Renaud Evrard

Renaud Evrard
University of Lorraine | UdL · Département de Psychologie

Ph.D

About

122
Publications
14,431
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398
Citations
Citations since 2017
69 Research Items
283 Citations
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Additional affiliations
November 2009 - August 2015
CHR Metz-Thionville
Position
  • Psychologue

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Context Many cultures believe that the first traces of human consciousness during the incarnation may be present before birth. Practices based on this belief exist in many cultures. However, formal scientific inquiry into the possibility of communicating with prenatal consciousness has never been explored. Objective To evaluate if it is possible t...
Article
Résumé. Introduction : L’aphantasie est un concept récent décrivant l’incapacité d’utiliser son « œil mental » et de visualiser des images mentales dans son esprit. Bien que cette « imagination aveugle » ait été étudiée dans le but de comprendre les mécanismes neuronaux et les possibles conséquences de cette condition, les implications de l’aphan...
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Résumé Objectifs La littérature scientifique suggère que le Trouble du spectre autistique (TSA), chez les femmes, peut se manifester, de façon différente, en raison de nombreux facteurs, impactant, de ce fait, l’obtention de ce diagnostic, en particulier à l’âge adulte. D’après des données récentes, la prévalence du diagnostic de TSA évoluerait ve...
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In their recent paper, Parnia and colleagues propose a new label for the near‐death experience (NDE): recalled experience of death. They claimed NDEs are “authentic” only when an objective danger is present and that authentic NDEs have a proven core phenomenology. We consider that these claims are insufficiently supported by empirical data. NDEs ap...
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Résumé Entendre des voix est une expérience encore largement stigmatisée et interprétée sous le prisme de la psychopathologie. Pour autant, les personnes ayant ces vécus ne se reconnaissent pas nécessairement dans les classifications psychiatriques existantes. C’est ainsi qu’est né un mouvement social, baptisé Hearing Voices Movement, qui vise la r...
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Résumé Objectifs Les représentations du sujet autiste mutique ou en grande difficulté avec le langage ne coïncident plus avec les documents cliniques et non-cliniques collectés au cours des dernières décennies. Méthode Le suivi d’Éric, de son diagnostic infantile jusqu’à sa majorité, est employé comme illustration clinique des diverses attitudes...
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Résumé De multiples dispositifs de soins, dits alternatifs, sont organisés par des personnes qui déclarent posséder un don de guérison. Un nombre croissant de patients en quête de soins se dirige vers ces dispositifs de plus en plus présents dans le paysage thérapeutique. Nous proposons, dans cet article, d’explorer la dynamique psychique sous-jace...
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Introduction Exceptional experiences of contact with the deceased are the subject of renewed interest in the bereavement clinical practice. Several works have highlighted positive aspects of such experiences, while asking specific questions about their complex links with psychopathology. The rupture model, reinforced by the Freudian theory, promote...
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Résumé Introduction Les expériences exceptionnelles de contact avec les défunts font l’objet d’un regain d’intérêt dans le cadre de la clinique du deuil. Plusieurs travaux sont venus montrer les aspects positifs de tels vécus, tout en posant certaines questions quant aux liens complexes entre ceux-ci et la psychopathologie. Le modèle de la rupture...
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Freud’s writing on the topic of thought-transference stimulated controversy among analysts and original reflection on psychoanalytic understandings of the psyche. The notion of telepathy has also contributed significantly to the development of fundamental psychoanalytic concepts, including transference, projective identification, and primary forms...
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Résumé Objectifs Les données sur la prévalence du trouble du spectre autistique (TSA) témoignent d’évolutions cliniques accompagnées par les nosographies psychiatriques induisant de nouvelles pratiques diagnostiques. L’autisme est ainsi passé d’un syndrome rare aux formes cliniques graves à un nouveau paradigme, celui de l’ordinaire, autant en ter...
Article
Objectives. – Data on the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) reveal several clinical evolutions inducing new psychi- atric definitions and diagnostic practices. Thus, autism has shifted from being a rare syndrome with severe clinical forms to a new paradigm: the paradigm of “ordinary” or “invisible” autism, in terms of the frequency and t...
Article
The concept of “thought-transference” holds a special position within the psychoanalytic field. It first emerged in the margins of the discipline as an object of the psychical sciences. It was then extracted by psychoanalysis from the darkness of occultism, Freud considered thought-transference as the kernel of truth in occult beliefs. In this arti...
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Résumé Objectifs Les questions du hasard et de la causalité furent les objets d’une discorde majeure entre Freud et Jung. Afin d’expliquer des coïncidences étranges vécues en présence de Jung, Freud déploie la notion de « Entgegenkommen des Zufalls », traduit par l’expression « complaisance du hasard », et qui rend compte d’un processus psychique...
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Fight AND Flight: disjunction in near-death experiences Many models of the phenomenology of near-death experiences (NDEs) competed in the 1980s and the current model still does not reach consensus. Since the first observations of the late nineteenth century, emphasis has been placed on the heterogeneity of the processes present in the NDEs, which w...
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The near death experience as a bulwark against psychotraumatic risk? The confrontation with a deadly threat is commonly associated with a psychotraumatic potentiality. However, some people who are close to death and are resuscitated claim to return without traumatic sequelae, but with a desire to live more intense. What are the effects of a life-th...
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Full-text available
This book is part of a Springer series on Women in the History of Philosophy and Sciences that attempted to balance sexism in science and the so-called “Matilda” effect (denial or minimization of the scientific contribution of women researchers to the benefit of their male colleagues). I’m clearly not a specialist in the deep philosophical work dis...
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Full-text available
Carlos S. Alvarado is a well-known specialist of the history of parapsychology, and also famous for his pedagogical skills mostly as an affiliate of the Parapsychology Foundation and the Alvarado and Zingrone Institute for Research and Education. Most of the material used in this book was already available online on his blog (https://carlossalvarad...
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Le spiritisme, dès son apparition, fut un recours thérapeutique et le reste encore aujourd'hui.
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Introduction. – La promotion d’une nouvelle Stratégie nationale pour l’autisme (2018-2022) concrétise l’intérêt croissant et justifié des politiques publiques pour le diagnostic des personnes présentant des troubles du spectre autistique (TSA) qui en est l’une des priorités principales. Les démarches diagnostiques standardisées et recommandées par...
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Full-text available
Introduction. – Les évolutions actuelles en santé publique amènent les autorités qualifiées à proposer, dans leurs recommandations de bonne pratique pour l’évaluation et le diagnostic des troubles du spectre autistique (TSA), des procédures qui s’appuient sur l’utilisation de l’Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) et l’Autism Diagnostic Obse...
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Introduction. – Current developments in international public health are leading qualified authorities to release clinical practice guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) assessment and diagnosis. Such documents incorporate procedures that rely on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule...
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Résumé Les critères d’identification de la schizophrénie ont connu une évolution entre le DSM-IV-TR et le DSM-5. Dans cette recherche préliminaire, nous illustrons ce basculement avec l’étude de deux femmes issues de la population non clinique qui affirment entendre des voix depuis plusieurs années et qui en font même une ressource pour leurs activ...
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Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio exploratorio es hacer el diagnóstico descriptivo de la forclusión a través del Rorscharch. Paciente y método: Primero, el concepto de forclusión es objeto de una primera parte definitoria. Secundo, basándose en la investigación previa de De Tychey en 1982, se encontró la aparición de una semiología para la...
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Background Integrative and complementary health approaches (ICHA) are often pursued by patients facing chronic illnesses. Most of the studies that investigated the factors associated with ICHA consumption have considered that the propensity to use ICHA is a stable or fixed characteristic of an individual. However, people may prefer using ICHA in so...
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La lucidité terminale est un phénomène déjà observé dans le cadre de tumeurs cérébrales, qui consiste en une récupération des fonctions altérées par la pathologie survenant en général quelques heures, jours ou semaines avant la mort. Malgré le statut d’énigme médicale de la lucidité terminale, il est possible d’étudier ses répercussions sur l’entou...
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Whilst best known as a Nobel laureate physiologist, Charles Robert Richet (1850-1935) was also a pioneer of scientific psychology. Starting in 1875 Richet had a leading role in the habilitation of hypnosis, in the institutionalization of psychology in France, and in the introduction of methodological innovations. Authoring several psychology books,...
Book
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Single case studies have a long tradition in the field of parapsychology and anomalistics research. Naturally, thorough case studies do not usually provide hard evidence for the existence of paranormal effects. However, they demonstrate the dynamics of occurrence of such extraordinary phenomena and experiences in the living world. This volume is in...
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Near-death experiences (NDEs) are usually associated with clinical death, although this association remains controversial. A look back to the early understanding of these experiences, since the end of the 19th century, reveals a different picture than presented in contemporary descriptions. Indeed, the more historical accounts linked NDEs with vari...
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Among the founders of French psychology, Pierre Janet (1859–1947) is recognized for both his scientific and institutional roles. The psychology born at the turn of the 20th century was initially partly receptive to, but then engaged in, a battle with the “psychical marvelous,” and Janet was no exception. He was involved in the split between psychol...
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Résumé Introduction Plusieurs débats scientifiques et politiques contemporains insistent sur l’importance de ne plus concevoir l’autisme comme une forme de psychose. Toutefois, de nombreux cliniciens et chercheurs identifient des chevauchements symptomatiques entre le spectre de la schizophrénie et le spectre de l’autisme. C’est particulièrement l...
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En 1896, dans son essai sur la relation du corps et de l’esprit, répondant au titre de Matière et mémoire, Bergson utilise l’étrange phénomène de la vision panoramique de la vie à l’appui de sa théorie des deux mémoires. Il développe à nouveau cet exemple dans son discours de président de la Society for Psychical Research en 1913 où il situe le déc...
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https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01901/abstract Aim : This paper sheds light on the context which leads some querulous patients to self-immolate in front of, or into, public buildings (e.g. tribunals, city halls, employment agencies). Method : The author defines paranoid querulousness. A psychoanalytic perspective, but als...
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MUTUALITÉ DE L’AUTONOMIE ET RELATION D’OBJET AU RORSCHACH : mise en perspective du modèle américain et de la conception psychanalytique structurale française. Résumé : Les auteurs présentent l’échelle américaine de mutualité d’autonomie d’Urist (1977) et une brève synthèse des travaux de validation montrant son intérêt en clinique diagnostique et...
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Cet article se donne pour but d’illustrer la spécificité de la valence anale dans le délire paranoïaque (délire de persécution). Il s’agit par-là de discerner la valeur des apports de Karl Abraham sur un critère permettant le diagnostic différentiel entre la paranoïa et la schizophrénie.
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Résumé Certains rescapés de noyade témoignent d’un vécu paradoxalement élationnel, caractérisé par une accélération apparente des pensées et une vision panoramique de leur vie. Cette énigme fut discutée par de nombreux médecins et psychologues au cours du xixe siècle. Le philosophe Victor Egger a analysé ce « moi vif » déclenché par l’idée d’une mo...
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At the turn of twentieth century, in France, psychical research wasn't fully separate from psychology. The Institut Général Psychologique (IGP) was created in 1900 as an attempt to integrate the scientific study of anomalous phenomena into modern science. One forgotten actor in this society was "psychologist" Louis Favre, a polymath researcher with...
Article
The physician and botanist Timothée Puel (1812-1890) lived through a pivotal period of psychology (1848-1878), between the academic prohibition of the study of animal magnetism to its disjointed recovery in hypnotism and psychical research. One of his cases of "catalepsy complicated with somnambulism" triggered a lively debate on "extraordinary neu...
Article
Background and objectives: Delusions are usually anchored in past events associated with abnormal experiences or delusional interpretations of personal events. The characteristics of the memory of these experiences may contribute to maintain delusional beliefs by providing confirmatory evidence for the delusions. However, these aspects have not be...
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Full-text available
The aim of this article is to present a French psychoanalytic model of how and to what extent the sequellae of sexual abuse by a male during a girl’s childhood are transmitted to the next generation, as a function of the gender of the abused mother’s children. The authors conducted a qualitative exploratory study based on the longitudinal follow-up...
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In this article, we present the evolution in the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-5 for schizotypal personality disorder, which is included both in personality disorders and in the new schizophrenia spectrum. The different interpretations (categorical versus fully dimensional) of experiences assimilated to psychosis raise important issues in contempo...
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Psychosis for all : youth at risk of « attenuated psychosis syndrome » ? Numerous studies have revealed hallucinatory and delirious experiences among children and adolescents for whom the diagnosis of psychosis does not seem to be relevant. While various models exist to think about the differential clinical aspects of such reputedly psychotic exper...
Article
Numerous studies have revealed hallucinatory and delirious experiences among children and adolescents for whom the diagnosis of psychosis does not seem to be relevant. While various models exist to think about the differential clinical aspects of such reputedly psychotic experiences, the fifth version of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Menta...
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Full-text available
At the turn of the twentieth century there was a wave of delusions which had a direct link to spiritism in their form and content. These so-called spiritist or mediumistic delusions were the object of detailed study, and clinicians assigned them a place in nosography, especially in France. This work of classification was carried out as a function o...
Article
Plusieurs études ont montré la prévalence élevée de vécus d’hallucinations acoustico-verbales (des « voix ») chez des individus qui ne sont pas suivis psychiatriquement et n’en ont fréquemment pas le besoin. À partir des années 1980, des chercheurs hollandais puis britanniques ont mis en lumière ces personnes – adultes et adolescents – dont une par...
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Objectives Several studies have shown the high prevalence of experiences of acoustic-verbal hallucinations (so-called “voices”) in non-psychiatric individuals. From the 1980s was constituted an international movement – the “voice hearers” – who relativize but also fertilize the clinical knowledge on the listening of hallucinations. This paper propo...
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The Psychological Repercussions of ‘Memories’ of One’s Own Death – a Critical Assessment of the Work of Dr Pim Van Lommel In 2001, in the medical journal The Lancet, cardiologist Pim van Lommel and his colleagues published a prospective, longitudinal study on the enduring existence of ‘memories’ from periods of unconsciousness in 344 patients who h...
Article
The notion of “extraordinary neurosis” was at the center of the mid-nineteenth century debates in the Société Médico-Psychologique. They put a name to a set of clinical cases that lay at the boundary of the psychiatric knowledge of the time, mixing, among other phenomena, somnambulism, double personality, hysterical fits, and lucidity phenomena. No...
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On Extraordinary Neurosis: An Introduction The notion of “extraordinary neurosis” was at the center of the mid-nineteenth century debates in the Société Médico-Psychologique. They put a name to a set of clinical cases that lay at the boundary of the psychiatric knowledge of the time, mixing, among other phenomena, somnambulism, double personality,...

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Project
[PhD research project] Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as mutually exclusive disorders but it remains a huge difficulty to distinguish since criteria identified by psychiatric nosographies overlap significantly. The standardized diagnostic procedures recommended may have their limits, particularly in complex cases raising the issue of differential diagnosis. We study the possibility that the Rorschach test could constitute a tool with a different diagnostic clinical approach and compatible with diagnostic modalities already practiced for children and adults especially in complex diagnostic situations.