Renzo Bianchi

Renzo Bianchi
Norwegian University of Science and Technology | NTNU · Department of Psychology

Priv.-Doz. Ph.D.
Associate Professor of Psychology

About

169
Publications
125,316
Reads
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3,059
Citations
Citations since 2016
129 Research Items
2966 Citations
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Introduction
My research interests include occupational health (e.g., stress, depression, cognition) and psychological assessment in both organizational and clinical settings. I am the co-creator of the Occupational Depression Inventory. Advanced statistical techniques (e.g., structural equation modeling, Mokken scaling) occupy an important place in my methodological arsenal.
Additional affiliations
September 2018 - August 2022
Université de Neuchâtel
Position
  • Ambizione Researcher (grantee of the Swiss National Science Foundation) and Lecturer
June 2015 - July 2018
Université de Neuchâtel
Position
  • Postdoctoral Researcher and Lecturer

Publications

Publications (169)
Article
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Background: Depressive symptoms induced by insurmountable job stress and sick leave for mental health reasons have become a focal concern among occupational health specialists. The present study introduces the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI), a measure designed to quantify the severity of work-attributed depressive symptoms and establish pr...
Article
There is no consensus on whether burnout constitutes a depressive condition or an original entity requiring specific medical and legal recognition. In this study, we examined burnout–depression overlap using 14 samples of individuals from various countries and occupational domains (N = 12,417). Meta-analytically pooled disattenuated correlations in...
Article
Research on the link between Machiavellianism and depression has yielded equivocal results. In this study, we examined the possible moderating role of ability emotional intelligence (a-EI) on the Machiavellianism-depression relationship. a-EI was approached as a factor influencing the effectiveness of Machiavellians' manipulative strategies. A tota...
Article
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Background: This meta-analysis summarized longitudinal findings pertaining to exhaustion's predictors. In so doing, our aim was ultimately to identify target factors for the prevention of burnout. Methods: We searched for studies that (a) examined predictors of exhaustion longitudinally and (b) reported correlation coefficients as an effect esti...
Article
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Fierce debates surround the conceptualization and measurement of job-related distress in occupational health science. The use of burnout as an index of job-related distress, though commonplace, has increasingly been called into question. In this paper, we first highlight foundational problems that undermine the burnout construct and its legacy meas...
Article
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The Pandemic Anxiety Inventory (PAI) assesses anxiety symptoms individuals attribute to the presence of a pandemic. We conducted this study of 379 British adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and found that the PAI exhibited excellent reliability and solid criterion validity. Pandemic anxiety was associated with reduced social support, anticipated l...
Article
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Aesthetic disposition has been defined as the propensity to prioritize form over function and to approach any object as potentially valuable from an aesthetic standpoint. In this study, we examined whether and how aesthetic disposition was predicted by educational capital, personality trait openness, and sex. In addition, we investigated the associ...
Article
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In order to identify and classify musical tastes, researchers have extensively relied on the use of music-genre labels. However, the validity and reliability of such a method remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the extent to which 873 high-school students felt able to assess their musical tastes based on music-genre labels. Participan...
Article
The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) was recently developed to assess depressive symptoms that individuals specifically attribute to their work. One purpose of the ODI is to respond to limitations of current assessments of job-related distress, most notably, assessments relying on the burnout construct. In this study, we conducted a thorough...
Article
Objective: There is mounting evidence that burnout problematically overlaps with depression. However, the generalizability of this finding remains debated. This study examined the burnout-depression distinction based on a recently developed measure of work-attributed depressive symptoms-the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI). Methods: We re...
Article
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Burnout has been found to problematically overlap with depression. However, the generalizability of this finding remains disputed. This study examined burnout–depression overlap using the recently developed Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) and two burnout measures, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI...
Article
Highlights • Profound problems undermine burnout's conceptualization and measurement. • The burnout construct rests on shaky foundations. • As a syndrome, burnout remains poorly defined and undiagnosable. • The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) is a robust alternative to burnout measures. • The ODI may considerably improve our ability to add...
Article
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This 386-participant study investigated the structural and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI). Exploratory structural equation modeling bifactor analysis revealed that the ODI meets the requirements for essential unidimensionality. Measurement invariance held across our sample and the Engli...
Article
The PHQ-9 has become a measure of reference in both depression research and clinical practice. However, the issue of the PHQ-9’s unidimensionality has not been fully elucidated, and the usability of the PHQ-9’s total score requires clarification. In this study, we examined the dimensionality, scalability, and monotonicity properties of the PHQ-9 as...
Article
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The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) was recently devised to grade the severity of work-attributed depressive symptoms (dimensional approach) and establish provisional diagnoses of job-ascribed depression (categorical approach). To date, whether ODI-based assessments relate to “objective” (i.e., non-self-reported) indicators of performance i...
Article
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This study aimed to validate the recently developed Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) in South Africa. A total of 327 employees (60% female) participated in the study. Bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the ODI can be considered essentially unidimensional. The ODI displayed strong scalability (e.g., scal...
Article
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Job-related distress has been a focal concern in occupational health science. Job-related distress has a well-documented health-damaging and life-threatening character, not to mention its economic cost. In this article, we review recent developments in research on job-related distress and examine ongoing changes in how job-related distress is conce...
Article
Estimating the prevalence of job-related distress has been challenging for occupational health specialists, including psychiatrists specialized in the domain. The Occupational Depression Inventory constitutes a promising solution to the problem of estimating the prevalence of job-related distress. We do not believe that continuing to rely on burnou...
Article
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Burnout is a popular indicator of job-related distress, notably in research on the ill-being of medical professionals [1,2]. The burnout construct is, however, plagued by definitional and measurement problems [1–3]. Often unnoticed, these problems undermine findings and conclusions emanating from burnout research [2,3]. This state of affairs is of...
Article
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Over the past decades, psychology and sociology researchers have independently identified similar patterns of cultural dispositions. These patterns notably involve differences in terms of eclecticism, openness, and aesthetic disposition. While some scholars have theoretically fused these constructs, the extent to which they empirically overlap is u...
Article
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The Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI) was recently developed to assess depressive symptoms that individuals specifically attribute to their work. Research on the criterion validity of the instrument is still in its infancy. In this study, we examined whether the ODI predicted performance on, and appreciation of, a cognitively challenging test...
Article
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We aimed to review occupational burnout predictors, considering their type, effect size and role (protective versus harmful), and the overall evidence of their importance. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase were searched from January 1990 to August 2018 for longitudinal studies examining any predictor of occupational burnout among workers. We arranged p...
Article
To the Editor In their recent study, Hewitt et al¹ found that the prevalence of burnout varied dramatically (from 3.2% to 91.4%) depending on how the syndrome was defined. The authors’ observations resonate with long-lamented problems in the conceptualization and measurement of burnout.²,3 Even the most basic aspects of the definition of burnout ha...
Article
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The “Green et al. Paranoid Thoughts Scale” (GPTS) has become a popular measure in paranoia research. The GPTS assesses paranoid ideation based on ideas of reference and persecution. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we examined the characteristics of the French-translated GPTS. More specifically, we investigated the psychometric and str...
Article
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Objective A consensual definition of occupational burnout is currently lacking. We aimed to harmonize the definition of occupational burnout as a health outcome in medical research and reach a consensus on this definition within the Network on the Coordination and Harmonisation of European Occupational Cohorts (OMEGA-NET). Methods First, we perform...
Article
We critique a paper published by Summers et al. (2020) and papers in general that, because of flawed methods, arrive at exceedingly high estimates of burnout in psychiatrists and other professionals.
Article
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Aims: Occupational Burnout (OB) is currently measured through several Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and some of them have become widely used in occupational health research and practice. We, therefore, aimed to review and grade the psychometric validity of the five OB PROMs considered as valid for OB measure in mental health professiona...
Article
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It has often been asserted that burnout is primarily linked to occupational-context factors, and only secondarily to individual-level (e.g., personality) and non-work (or general) factors. We evaluated the validity of this view by examining the links between burnout and an array of 22 work-situated (effort-reward imbalance, unreasonable work tasks,...
Article
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Background Cognitive enhancement (CE) refers to the voluntary improvement of human cognitive capabilities. Few studies have examined the general attitude of the public towards CE. Such studies have suggested that the use of CE is considered largely unacceptable by the public. In parallel, past research indicates that individuals scoring high on the...
Article
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The investigation of the link between personality and musical tastes has led certain psychology researchers to examine the latent dimensions of musical tastes. In this area of research, investigators have largely relied on genre-based analysis, the relevance of which remains unclear. In this study, we examined the impact of changes in the selection...
Article
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A sample of 1015 educational staff members, exhibiting various levels of burnout and depressive symptoms, underwent a memory test involving incident encoding of positive and negative words and a free recall task. Burnout and depression were each found to be associated with increased recall of negative items and decreased recall of positive items. R...
Article
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Objective: It has been asserted that burnout―a condition ascribed to unresolvable job stress―should not be mistaken for a depressive syndrome. In this confirmatory factor analytic study, the validity of this assertion was examined. Methods: Five samples of employed individuals, recruited in Switzerland and France, were mobilized for this study (...
Article
Burnout has been viewed as a work-induced condition combining exhaustion, cynicism, and professional inefficacy. Using correlational analyses, an exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) bifactor analysis, structural regression analyses, and a network analysis, we examined the claim that burnout should not be mistaken for a depressive syndro...
Article
The link between Machiavellianism and depression remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the relationship between Machiavellianism and depression using both a variable- and a person-centered approach. A total of 675 university students anonymously completed an online survey. Depression was assessed with the PHQ-9 and Machiavellianism...
Article
The extent to which burnout refers to anything other than a depressive condition remains an object of controversy among occupational health specialists. In three studies conducted in two different countries and two different languages, we investigated the discriminant validity of burnout scales by evaluating the magnitude of the correlation between...
Article
The aim of this 188-participant study (65% female; mean age = 40.31) was to examine whether burnout and depression are associated with similar interpretation biases in the processing of emotional information. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and depressive symptoms with the 9-item depression module of...
Article
This study investigated the link between Machiavellianism and burnout. A total of 1,073 schoolteachers (83% female) completed an online survey. Machiavellianism was assessed with the MACH IV and burnout with the Maslach Burnout Inventory. General health status, job satisfaction, and life satisfaction were additionally evaluated using single-item me...
Article
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Burnout has been commonly regarded as a job-induced syndrome. In this 468-participant study (67% female; mean age: 46.48), we examined the extent to which individuals with burnout and depressive symptoms attribute these symptoms to their job. Fewer than half (44%) of the individuals with burnout symptoms viewed their job as the main cause of these...
Article
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In this study, we addressed the ongoing debate about what burnout and depression scales measure by conducting an exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) bifactor analysis. A sample of 734 U.S. teachers completed a survey that included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D-10), the depression module of the Patient Heal...
Article
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Some individuals seek to enhance their cognitive capabilities through the use of pharmacology. Such behavior entails potential health risks and raises ethical concerns. The aim of this study was to examine whether a precursor of behavior, ethical judgement towards the use of existing biological cognitive enhancers (e.g., coffee, legal and illegal d...
Article
Background A link between burnout and paranoid ideation has long been suspected. However, systematic research on the association has been scarce. Aims We investigated the relationship between burnout and paranoid ideation. Because burnout overlaps with depression, depression was also examined. Methods A total of 218 Swiss schoolteachers participa...
Article
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Burnout has been defined as a job-induced syndrome combining emotional exhaustion, depersonalization/cynicism, and a sense of reduced personal accomplishment. In this article, we expand on past analyses of burnout by reviewing key, yet overlooked, problems affecting the construct. We concomitantly examine the implications of these problems for the...
Article
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The development of cynical attitudes towards elite sport is a core symptom of athlete burnout and has been associated with dropout from elite sport. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been studied by investigating explicit attitudes towards sport, whereas athletes’ automatic evaluations (i.e. implicit attitudes) that have been shown to influence b...
Article
Burnout has been defined as a job-related syndrome combining pervasive fatigue and loss of motivation. In recent years, evidence has mounted that burnout may reflect a depressive condition. In this study, we expanded on past investigations of burnout-depression overlap by focusing on interpretation biases toward ambiguous information among the two...
Article
Burnout has been regarded as a negative affective state resulting from unresolvable job stress. A widespread idea among burnout researchers is that burnout is primarily linked to work-contextualized factors, and only limitedly dependent on general dispositional factors. The validity of this view, however, remains unclear. This 1,759-participant stu...
Article
In this 257-participant study (76% female; mean age: 44.84), we examined two ideas that are widespread among burnout researchers: (a) the idea that burnout is primarily related to occupational-level factors; and (b) the idea that burnout should be considered a sentinel indicator in research on negative occupational outcomes. We investigated the lin...
Article
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Few studies have examined the association between sleep and burnout symptoms in elite athletes. We recruited 257 young elite athletes (Mage=16.8 years) from Swiss Olympic partner schools. Of these, 197 were re-assessed six months later. Based on the first assessment, 24 participants with clinically relevant burnout symptoms volunteered to participa...
Article
Burnout has been viewed as a syndrome developing in response to chronically adverse working conditions. Burnout is thought to comprise emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Historically, however, burnout has been difficult to separate from depression. Indeed, the symptoms of burnout coincide with symptoms of...
Article
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Objectives: Having psychometrically sound instruments is essential to the understanding of the determinants and consequences of athlete burnout. Therefore, this study examines the psychometric properties of a German version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and its usefulness as a screening tool for the detection of clinically relevant bur...
Article
Burnout has been defined as a condition in which individuals are left exhausted by a long-term confrontation with unmanageable job stressors. The question of whether burnout reflects anything other than depressive responses to unresolvable stress remains an object of debate. In this 911-participant study (83% female; mean age: 42.36), we further ad...
Article
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Objectives: To examine in a sample of young elite athletes (a) the presence of clinically relevant symptoms of burnout and depression, and (b) a possible interaction of perceived stress and mental toughness in the prediction of burnout and depressive symptoms. Design: 6-month prospective study. Methods: A representative sample of 257 young elite at...
Article
We examined the association of burnout with borderline personality (BP) traits in a study of 1,163 educational staff (80.9% women; mean age: 42.96). Because burnout has been found to overlap with depression, parallel analyses of burnout and depression were conducted. Burnout symptoms were assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure, depressive...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the burnout syndrome, a condition initially described in psychology in the mid-1970s. We start by depicting the pioneering phase of burnout research that led to the introduction of the burnout construct in the scientific literature. We then describe the shift from initial exploratory and mainly q...
Article
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This study examines the consistency of Pierre Bourdieu’s homology thesis by assessing, at a class-fraction level, the statistical significance of the differences in taste and lifestyle reported in Distinction. According to Bourdieu, taste and lifestyle vary not only from one social class to another, but also within social classes themselves, depend...
Article
In this commentary, we discuss seldom-noticed methodological problems affecting biological research on burnout and depression and make recommendations to overcome the limitations of past studies conducted in this area. First, we suggest that identified subtypes of depression (e.g., depression with melancholic features and depression with atypical f...
Research
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Our e-letter is available here: http://www.cmaj.ca/content/189/39/E1236/reply#cmaj_el_733494
Research
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Our e-letter is available here: http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/190/1/81.2.e-letters
Presentation
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Construct proliferation is a major problem in work and organizational psychology today. The aim of this study was to examine the overlap of burnout with depression. A total of 468 Swiss health professionals were included in the study (mean age = 46 [SD = 12]; 67% female). Burnout was assessed with the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Measure and depression w...
Presentation
Full-text available
Many scientific disciplines, including psychology, face a replication crisis. While publication bias, small sample size, or questionable research practices have been frequently incriminated in this crisis, how covariate imbalance in experiments affects the replicability of results has been a neglected topic. In this study, we simulated a million ex...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter examines research on the relationship between job stressors and mental health (depressive symptoms, burnout, and mental disorders such as depression) in teachers. Teachers are exposed daily to job stressors (e.g., student disruptiveness) that have been linked to adverse mental health effects. Epidemiologic research indicates that when...
Chapter
Full-text available
Depression researchers have long considered depressive disorders to be associated with specific cognitive processes. In the current chapter, we examine the relationship between depressive disorders (especially major depressive disorder [MDD]) and perceptual-cognitive processing of emotional contents. We describe some characteristics of depressive p...