Rens van de Schoot

Rens van de Schoot
Utrecht University | UU · Department of Methodology and Statistics

Phd

About

230
Publications
87,461
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,345
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2010 - present
Utrecht University
Position
  • Ud

Publications

Publications (230)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recent years have shown an increased application of prospective trajectory-oriented approaches to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although women are generally considered at increased PTSD risk, sex and gender differences in PTSD symptom trajectories have not yet been extensively studied. Objective: To perform an in-depth invest...
Preprint
Full-text available
It is of utmost importance to provide an overview and strength of evidence of predictive factors and to investigate the current state of affairs on evidence for all published and hypothesized factors that contribute to the onset, relapse, and maintenance of anxiety-, substance use-, and depressive disorders. Thousands of such articles have been pub...
Preprint
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are top of the bill in research. However, the screening phase requires an enormous effort in reading and labeling thousands of papers identified via systematic search. Active learning-aided systematic reviewing offers a solution by combining machine learning algorithms with user input to reduce screening load. T...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Fatigue after burns is often attributed to the hyperinflammatory and hypermetabolic response, while it may be best understood from a bio-psychological perspective, also involving the neuro-endocrine system. This longitudinal multi-center study examined the course of fatigue up to 18 months postburn. The contribution of bio-psychological f...
Article
Bayesian statistics is an approach to data analysis based on Bayes’ theorem, where available knowledge about parameters in a statistical model is updated with the information in observed data. The background knowledge is expressed as a prior distribution and combined with observational data in the form of a likelihood function to determine the post...
Article
A Correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1038/s43586-021-00017-2.
Article
Full-text available
The popularity and use of Bayesian methods have increased across many research domains. The current article demonstrates how some less familiar Bayesian methods can be used. Specifically, we applied expert elicitation, testing for prior-data conflicts, the Bayesian Truth Serum, and testing for replication effects via Bayes Factors in a series of fo...
Article
Nationwide opinions and international attitudes toward climate and environmental change are receiving increasing attention in both scientific and political communities. An often used way to measure these attitudes is by large-scale social surveys. However, the assumption for a valid country comparison, measurement invariance, is often not met, espe...
Article
Full-text available
On a daily basis, individuals between 12 and 25 years of age engage with their mobile devices for many hours. Social Media Use (SMU) has important implications for the social life of younger individuals in particular. However, measuring SMU and its effects often poses challenges to researchers. In this exploratory study, we focus on some of these c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Partners of burn survivors may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in response to the potential life threatening nature of the burn event and the burn survivor’s medical treatment. Objective: This longitudinal study examined the prevalence, course and potential predictors of partners’ PTSD symptoms up to 18 months post...
Article
Full-text available
Heterogeneity in development of imbalance between impulse control and sensation seeking has not been studied until now. The present study scrutinized this heterogeneity and the link between imbalance and adolescent risk. Seven-wave data of 7,558 youth (50.71% males; age range from 12/13 until 24/25) were used. Three developmental trajectories were...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study explored the individual trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQL) compared to recalled pre-burn level of HRQL and investigated whether burn severity and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms increase the risk of not returning to pre-burn level of HRQL. Methods Data were obtained from 309 adult patients with...
Chapter
The trial-and-roulette method is a popular method to extract experts’ beliefs about a statistical parameter. However, most studies examining the validity of this method only use ‘perfect’ elicitation results. In practice, it is sometimes hard to obtain such neat elicitation results. In our project about predicting fraud and questionable research pr...
Article
Full-text available
To help researchers conduct a systematic review or meta-analysis as efficiently and transparently as possible, we designed a tool to accelerate the step of screening titles and abstracts. For many tasks—including but not limited to systematic reviews and meta-analyses—the scientific literature needs to be checked systematically. Scholars and practi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Partners of burn survivors may develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the aftermath of the burn event. This longitudinal study examined the prevalence, course and potential predictors of partners’ PTSD symptoms up to 18 months postburn.Methods Participants were 111 partners of adult burn survivors. In a multicenter stud...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Conducting a systematic review requires great screening effort. Various tools have been proposed to speed up the process of screening thousands of titles and abstracts by engaging in active learning. In such tools, the reviewer interacts with machine learning software to identify relevant publications as early as possible. To gain a comp...
Article
Full-text available
In a broad range of fields it may be desirable to reuse a supervised classification algorithm and apply it to a new data set. However, generalization of such an algorithm and thus achieving a similar classification performance is only possible when the training data used to build the algorithm is similar to new unseen data one wishes to apply it to...
Article
Full-text available
Starting from the assumption that empathy is crucial in the therapeutic process, the current study explored whether client empathy before treatment relates to treatment outcome, whether client empathy is subject to change in the first six months of treatment, whether such change relates to treatment outcome and whether therapist factors relate to p...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Patients with OCD differ markedly from one another in both number and kind of comorbid disorders. In this study, we set out to identify and characterize homogeneous subgroups of OCD patients based on their comorbidity profile. Methods In a cohort of 419 adult subjects with OCD, the lifetime presence of fifteen comorbid disorders was asse...
Preprint
Full-text available
For many tasks - including guideline development for medical doctors and systematic reviews for research fields - the scientific literature needs to be checked systematically. The current practice is that scholars and practitioners screen thousands of studies by hand to find which studies to include in their review. This is error prone and ineffici...
Article
Full-text available
Experts provide an alternative source of information to classical data collection methods such as surveys. They can provide additional insight into problems, supplement existing data, or provide insights when classical data collection is troublesome. In this paper, we explore the (dis)similarities between expert judgments and data collected by trad...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated (1) how social relationships with teachers and peers and self-esteem of students with social–emotional and behavioral difficulties (SEBD) in inclusive regular education (regular schools) and students with SEBD in exclusive special education (special schools) develop over time in comparison with each other and in compa...
Preprint
In a broad range of fields it may be desirable to reuse a supervised classification algorithm and apply it to a new data set. However, generalization of such an algorithm and thus achieving a similar classification performance is only possible when the training data used to build the algorithm is similar to new unseen data one wishes to apply it to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: various emotions are implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Longitudinal studies examining temporal associations between emotions and posttraumatic stress may reveal who is at risk of chronic psychological problems. This study examined the longitudinal relationships of mothers’ trauma-related emotions with posttraumatic str...
Preprint
The trial-and-roulette method is a popular method to extract experts’ beliefs about a statistical parameter. However, most studies examining the validity of this method only use ‘perfect’ elicitation results. In practice, it is sometimes hard to obtain such neat elicitation results. In our project about predicting fraud and questionable research pr...
Article
Full-text available
Latent growth models (LGMs) with a distal outcome allow researchers to assess longer-term patterns, and to detect the need to start a (preventive) treatment or intervention in an early stage. The aim of the current simulation study is to examine the performance of an LGM with a continuous distal outcome under maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian es...
Article
Full-text available
In small sample contexts, Bayesian estimation is often suggested as a viable alternative to frequentist estimation, such as maximum likelihood estimation. Our systematic literature review is the first study aggregating information from numerous simulation studies to present an overview of the performance of Bayesian and frequentist estimation for s...
Book
Full-text available
Large-scale surveys such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) use advanced statistical models to estimate scores of latent traits from multiple observed responses. The comparison of such es...
Article
Full-text available
The present paper contrasts two related criteria for the evaluation of prior-data conflict: the Data Agreement Criterion (DAC; Bousquet, 2008) and the criterion of Nott et al. (2016). One aspect that these criteria have in common is that they depend on a distance measure, of which dozens are available, but so far, only the Kullback-Leibler has been...
Article
Full-text available
Reverse correlation is an influential psychophysical paradigm that uses a participant’s responses to randomly varying images to build a classification image (CI), which is commonly interpreted as a visualization of the participant’s mental representation. It is unclear, however, how to statistically quantify the amount of signal present in CIs, whi...
Article
Full-text available
Due to a coding error the marginal likelihoods have not been correctly calculated for the empirical example and thus the Bayes Factors following from these marginal likelihoods are incorrect. The corrections required occur in Section 3.2 and in two paragraphs of the discussion in which the results are referred to. The corrections have limited conse...
Article
Full-text available
The present study tested three conflicting hypotheses as to how students with social/emotional/behavioural difficulties (SEBD), who showed similar social-emotional, behavioural and academic functioning prior to placement, function socially and academically after they have received additional support either in inclusive regular education or in exclu...
Article
Full-text available
Background and objectives: A plethora of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) analogue studies has shown that, in the short term, making eye movements (EM) during brief imaginal exposure ("recall + EM") blurs memories more than just imaginal exposure ("recall only"). Yet, results of the few studies that included a follow-up test ar...
Article
This study examined which factors were related to placement choices for inclusive regular education or exclusive special education for Dutch students with social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Students aged 6–11 in three subgroups participated: 45 included and 17 excluded students with SEBD (i.e., educated in regular education clas...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the current study, we explain how replication of an analysis of variance can be tested with the prior predictive p-value. That is, we test to what degree the new data deviates from data that can predicted based on the original results, considering relevant features of the original study. The central role of claims by the original study is one of...
Article
Large-scale surveys such as the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS), and the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC) use advanced statistical models to estimate scores of latent traits from multiple observed responses. The comparison of such es...
Article
Longitudinal developmental research is often focused on patterns of change or growth across different (sub)groups of individuals. Particular to some research contexts, developmental inquiries may involve one or more (sub)groups that are small in nature and therefore difficult to properly capture through statistical analysis. The current study explo...
Article
Full-text available
Expert elicitation—an approach to systematically consult experts and quantify their insights—has been succesfully applied in fields as risk assessment, health and environmental research. Unfortunately, it has never been used within the Educational sciences, while it offers ample opportunities for educational practice, especially when used to foster...
Article
Full-text available
Tests based on the Classical Test Theory often use the standard error of measurement (SEm) as an expression of (un)certainty in test results. Although by convention a single SEm is calculated for all examinees, it is also possible to (1) estimate a person-specific SEm for every examinee separately or (2) a conditional SEm for groups of comparable e...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Article
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significan...
Article
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = 0.05 to p = 0.005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significan...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that making accept/reject decisions on scientific hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level from p = .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable alpha levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense with significance tes...
Article
Aim: The current study examined occurrence and within-family associations of traumatic stress reactions after child burn injury, while in the same model addressing the role of parents' own symptoms in their reports of child symptoms. Methods: One-hundred children (8-18 years old), and their mothers (n=90) and fathers (n=74) were assessed within...
Preprint
Reverse correlation is an influential psychophysical paradigm that uses participant’s responses to randomly varying images to build a Classification Image (CI), which is commonly interpreted as a visualization of a participant’s mental representation. It is unclear, however, how to statistically quantify the amount of signal present in CIs, which l...
Article
Full-text available
There is a recent increase in interest of Bayesian analysis. However, little effort has been made thus far to directly incorporate background knowledge via the prior distribution into the analyses. This process might be especially useful in the context of latent growth mixture modeling when one or more of the latent groups are expected to be relati...
Article
Full-text available
Elicitation is a commonly used tool to extract viable information from experts. The information that is held by the expert is extracted and a probabilistic representation of this knowledge is constructed. A promising avenue in psychological research is to incorporated experts’ prior knowledge in the statistical analysis. Systematic reviews on elici...
Preprint
Full-text available
We argue that depending on p-values to reject null hypotheses, including a recent call for changing the canonical alpha level for statistical significance from .05 to .005, is deleterious for the finding of new discoveries and the progress of science. Given that blanket and variable criterion levels both are problematic, it is sensible to dispense...
Article
Full-text available
This article demonstrates the usefulness of Bayesian estimation with small samples. In Bayesian estimation, prior information can be included, which increases the precision of the posterior distribution. The posterior distribution reflects likely parameter values given the current state of knowledge. An issue that has received little attention, how...