Rhodri Lloyd

Rhodri Lloyd
Cardiff Metropolitan University | cardiffmet · Cardiff School of Sport and Health Sciences

PhD

About

154
Publications
380,681
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5,351
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2012 - January 2016
Cardiff Metropolitan University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (154)
Article
Full-text available
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN YOUNG ATHLETES IS A RAPIDLY EXPANDING FIELD OF INTEREST FOR STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACHES, PHYSICAL EDUCATORS, SPORTS COACHES, AND PARENTS. PREVIOUS LONG-TERM ATHLETE DEVELOPMENT MODELS HAVE CLASSIFIED YOUTH-BASED TRAINING METHODOLOGIES IN RELATION TO CHRONOLOGIC AGE GROUPS, AN APPROACH THAT HAS DISTINCT L...
Article
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The current manuscript is a translation of the Position statement on youth resistance training: the 2014 International Consensus. The original manuscript was adapted from the oficial position statement of the UK Strength and Conditioning Association on youth resistance training. It was subsequently reviewed and endorsed by leading professional orga...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of 6-week training interventions utilizing different modes of resistance (traditional strength, plyometric and combined training) on sprinting and jumping performance in boys pre- and post-peak height velocity (PHV). Eighty school-age boys were categorized into two maturity groups (pre- or...
Article
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Fatigue is known to influence dynamic knee joint stability from a neuromuscular perspective, and electromechanical delay (EMD) plays an important role as the feedback activation mechanism that stabilizes the joint. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of soccer-specific fatigue on EMD in U13-, U15-, and U17-year-old female soccer...
Article
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Purpose: To examine changes to neuromuscular control of leg stiffness following 42 min of soccer-specific exercise. Methods: Ten youth soccer players, aged 15.8 ± 0.4 years, stature 1.73 ± 0.06 m and mass 59.8 ± 9.7 kg, hopped on a force plate at a self-selected frequency before and after simulated soccer exercise performed on a non-motorised tr...
Article
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Barillas, SR, Oliver, JL, Lloyd, RS, and Pedley, J. Kinetic responses to external cues are specific to both the type of cue and type of exercise in adolescent athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-The purpose of this study was to examine how external cues influence kinetics during isometric and dynamic tasks in adolescent athletes. Fif...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUCTION: Drop jumps (DJ) are effective screening tools for stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function in youth. During periods of accelerated growth, it has been postulated that youth experience disturbances in neuromuscular control termed "adolescent awkwardness". However, this has predominantly been assessed using fitness performance assessment...
Article
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This cross-sectional study investigated how stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and kinetic variables differed between young female gymnasts of varying competitive levels. Drop jump (DJ) force-time profiles were examined in 118 female gymnasts, sub-divided by competitive level (n = 21 recreational, n = 41 regional and n = 50 elite). DJ force-ti...
Article
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Background Weightlifting training (WLT) is commonly used to improve strength, power and speed in athletes. However, to date, WLT studies have either not compared training effects against those of other training methods, or been limited by small sample sizes, which are issues that can be resolved by pooling studies in a meta-analysis. Therefore, the...
Conference Paper
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The tuck jump assessment (TJA) is a criteria-based screening tool designed to identify neuromuscular deficits associated with ACL injury [1]. Gaps in research indicate that kinetic analysis of the TJA enhance sensitivity of TJA measures to identify future injury risk [2]. Specifically, neuromuscular fatigue has been considered to cause detrimental...
Article
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The aim of this review was to describe and summarize the scientific literature on programming parameters related to jump or plyometric training in male and female soccer players of different age and fitness levels. A literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and SCOPUS, using keywords related to the main top...
Article
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Long-term athletic development practices have been recommended for the past two decades. However, limited research exists exploring the knowledge and skills required by practitioners to optimise long-term athletic development. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, adherence, practices, and challenges of practitioners responsible fo...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate a 10-month neuromuscular training (NMT) intervention on isometric and dynamic kinetics, standing long jump (SLJ) distance, speed and sport-specific performance. Methods: Forty-three pre-pubertal female gymnasts were allocated into either a gymnastics + NMT (gNMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15) or mat...
Article
Key points: It has long been hypothesised that cardiovascular adaptation to endurance training is augmented following puberty. We investigated whether differences in cardiac and haematological variables exist, and to what extent, between endurance-trained vs. untrained, pre- and post-peak height velocity (PHV) children, and how these central facto...
Article
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This study aimed to: (1) examine differences in physical performance across birth-quartiles and maturity-status, and (2) determine the relationships among relative age, maturation and physical performance in young male soccer players. The sample included 199 males aged between 8.1 and 18.9 years, from two professional soccer academies in the Englis...
Article
This prospective longitudinal trial aimed to 1) determine the role of head impact exposure on behavioral/cognitive outcomes, and 2) assess the protective effect(s) of a jugular vein compression (JVC) collar on behavioral/cognitive outcomes following one season of high-school football. Participants included 284 male high-school football players aged...
Article
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The stretch‐shortening cycle (SSC) assists in effective force attenuation upon landing and augments force generation at take‐off during a drop vertical jump (DVJ). General performance outcomes such as jump height or peak measures have been used to assess SSC function in youth populations; however, these discrete metrics fail to provide insight into...
Article
This study aims to determine whether motor coordination influences the perception-decision time (perceptual-cognitive factor) and movement response time (physical factor) of young soccer players in a sport-specific agility task regardless of maturation. Eighty-seven young male soccer players were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were used to d...
Article
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Leading health organizations and long- term athletic development models have identified the need to develop movement competencies in children and adolescents. The athletic motor skill competencies (AMSCs) have been identified as key skills that form the foundations of all athletic movements. The AMSCs form an integral part of the long-term athletic...
Article
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Background Youth populations benefit from neuromuscular training; however, the extent to which training frequency, baseline fitness, and maturity status moderate the response to long-term neuromuscular training in male youth remains unclear. Hypothesis Twice-weekly training (G2x) would induce larger improvements in movement competency and strength...
Article
Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity and increased cardiovascular diseases. To date, limited research has compared physical fitness levels between children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Therefore, the primary aim was to investigate if differences in fitness levels exist between children with ASD and a...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the growth, maturation and resistance training-related changes in muscle-tendon and neuromuscular mechanisms in youth, and the subsequent effect on performance. Sprinting, jumping, kicking, and throwing are common movements in sport that have been shown to develop naturally with age, with imp...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the landscape of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) and strength development in professional football (soccer) academies in the UK. To achieve this, we interviewed 16 participants, whose primary responsibility was the physical development of youth players from a variety of Elite Player Performance Plan (E...
Article
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PurposeTo quantify the effects of an externally worn collar device for mitigating the influence of repetitive head impacts on alterations to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of white matter.Methods Fifteen female high-school soccer athletes (age: 14.00–16.98 yrs) completed pre- and post-season DTI over two consecutive years, including measure...
Article
PurposeNeuromuscular training aims to enhance motor skill competency and increase muscle strength. However, the effectiveness of short-duration interventions focused on addressing lower limb injury risk factors in male youth athletes at different stages of maturity remains unknown.Methods Forty-eight young male academy cricket players [pre-peak hei...
Article
Context: Kinetic profiles of athletes performing the tuck jump assessment (TJA) are unknown and may provide insight into the risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Design: The purpose of this study was to (1) analyze vertical kinetics of the TJA and (2) determine the stabilization of the kinetics across successive jumping cycles. Methods:...
Article
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Despite previous misconceptions, youth participation in weightlifting is now recognized as safe and beneficial when delivered, programed, and monitored by a qualified professional. This article explores teaching progressions to help coaches periodize weightlifting training for young or novice athletes, with consideration to the theoretical concepts...
Article
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Radnor, JM, Oliver, JL, Waugh, CM, Myer, GD, and Lloyd, RS. Muscle Architecture and Maturation Influence Sprint and Jump Ability in Young Boys: A Multistudy Approach. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This series of experiments examined the influence of medial gastrocnemius (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle architecture (muscle thickness...
Article
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Pedley, JS, Lloyd, RS, Read, PJ, Moore, IS, Myer, GD, and Oliver, JL. A novel method to categorize stretch-shortening cycle performance across maturity in youth soccer players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This study used a novel method to categorize stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function during a drop jump (DJ) using the force-time cu...
Article
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Purpose Jump-landing assessments provide a means to quantify an individual’s ability to attenuate ground reaction forces, generate lower limb explosive power and maintain joint alignment. In order to identify risk factors that can be targeted through appropriate training interventions, it is necessary to establish which (scalar) objective kinetic,...
Article
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An understanding of how movement competency, strength, and power interacts with natural growth and maturation is required in order to determine meaningful changes with developing athletes. Isometric and dynamic testing in youth athletes provide insight into the natural development of the force‐velocity (F‐V) spectrum. Two‐hundred and six young male...
Article
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Leading global physical activity guidelines advocate that young children need to engage in activities that strengthen musculoskeletal tissues and improve movement skill competency. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of delivering strength and conditioning as part of the physical education curriculum on athletic motor skill compete...
Article
Background The triple hop for distance test commonly uses a limb symmetry index (LSI) ‘pass’ threshold of > 90% for total hop distance following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, understanding the manner in which athletes generate and dissipate forces during consecutive hops within the test may provide greater insight into...
Article
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Cahill, MJ, Oliver, JL, Cronin, JB, Clark, K, Cross, MR, Lloyd, RS, and Lee, JE. Influence of resisted sled-pull training on the sprint force-velocity profile of male high-school athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Although resisted sled towing is a commonly used method of sprint-specific training, little uniformity exists around tra...
Article
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PurposeThis cross-sectional study investigated dynamic force–time variables and vaulting performance in young female gymnasts of different maturity status.Methods120 gymnasts aged 5–14 years were sub-divided into maturity groupings using percent of predicted adult height (%PAH) attained. Participants performed three jumping protocols, the squat jum...
Poster
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PURPOSE To examine the effects of a 9-month NMT intervention on isometric and dynamic force-time characteristics during strength and power tests and vertical takeoff velocity during gymnastics vaulting. METHODS Forty-three pre-pubertal female gymnasts were subdivided into gymnastics + NMT (GYM+NMT; n = 16), gymnastics only (GYM, n = 15) groups and...
Article
Objectives Examine growth and maturation trends in dynamic balance using the anterior reach Y-Balance test, and its utility as an injury risk screening tool. Design Cross sectional and prospective cohort. Setting Elite male youth soccer players. Participants 346 players grouped as pre, circa or post peak height velocity (PHV). Main outcome meas...
Thesis
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Speed is an important athletic quality and needs to be developed in young athletes, this may be best achieved using specific forms of sprint training. Resisted sled training is a sprint specific form of training widely used by coaches and practitioners. The two modes of resisted sled training that exist are sled pushing and pulling, with limited re...
Article
Moeskops, S, Oliver, JL, Read, PJ, Cronin, JB, Myer, GD, Haff, GG, and Lloyd, RS. The influence of biological maturity and competitive level on isometric force-time curve variables and vaulting performance in young female gymnasts. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-This cross-sectional study investigated isometric force-time curve variables...
Article
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Examining association between serial participation in youth organized sports (OS) and concurrent cardiometabolic risk factors, with long-term health status, will aid understanding the role of OS participation. Combining data from a prospective study and a follow-up survey, we aimed to determine association between youth OS participation and cardiom...
Article
Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine whether the use of machine learning improved the ability of a neuromuscular screen to identify injury risk factors in elite male youth football players. Methods 355 elite youth football players aged 10–18 years old completed a prospective pre-season neuromuscular screen that included anthropometr...
Article
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Sled pushing is a commonly used form of resisted sprint training, however little empirical evidence exists, especially in youth populations. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of unresisted and resisted sled pushing across multiple loads. Fifty high school athletes were assigned to an unresisted (n=12), or 3 resisted groups; ligh...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the differences in muscle architecture of the lower limb in pre-peak height velocity (PHV), circa-PHV, and post-PHV boys. Method: Muscle architecture variables from both the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and vastus lateralis (VL) were derived from ultrasonographic images in 126 school-aged boys. One-way analysis of variance u...
Article
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Dobbs, IJ, Oliver, JL, Wong, MA, Moore, IS, and Lloyd, RS. Effects of a 12-week training program on isometric and dynamic force-time characteristics in pre- and post-peak height velocity male athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Literature shows that training children and adolescents can enhance strength and power irrespective of thei...
Article
Purpose: To quantify speed, peak momentum, standing long jump (SLJ), and the ratio of vertical to horizontal take-off velocity (Ratiovert-hori TOV) in young female gymnasts of different maturity status and their influence on vaulting vertical TOV. Methods: One hundred twenty gymnasts age 5-14 years were subdivided into maturity groupings using p...
Article
Objective: Determine how lower limb neuromuscular control changes over the course of a competitive soccer season. Design: Repeated measures. Setting: Academy soccer club. Participants: 43 male youth soccer players (age 13.1 ± 2.2 yr; height 160.1 ± 15.7 cm; body mass 49.4 ± 14.3 kg; maturity offset 0.2 ± 1.9 yr). Main outcome measures: Pre...
Article
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Cahill, M, Oliver, JL, Cronin, JB, Clark, K, Cross, MR, and Lloyd, RS. Sled-push load-velocity profiling and implications for sprint training prescription in young athletes. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2019-Resisted sled pushing is a popular method of sprint-specific training; however, little evidence exists to support the prescription of r...
Article
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This study aimed to examine the extent to which maturity offset, strength, and movement competency influences motor skill performance in adolescent boys. One hundred and eight secondary school boys completed anthropometric and physical testing on two non-consecutive days for the following variables: Maturity offset, isometric mid-thigh pull absolut...