Rex Eugene Jung

Rex Eugene Jung
University of New Mexico | UNM · Department of Psychology

Ph.D., Clinical Neuropsychology

About

164
Publications
74,679
Reads
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10,798
Citations
Citations since 2016
42 Research Items
5797 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
20162017201820192020202120220200400600800
Additional affiliations
March 2008 - present
University of New Mexico
Position
  • Professor
January 2008 - December 2012
January 1996 - present
University of New Mexico
Education
August 1994 - June 2001
University of New Mexico
Field of study
  • Clinical Neuropsychology

Publications

Publications (164)
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has demonstrated that individuals with higher intelligence are more likely to have larger gray matter volume in brain areas predominantly located in parieto-frontal regions. These findings were usually interpreted to mean that individuals with more cortical brain volume possess more neurons and thus exhibit more computational capa...
Article
Full-text available
Openness/Intellect (i.e., openness to experience) is the Big Five personality factor most consistently associated with individual differences in creativity. Recent psychometric evidence has demonstrated that this factor consists of two distinct aspects—Intellect and Openness. Whereas Intellect reflects perceived intelligence and intellectual engage...
Article
Full-text available
Creative behaviors are among the most complex that humans engage in, involving not only highly intricate, domain-specific knowledge and skill, but also domain-general processing styles and the affective drive to create. This study presents structural imaging data indicating that musically creative people (as indicated by self-report) have greater c...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity is a vast construct, seemingly intractable to scientific inquiry-perhaps due to the vague concepts applied to the field of research. One attempt to limit the purview of creative cognition formulates the construct in terms of evolutionary constraints, namely that of blind variation and selective retention (BVSR). Behaviorally, one can lim...
Article
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"Is there a biology of intelligence which is characteristic of the normal human nervous system?" Here we review 37 modern neuroimaging studies in an attempt to address this question posed by Halstead (1947) as he and other icons of the last century endeavored to understand how brain and behavior are linked through the expression of intelligence and...
Article
Background and Hypothesis Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share genetic risk factors, yet patients display differential levels of cognitive impairment. We hypothesized a genome-transcriptome-functional connectivity (frontoparietal)-cognition pathway linked to SZ-versus-BD differences, and conducted a multiscale study to delineate this...
Preprint
Full-text available
Previous research in the field of personality neuroscience has identified associations of conscientiousness and related constructs like impulsivity and self-control with structural and functional properties of particular regions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula. Network-based conceptions of brain function suggest that these regions probabl...
Preprint
Previous research in the field of personality neuroscience has identified associations of conscientiousness and related constructs like impulsivity and self-control with structural and functional properties of particular regions in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and insula. Network-based conceptions of brain function suggest that these regions probabl...
Chapter
Intelligence and intellectual disability (ID) or intellectual developmental disorder (IDD), according to the most recent terminology, might not be natural kinds but the result of a historically contingent human attempt of self-definition and self-characterization. The seeds of intelligence as a measure for classifying humans were sown at the end of...
Article
The Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory (P-FIT) predicts that human intelligence is closely linked to structural and functional properties of several brain regions mainly located in the parietal and frontal cortices. It also proposes that solving abstract reasoning tasks involves multiple processing stages and thus requires the harmonic interplay of...
Article
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Background Libman-Sacks endocarditis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is commonly complicated with embolic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or valve dysfunction for which high-risk valve surgery is frequently performed. However, the role of medical therapy alone for Libman-Sacks endocarditis and associated acute CVD remains undefine...
Article
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Primary brain tumors often occur near eloquent regions, affecting language, motor, and memory capacity, with awake mapping and tailored resection designed to preserve higher cognitive functioning. The effects of such tumors on subcortical structures, including the thalamus and basal ganglia, have been largely unexplored, in spite of the known impor...
Article
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An influential model of the neural mechanisms of creative thought suggests that creativity is manifested in the joint contributions of the Default Mode Network (DMN; a set of regions in the medial PFC, lateral and medial parietal cortex, and the medial temporal lobes) and the executive networks within the dorsolateral PFC. Several empirical reports...
Article
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Reorganization of eloquent cortex due to neighboring stressors, like tumors and epilepsy, has been previously documented. Here we report reorganization of a subregion of the primary motor cortex due to a slow-growing primary brain tumor. We report the case of a 22-year-old, right-handed male with long-standing focal partial epilepsy involving the r...
Article
Full-text available
Nearly everyone has the ability for creative thought. Yet, certain individuals create works that propel their fields, challenge paradigms, and advance the world. What are the neurobiological factors that might underlie such prominent creative achievement? In this study, we focus on morphometric differences in brain structure between high creative a...
Article
Full-text available
While the behavior of “being musically creative”— improvising, composing, songwriting, etc.—is undoubtedly a complex and highly variable one, recent neuroscientific investigation has offered significant insight into the neural underpinnings of many of the creative processes contributing to such behavior. A previous study from our research group (Ba...
Article
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Resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is a promising task‐free functional imaging approach, which may complement or replace task‐based fMRI (tfMRI) in patients who have difficulties performing required tasks. However, rsfMRI is highly sensitive to head movement and physiological noise, and validation relative to tfMRI and int...
Article
Creative cognition, as measured through divergent thinking (DT), offers insight into one's ability to generate novel ideas. Relatively little work has been done exploring the relationship between creative idea generation tasks and white matter integrity via fractional anisotropy (FA). Our previous work has shown that higher scores on DT tasks were...
Article
The study of human individual differences has matured significantly, in the last decade or so owing, in part, to the notable advances in neuroimaging techniques. There are three major domains of inquiry within individual differences research: personality, creativity, and intelligence. Each has a discrete, testable definition (a new definition for i...
Article
Histological studies have reported microstructural hemispheric asymmetries in several cortical areas of the human brain, but reliable in vivo assessment methods have been lacking so far. Here, we used neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) to examine microstructural asymmetries in in vivo and determine if findings are in accorda...
Article
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Neurocognitive dysfunction and brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are common in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, brain MRI is expensive, is restricted by payers, and requires high expertise. Neurocognitive assessment is an easily available, safe, and i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The connectivity of the human brain is fundamental to understanding the principles of cognitive function, and the mechanisms by which it can go awry. To that extent, tools for estimating human brain networks are required for single participant, group level, and cross-study analyses. We have developed an open-source, cloud-enabled, turn-key pipeline...
Article
Genetic factors are known to influence both risk for schizophrenia (SZ) and variation in brain structure. A pressing question is whether the genetic underpinnings of brain phenotype and the disorder overlap. Using multivariate analytic methods and focusing on 1,402 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped from the Psychiatric Genomics C...
Book
Historically, the brain bases of creativity have been of great interest to scholars and the public alike. However, recent technological innovations in the neurosciences, coupled with theoretical and methodological advances in creativity assessment, have enabled humans to gain unprecedented insights into the contributions of the brain to creative th...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we describe an open-access collection of multimodal neuroimaging data in schizophrenia for release to the community. Data were acquired from approximately 100 patients with schizophrenia and 100 age-matched controls during rest as well as several task activation paradigms targeting a hierarchy of cognitive constructs. Neuroimaging dat...
Article
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Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz) has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentra...
Article
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Background The proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS) signals from glutamate (or the combined glutamate and glutamine signal—Glx) have been found to be greater in various brain regions in people with schizophrenia. Recently, the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium reported that several common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in glutamate...
Article
An important dimension of individual differences, independent of general cognitive ability (GCA), is specialization for verbal or spatial ability. In this study we investigated neuroanatomic, network, and personality features associated with verbal vs. spatial ability. Healthy young adults (N = 244) were evaluated with (1) a cognitive battery yield...
Chapter
Cognitive neuroscience research has begun to address the potential interaction of brain networks supporting creativity by employing new methods in brain network science. Network methods offer a significant advance compared to individual region of interest studies due to their ability to account for the complex and dynamic interactions among discret...
Article
While there are minimal sex differences in overall intelligence, males, on average, have larger total brain volume and corresponding regional brain volumes compared to females, measures that are consistently related to intelligence. Limited research has examined which other brain characteristics may differentially contribute to intelligence in fema...
Article
Full-text available
The developmental roots of individual variation in general cognitive ability (GCA) are the subject of intense scientific interest. One unique perspective is offered by developmental instability theory, which suggests that variation in GCA in part reflects the ability to buffer brain development from key environmental and genetic perturbations. Supp...
Article
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Imagination involves episodic memory retrieval, visualization, mental simulation, spatial navigation, and future thinking, making it a complex cognitive construct. Prior studies of imagination have attempted to study various elements of imagination (e.g., visualization), but none have attempted to capture the entirety of imagination ability in a si...
Article
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The brain’s default network (DN) has been a topic of considerable empirical interest. In fMRI research, DN activity is associated with spontaneous and self-generated cognition, such as mind-wandering, episodic memory retrieval, future thinking, mental simulation, theory of mind reasoning, and creative cognition. Despite large literatures on develop...
Article
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Objectives: One of the most prominent features of schizophrenia is relatively lower general cognitive ability (GCA). An emerging approach to understanding the roots of variation in GCA relies on network properties of the brain. In this multi-center study, we determined global characteristics of brain networks using graph theory and related these to...
Article
Mapping brain connectivity based on neuroimaging data is a promising new tool for understanding brain structure and function. In this methods paper, we demonstrate that group independent component analysis (GICA) can be used to perform a dual parcellation of the brain based on its connectivity matrix (cmICA). This dual parcellation consists of a se...
Article
Full-text available
The creativity research community is in search of a viable cognitive measure providing support for behavioral observations that higher ideational output is often associated with higher creativity (known as the equal-odds rule). One such measure has included divergent thinking: the production of many examples or uses for a common or single object or...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association betw...
Article
Full-text available
Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset to date. We performed both source-based morphometry...
Article
Full-text available
Creative cognition emerges from a complex network of interacting brain regions. This study investigated the relationship between the structural organization of the human brain and aspects of creative cognition tapped by divergent thinking tasks. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was used to obtain fiber tracts from 83 segmented cortical regions. Thi...
Article
Hampshire and colleagues used factor analyses and simulations to conclude that the g-factor is not a valid construct for general intelligence because it could be accounted for by at least two independent components defined by distinct brain networks. In our view, their results depend on a number of assumptions and subjective decisions that, at best...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Altered functional connectivity in critical networks has been associated with chronic alcohol abuse. In turn, changes in connectivity in executive control networks (ECNs) may undermine the ability to control alcohol consumption. It was hypothesized that network connectivity would be reduced in individuals with problematic alcohol use (...
Article
Full-text available
The study of individual differences encompasses broad constructs including intelligence, creativity, and personality. However, substantially less research is devoted to the study of specific aptitudes in spite of their importance to educational, occupational, and avocational success. We sought to determine subcortical brain structural correlates of...
Article
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World Psychiatry. February, 2014. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Moving beyond intelligence in the revision of ICD-10: specific cognitive functions in intellectual developmental disorders. A lower level of intelligence, as measured by IQ, has historically been the central defining criterion of mental retardation (MR). The use of IQ scores in terms of stan...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, connectomes (e.g., functional or structural brain graphs) can be estimated in humans at $\approx 1~mm^3$ scale using a combination of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. This manuscript summarizes a novel, scalable implementation of open-sou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Graphs are quickly emerging as a leading abstraction for the representation of data. One important application domain originates from an emerging discipline called "connectomics". Connectomics studies the brain as a graph; vertices correspond to neurons (or collections thereof) and edges correspond to structural or functional connections between th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The human brain and the neuronal networks comprising it are of immense interest to the scientific community. In this work, we focus on the structural connectivity of human brains, investigating sex differences across male and female connectomes (brain-graphs) for the knowledge discovery problem “Which brain regions exert differences in connectivity...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Blast-induced mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) commonly go undetected by computed tomography and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was used to investigate functional brain network abnormalities in a group of blast-induced mTBI subjects using independent component analysis (ICA) of resting state functional MRI...
Conference Paper
Background / Purpose: The goal of this work is to analyze the connectomes in order to understand how the brain functions. Are there differences in the wiring between different people? Are all parts of the brain connected in the same way? Main conclusion: The size (number of edges), as well as the maximum eigenvalues of the brain graphs differ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Based on neuro-imaging findings, we present a brain model for intelligence and a model for creativity and discuss how genius may emerge from the overlapping and the unique aspects of these models. Intelligence is associated with integrity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and creative achievement with lower volumes of the orbitofrontal cortex....
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine whether Libman-Sacks endocarditis is a pathogenic factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A cardioembolic pathogenesis of SLE CVD manifested as: 1) neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA); 2) neurocogni...
Conference Paper
Survey course available on ITunes U In Univ. of New Mexico library.
Chapter
Graham Wallas first introduced a model of creative process in his work Art of Thought (1926) where he began to elucidate the process by which an individual cultivates creative thought. In the following decades, psychologists attempted to develop psychometric measures that could tap an individual’s creative capacity via specific cognitive domains, s...