grown throughout the years as major development companies were attracted by potential benefits. We direct our a...
Article
Full-text available
Service Level Agreements (SLAs) are used to guarantee quality of service (QoS) between customers and service providers. In an SLA, parties establish a common set of rules and responsibilities. In this paper we propose a practical stochastic modeling of a multi-tier architecture considering SLAs for specific transactions. The model is parameterized...
Article
Full-text available
Structured Markovian formalisms have emerged to facilitate the re-presentation of large state spaces and transitions. However, structuring intro-duces algorithmic challenges, such as detection of reachable states, as well as specialized numerical solutions. Recent researches have proposed the use of Multi-valued Decision Diagrams (MDD) for the comp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The analytical solution of large Markovian models is one of the major challenges in performance evaluation. Structured formalisms provide a modular description to tackle state space explosion by presenting memory-efficient solutions based on tensor algebra and specific software tools implement such solutions using iterative methods. However, even t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The solution of state-based stochastic models is usually a demanding application, then it is a natural subject to high performance techniques. We are particularly interested in the speedup of Bootstrap Simulation of structured Markovian models. This approach is a quite recent development in the performance evaluation area, and it brings a considera...