René Proyer

René Proyer
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg | MLU · Institut für Psychologie

Professor
Add your current activity: Remaining relatively calm despite pandemic.

About

254
Publications
209,137
Reads
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6,540
Citations
Introduction
** Update March 16th 2020: The Summer School will be postponed or we'll have to cancel depending on the future developments ** We will be hosting the 20th International Summer School & Symposium on Humour & Laughter in Halle (27th July - 1st August 2020). If you wish to get an update on current research and practical applications on humor and laughter consider attending: http://humoursummerschool.org/20/index.shtml
Additional affiliations
October 2018 - present
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Psychological Assessment and Differential Psychology
October 2018 - present
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Description
  • Lectures in Psychological Assessment, Differential Psychology, psychology of testing, test development/methods, and Positive Psychology
October 2016 - present
University of Zurich
Position
  • Lecturer
Description
  • Certificate of Advanced Studies UZH in Positiver Psychologie, Weiterbildungszentrum der Universität Zürich; Einheiten zu Charakterstärken, Verspieltheit

Publications

Publications (254)
Article
Full-text available
Adult playfulness describes individual differences in (re)framing everyday situations as personally interesting, and/or entertaining, and/or intellectually stimulating. We aimed at extending initial evidence on the interconnectedness between language use and adult playfulness by asking 264 participants (M = 26.5 years, SD = 9.7; 66.7% women) to pro...
Article
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The Kaufman Domains of Creativity Scales (K-DOCS) assess individual differences in creativity across five domains (Everyday, Scholarly, Performance, Science, and Artistic). We provide data on the psychometric properties and the structural and nomological validity of the German adaptation of the K-DOCS from three samples (Ntotal = 1,379). Our findin...
Article
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We studied the similarity among partners' character strengths (i.e., positively valued traits) across two studies. In Study 1, N = 68 couples completed the 240-item VIA Inventory of Strengths and in Study 2, N = 143 couples completed a 24-item brief-form and measures of life-and relationship satisfaction. We computed raw, normative, and distinctive...
Article
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Previous studies have shown that individual differences in adult playfulness are important in interpersonal relationships. However, there is a lack of research on the role of playfulness in human sexuality. Using three studies with four independently collected samples (Ntotal = 1,124) we tested the differential relations between global playfulness...
Article
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Affect is involved in many psychological phenomena, but a descriptive structure, long sought, has been elusive. Valence and arousal are fundamental, and a key question-the focus of the present study-is the relationship between them. Valence is sometimes thought to be independent of arousal, but, in some studies (representing too few societies in th...
Article
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The Impostor Phenomenon (IP) is characterized by an external-instable-specific attributional style (i.e., Impostors perceive successful performance as due to chance). To our knowledge no study has yet tested this notion in real-life situations. Therefore, we invited 76 participants to complete computer-based numerical and verbal intelligence tasks,...
Article
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We extend the knowledge on dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at (gelotophobia, gelotophilia, and katagelasticism) by testing their localization in a system of maladaptive personality traits. Across two studies, we used self-ratings (Ntotal = 1,438) and informant reports (Ntotal = 378 dyads). The differential associations for the dispos...
Article
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Objective: Research on the associations between cognitive and noncognitive personality traits has widely neglected character strengths, that means positively and morally valued personality traits that constitute good character. Method: The present study aimed to bridge this gap by studying the associations between character strengths and fluid i...
Article
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The fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia) is an individual differences variable characterized by negative reactions to laughter. Based on the theory of trait-congruent information processing, we conducted a series of experiments to examine a gelotophobia-related memory bias toward laughter in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. The DRM i...
Article
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In a recent study, Rolón and colleagues (2021) provided self-report data on a six-item extraversion scale, self-reported COVID-19 infection status, and political ideology from n = 53 previously infected and 164 previously noninfected participants. Based on comparisons of the subsamples concerning domain and facet scores in extraversion (0.04 ≤ g ≤...
Article
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Influenced by the flowering of positive psychology in the field of foreign language acquisition research in recent years, the present study aimed to explore the perceived functions of playfulness, as a personality construct, among English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. To this aim, an initial sample of 38 EFL learners were selected randomly...
Article
The present study examines the role of beliefs about the malleability of well-being in a randomized, placebo-controlled, online positive psychology intervention targeting 267 German-speaking adults (83% women, mean age = 43.16 years). The participants of the experimental group ("three good things" intervention) and placebo control group ("early mem...
Article
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There has been increasing interest in the analysis of dyadic data. While there is ongoing progress in the development of statistically fine-grained methods to model complex dyadic data, many studies examine relationship duration in dyads using cross-sectional data (e.g., when testing the effects of acquaintanceship on the accuracy of personality ju...
Article
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There is robust support for the notion that playfulness is important for how people initiate and engage in their romantic relationships. Our study sought to extend the knowledge on associations between four facets of playfulness (Other-directed, Lighthearted, Intellectual, and Whimsical; OLIW) with facets of relationship satisfaction (RS) in 116 mi...
Preprint
Research on the associations between cognitive and noncognitive personality traits has widely neglected positively valued traits such as character strengths. The present study aimed to bridge this gap by studying the associations between character strengths and intelligence using different operationalizations of intelligence and character strengths...
Article
Full-text available
Gelotophobia (the fear of being laughed at) is an individual difference variable that relates to a particular set of emotional reactions, behaviors, and processes towards laughter and ridicule that are potentially detrimental to learning processes. We extend the research of gelotophobia to the educational domain by exploring the direct effect of ge...
Article
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Playfulness is an understudied personality trait in adults. We examined the relationships between facets of adult playfulness and sensation seeking (SS) in distant vocational groups; namely, librarians (N = 339) and police officers (N = 399). First, manifest and latent group comparisons (measurement invariance analysis) showed that police officers...
Chapter
Full-text available
A good (sense of) humor is among the most frequently desired qualities in potential short- and long-term partners, and numerous studies found humor to be an important characteristic that people seek in close others. This entry gives a short overview both on why humor is considered to be among the most attractive traits and also on the role of sex d...
Chapter
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Article
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There is increasing interest in the study of individual differences in playfulness in adults; the way people frame or reframe situations in a way that they are experienced as personally interesting, and/or intellectually stimulating, and/or entertaining. In this review, we describe and discuss its role for romantic life. After a brief introduction,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Previous studies have shown that medical students are more prone to suffer from symptoms related to depression than other students. Even though there is some evidence that psychology students also experience such symptoms, research concerning the mental health of future psychologists is scarce. Objective: The aims of this study were thr...
Article
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Background: While there are numerous applications of play-based interventions, there is little research on playfulness-based interventions. We applied interventions that aim at stimulating playfulness and test effects on happiness and depressive symptoms. Method: In a randomised placebo-controlled online intervention, N = 533 participants were a...
Article
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Personality assessment typically relies on self-report questionnaires utilizing Likert-type scales. Recently, the Expanded format has been proposed as alternative, but research on the consequences of adapting Likert-like responses to Expanded items is sparse. We adapt a multidimensional measure into the Expanded format: the PhoPhiKat-45. This is th...
Article
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Objective: How people deal with ridicule and being laughed at plays a role in romantic life. We extend the research on the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia), joy in being laughed at (gelotophilia), and joy in laughing at others (katagelasticism) by testing their associations with romantic jealousy and its consequences for relationship satisfa...
Article
Full-text available
Benevolent and corrective humor are two comic styles that have been related to virtue, morality, and character strengths. A previous study also supported the viability of measuring these two styles with the BenCor in 22 countries. The present study extends the previous one by including further countries (a total of 25 countries in 29 samples with N...
Article
Full-text available
We extend the research on three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at, namely, interindividual differences in the fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia), joy in being laughed at (gelotophilia), and joy in laughing at others (katagelasticism), by testing their relationships with attributional styles in two studies. Study 1 (N = 527) sho...
Article
Full-text available
Adult playfulness is an individual differences variable that allows people to (re-)frame everyday situations in a way to make them entertaining, stimulating, and/or interesting. Recently, a structural model with four facets (i.e., Other-directed, Lighthearted, Intellectual, and Whimsical; OLIW) and a subjective measure with 28 items have been devel...
Article
Full-text available
We examined the accuracy of judgments of three dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at in two thin slices studies. Participants (N1/2 = 218/132) provided short written self-descriptions (Study 2 also included diary data across 14 days). In each study, ten judges provided their impressions of the targets’ dispositions based on targets’ wri...
Article
Full-text available
The authentic happiness theory covers three basic orientations to happiness; namely, the life of pleasure (via hedonism); engagement (via flow-related experiences); and meaning (via eudaimonia). There is broad evidence for a positive relationship between these three orientations and indicators of positive psychological functioning in a variety of l...
Article
Full-text available
The authentic happiness theory covers three basic orientations to happiness; namely, the life of pleasure (via hedonism); engagement (via flow-related experiences); and meaning (via eudaimonia). There is broad evidence for a positive relationship between these three orientations and indicators of positive psychological functioning in a variety of l...
Article
One commonly suggested mechanism in positive psychology interventions (PPIs) involves the elicitation of positive emotions. We examined (1) whether PPIs increase the intensity and variety of positive emotions; (2) which positive emotions are elicited by two different PPIs; and (3) the impact of positive emotions on well-being. In a randomized, cont...
Article
Numerous studies have confirmed the effectiveness of character strengths-based interventions for fostering well-being. However, there are still several open questions. The present article discusses some of the most important questions. We review the current body of research and provide ideas and possible future directions on issues such as: Should...
Article
This article offers an overview of what humor is-and of how it can be used as a positive tool in dealing with patients and coworkers. After presenting a recent model for categorizing comic styles, which, among other things, separates "light" and "dark" humor, this article examines humor as a virtue in the context of health care.
Article
Full-text available
The fear of being laughed at (gelotophobia) plays a detrimental role in courtship (e.g., predicting a lower likelihood of entering a relationship) and romantic relationships (e.g., low relationship satisfaction). Gelotophobia correlates positively with anxious and avoidant romantic attachment. This study aims to replicate (a) the associations betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Instruments for the assessment of the Eysenckian superfactors of personality, Psychoticism (P), Extraversion (E), and Neuroticism (N), were developed over the course of almost 50 years. Typically the convergence with the precursor was examined when a new scale was published. In the present study the continuity and change of the substance of P, E, a...
Article
Full-text available
Gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy in being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy in laughing at others) describe individual differences in how people deal with ridicule and being laughed at. We study their association with romantic attachment styles and romantic outcomes in adults. Study 1 (N = 247) shows that gelotophobia...
Article
Full-text available
How people deal with humor and laughter is culturally constructed within a society but each member may differ in their attitudes. Depending upon this, this study aimed to test the factor structure of PhoPhiKat-45 (Ruch and Proyer Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 22, 183–212, 2009a) which is a subjective measurement designed to assess...
Article
Full-text available
Playfulness is an individual differences variable at the trait-level. It describes the ability to experience or (re)frame everyday situations as stimulating, interesting, and/or entertaining. Playfulness in adolescents is somewhat understudied. We collected self-report data on four facets of playfulness (other-directed, lighthearted, intellectual,...
Chapter
Full-text available
A dyad is composed of two people who relate to each other (e.g., romantic partners, two friends, parent-child, or patient-therapist dyads). Interactions between the dyad’s members and/or their characteristics (e.g., personality traits) are called dyadic. Dyadic interactions follow Koffka’s gestalt principle “the whole is other than the sum of its p...
Book
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Der CRE-W unterstützt Organisationen bei der Personalauswahl und -entwicklung, indem er einschätzt, wie Kandidaten auf situationsbezogene, realistische Arbeitsprobleme reagieren. Er misst die Innovationsfähigkeit der Testteilnehmenden und die Wahrscheinlichkeit, dass sie ihre kreative Initiative am Arbeitsplatz einsetzen werden. Beim CRE-W handelt...
Article
Full-text available
The PhoPhiKat-45 assesses individual differences in the way people deal with ridicule and being laughed at. This instrument encompasses three intercorrelated—but independent—laughter-related traits: the fear of (gelotophobia) and the joy in (gelotophilia) being laughed at, and the joy in laughing at others (katagelasticism). This research tested th...
Article
We aimed to extend research on dispositions toward ridicule and being laughed at by testing the localization of the fear of (gelotophobia) and the joy in (gelotophilia) being laughed at, and the joy in laughing at others (katagelasticism) in the HEXACO model and the Dark Triad traits (both have not been examined so far). Study 1 (HEXACO model: N =...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in how people experience and engage in laughter and ridicule can be described by three personality dispositions: gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy in being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy in laughing at others). We study the correlates of how people deal with ridicule and being laughed at with t...
Article
Previous research has shown that adult playfulness contributes to relationship satisfaction (RS). Using 211 heterosexual romantic couples we test the association between four facets of playfulness (Other-directed, Lighthearted, Intellectual, and Whimsical; OLIW) and indicators of RS in an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM)-design. The four...
Chapter
Playfulness is “[. . .] an individual differences variable that allows people to frame or reframe everyday situations in a way such that they experience them as entertaining, and/or intellectually stimulating, and/or personally interesting” (Proyer 2017, p. 114).
Article
Character strengths are positively valued traits that are expected to contribute to the good life (Peterson and Seligman 2004). Numerous studies have confirmed their robust relationships with subjective or hedonic well-being. Seligman (2011) provided a new framework of well-being suggesting five dimensions that encompass both hedonic and eudemonic...
Article
Full-text available
While broad evidence exists that positive psychology interventions are effective in increasing well-being, less is known about the working mechanisms behind this process. We examine the impact of subjective changes in affectivity (i.e., elicitation of positive emotions) and cognitive processes (i.e., the gaining of insights) in three variants of a...
Article
People differ in how they deal with ridicule and being laughed at along three individual differences variables; namely, the fear (gelotophobia) and joy (gelotophilia) of being laughed at and joy of laughing at others (katagelasticism). This study examines their associations with facets of relationship satisfaction (RS). Actor-Partner-Interdependenc...
Chapter
Die Positive Psychologie befasst sich mit der Frage, was das Leben am meisten lebenswert macht und wie das „gute Leben“ erreicht werden kann. Zentrale Forschungsthemen sind die Konzeptualisierung und Erfassung des Wohlbefindens bzw. der psychischen Gesundheit, sowie von positiven Charaktereigenschaften (sog. Charakterstärken). Eine weitere wichtige...
Conference Paper
Recent research has shown that individual differences in adult playfulness contribute to satisfaction in romantic relationships. The present study examines associations of four facets of playfulness (i.e., other-directed, lighthearted, intellectual, and whimsical) with approaches to romantic relationships in terms of love styles (i.e., Eros, Ludus,...
Conference Paper
Verspieltheit im Erwachsenenalter beschreibt interindividuelle Unterschiede in der Fähigkeit, Situationen so zu gestalten, dass diese als unterhaltsam und/oder interessant und/oder intellektuell stimulierend erlebt werden. Das OLIW-Modell (Proyer, 2017) unterscheidet die Komponenten other-directed (z.B. liebevolles Necken), lighthearted (z.B. Präfe...
Poster
Individual differences in how people deal with ridicule and being laughed at can be described by three personality dispositions; namely, gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy of laughing at others). Recent findings show that they are associated with indicators of the romantic life...
Conference Paper
Verspieltheit beschreibt interindividuelle Unterschiede in der Fähigkeit, Situationen so zu gestalten, dass diese als unterhaltsam und/oder interessant und/oder intellektuell stimulierend erlebt werden. Die Literatur weist darauf hin, dass Verspieltheit mit positiv-psychologischen Verhaltensweisen einher geht (z.B. gesunder Umgang mit Stress) und v...
Conference Paper
Während der Ausdruck von Lachen und Lächeln kulturübergreifend überwiegend als Ausdruck positiver Emotionen wahrgenommen wird, unterscheiden sich Menschen im Umgang mit dem Lachen und Ausgelachtwerden. Diese Unterschiede können mittels der drei Trait-Dimensionen Gelotophobie (Angst, vor dem ausgelacht werden; Fehlinterpretation von Lachen als Ausla...
Article
Full-text available
Adult playfulness is a personality trait that enables people to frame or reframe everyday situations in such a way that they experience them as entertaining, intellectually stimulating, or personally interesting. Earlier research supports the notion that playfulness is associated with the pursuit of an active way of life. While playful children are...
Poster
There is robust evidence for a positive contribution of creativity to a broad range of work-related functions (e.g., salary, patent submissions). To address the increasing interest in the study of creativity at the workplace, Kaufman and Reiter-Palmon (2016) developed the Creative Response Evaluation – Work (CRE-W), which comprises 20 scenarios des...
Poster
Research on the interpersonal perception of personality examines how accurately others (e.g., peers) judge a target person. Typically, observers provide their judgments by completing personality questionnaires using items formulated in the third-person form (e.g., quot;He/She is outgoingquot;). To quantify the judgment accuracy, two indices are fre...
Conference Paper
Individual differences in dealing with ridicule and being laughed at can be described by three unidimensional traits; namely, gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy of laughing at others). Previous research has shown that romantic partners are similar in their dispositions towards l...
Poster
Gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at), gelotophilia (joy of being laughed at), and katagelasticism (joy of laughing at others) are three unidimensional traits that describe individual differences in how people deal with ridicule and being laughed at. Based on the assumption that personality is expressed in how people describe themselves, we teste...
Article
The evidence for the effectiveness of humor-based positive psychology interventions (PPIs; i.e., interventions aimed at enhancing happiness and lowering depressive symptoms) is steadily increasing. However, little is known about who benefits most from them. We aim at narrowing this gap by examining whether personality traits and sense of humor mode...
Article
Playfulness is an individual difference variable that allows people to (re)frame a situation in a way that it is experienced as entertaining, intellectually stimulating, and/or personally interesting. We examined the interpersonal perception of playfulness at zero-acquaintance. One-hundred forty-four participants wrote short self-descriptions which...
Article
Full-text available
Compared with playfulness in infants and children, playfulness in adults is relatively under-studied. Although there is no empirical research comparing differences in adult playfulness across cultures, one might expect variations between Western and Eastern societies such as China. While playfulness is typically seen as a positive trait in Western...
Article
The main aim of this overview is to discuss theoretical work and empirical studies on the proposed association between humor and playfulness. Starting point is McGhee’s (1996, Health, healing and the amuse system: Humor as survival training. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt; 1999, The laughter remedy: Health, healing and the amuse system. Dubuque, IA: Ken...
Article
Full-text available
The present study introduces eight comic styles (i.e., fun, humor, nonsense, wit, irony, satire, sarcasm, and cynicism) and examines the validity of a set of 48 marker items for their assessment, the Comic Style Markers (CSM). These styles were originally developed to describe literary work and are used here to describe individual differences. Stud...