Renato Mantegazza

Renato Mantegazza
Fondazione I.R.C.C.S. Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta | IRCCS besta · Division of Neurology IV - Neuro-Immunology and Neuromuscular Diseases

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391
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11,021
Citations
Citations since 2016
131 Research Items
5511 Citations
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Publications

Publications (391)
Article
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Importance Despite people with impaired immune competence due to an underlying disease or ongoing therapy, hereinafter frail patients, are (likely to be) the first to be vaccinated, they were usually excluded from clinical trials. Objective To report adverse reactions of frail patients after receipt of the third dose (booster) administered after c...
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Multisystem involvement in SMA has gained prominence since different therapeutic options are emerging making the way for new SMA phenotypes, and consequent challenges in clinical care. Defective immune organs have been found in preclinical models of SMA, suggesting an involvement of the immune system in the disease. However, the immune state in SMA...
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We formerly reported Italian kindred with adult-onset autosomal dominant vacuolar myopathy with 19 affected individuals over four generations. Myopathology was characterized by rimmed autophagic vacuolation and distinctive immunohistochemical features including involvement of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. More recently, we identified the protei...
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Introduction In ADAPT, efgartigimod, a human IgG1 antibody Fc-fragment blocking neonatal Fc receptor, resulted in clinically meaningful improvement (CMI) in myasthenia gravis (MG)-specific measures. Patients completing ADAPT were eligible to enrol in ADAPT+ (open-label, 3-year extension study). Methods Efgartigimod, 10 mg/kg intravenous infusion a...
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Background: Although myasthenia gravis (MG) is recognised as an IgG autoantibody-mediated disease, the relationship between autoantibody levels and disease activity in MG is unclear. We sought to evaluate this landscape through systematically assessing the evidence, testing the impact of pre-defined variables on any relationship and augmenting wit...
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Background and objectives Multisystem involvement in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is gaining prominence since different therapeutic options are emerging, making the way for new SMA phenotypes and consequent challenges in clinical care. Defective immune organs have been found in preclinical models of SMA, suggesting an involvement of the immune sys...
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Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate-receptor modulator approved for the oral treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), a form of MS characterized by a pattern of exacerbation of neurological symptoms followed by recovery. Here, we validated a simple and rapid liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the measur...
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The complement system plays a key role in myasthenia gravis (MG). Anti-complement drugs are emerging as effective therapies to treat anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody-positive MG patients, though their usage is still limited by the high costs. Here, we searched for plasma complement proteins as indicators of complement activation status i...
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Background: Patients with solid or hematological tumors, neurological and immune-inflammatory disorders are potentially fragile subjects at increased risk of experiencing severe COVID-19 and an inadequate response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Methods: We designed a prospective Italian multicentrer study to assess humoral and T-cell responses to SA...
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Background and Objectives Autoantibodies against α3-subunit–containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α3-nAChRs), usually measured by radioimmunoprecipitation assay (RIPA), are detected in patients with autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG). However, low α3-nAChR antibody levels are frequently detected in other neurologic diseases with ques...
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Background Frail patients are considered at relevant risk of complications due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and, for this reason, are prioritized candidates for vaccination. As these patients were originally not included in the registration trials, fear related to vaccine adverse events and disease worsening was one of the reaso...
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Objective The aim of our study was to validate the Myasthenia Gravis TeleScore (MGTS), a scale for the evaluation of MG patients in telemedicine. Introduction COVID-19 pandemic has boosted telemedicine in clinical practice. It could be crucial in the care of neurological patients with chronic disease. However, there is a lack of validated disease-...
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neurological autoimmune disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. It is a B cell-mediated disease caused by pathogenic antibodies directed against various components of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Despite the wide range of adverse effects, current treatment is still based on non-specific immunosuppress...
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Familial periodic paralyses (PPs) are inherited disorders of skeletal muscle characterized by recurrent episodes of flaccid muscle weakness. PPs are classified as hypokalemic (HypoPP), normokalemic (NormoPP), or hyperkalemic (HyperPP) according to the potassium level during the paralytic attacks. HypoPP is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mu...
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Objective A group of genes have been reported to be associated with myopathies with tubular aggregates (TAs). Many cases with TAs still lack of genetic clarification. This study aims to explore the genetic background of cases with TAs in order to improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of these rare pathological structures. Methods Thirty-three...
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Background : Patients with neuroimmunological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) often receive disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) or immunosuppressants which may reduce the response to vaccines. BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) is the first COVID-19 vaccine authorized in Italy. Its clinical efficacy and serological response were not evaluated in...
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Background and aims Efgartigimod, a human IgG1 antibody Fc-fragment, blocks the neonatal Fc receptor, which decreases recycling of IgG and reduces pathogenic autoantibody levels. In a phase 2 study, it demonstrated efficacy and was well tolerated in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG), an IgG antibody-mediated disease. Methods ADAPT...
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Background There is an unmet need for treatment options for generalised myasthenia gravis that are effective, targeted, well tolerated, and can be used in a broad population of patients. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), a human IgG1 antibody Fc fragment engineered to reduce pathogenic IgG autoantibody levels, i...
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Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare, chronic, autoimmune disease, mediated by immunoglobulin G antibodies, which causes debilitating muscle weakness. As with most rare diseases, there is little patient-reported data with which to understand and address patient needs. This study explores the impact of MG in the real world from the patient...
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of both upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The main clinical features of ALS are motor function impairment, progressive muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and, ultimately, paralysis. Intrinsic skeletal muscle deterioration plays a crucial role in the disea...
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Genetic susceptibility to myasthenia gravis (MG) associates with specific HLA alleles and haplotypes at the class I and II regions in various populations. Previous studies have only examined alleles at a limited number of HLA loci that defined only broad serotypes or alleles defined at the protein sequence level. Consequently, genetic variants in n...
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Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by upper and/or lower MN loss. MNDs include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Despite variability in onset, progression, and genetics, they share a common skeletal muscle involvement, suggesting...
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Primary-progressive (PP) and secondary-progressive (SP) multiple sclerosis (MS) are characterized by neurological deficits caused by a permanent neuronal damage, clinically quantified by the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Neuronal tissue damage is also mediated by immune infiltrates producing soluble factors, such as cytokines and chemoki...
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PurposeAim of this study is to compare Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (qMRI) measures between Becker Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) and Healthy Subjects (HS) and to correlate these parameters with clinical scores.Methods Ten BMD patients (mean age ±standard deviation: 38.7 ± 15.0 years) and ten age-matched HS, were investigated through magnetic...
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3,4-Diaminopyridine (3,4-DAP) and its phosphate form, 3,4-DAPP have been used efficiently in the past years to treat muscular weakness in myasthenic syndromes with neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) impairment. Pompe disease (PD), an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder due to a defect of the lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase (GAA), presents some second...
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Introduction Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease whose treatment encompasses acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, oral steroids, and other immunosuppressants. Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) is a lymphangioproliferative disease associated with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection and immunodeficiency or immunosuppression, mainly cortic...
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a common human herpes virus latently infecting most of the world’s population with periodic reactivations, is the main environmental factor suspected to trigger and/or sustain autoimmunity by its ability to disrupt B-cell tolerance checkpoints. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder, mostly caused by au...
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Non-dystrophic myotonias (NDM) and periodic paralyses (PP) are a heterogeneous group of disabling diseases classified as skeletal muscle channelopathies (SMC). Their genetic characterization is essential for prognostic and therapeutic purposes; however, several genes are involved. Sanger-based sequencing of a single gene is time-consuming, often ex...
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Generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) is a rare autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Approximately 80-90% of patients display antibodies directed against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR). A major drive of AChR antibody-positive MG pathology is represented by complement activation. The role of the complement casca...
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Objective To evaluate whether eculizumab helps patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor-positive (AChR+) refractory generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) to achieve the Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) post-intervention status of minimal manifestations (MM), we assessed patients' status throughout REGAIN and its open-label extension....
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Objective: To retrospectively investigate safety and efficacy of nusinersen in a large cohort of adult Italian patients with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Methods: Inclusion criteria were: (1) clinical and molecular diagnosis of SMA2 or SMA3; (2) nusinersen treatment started in adult age (>18 years); (3) clinical data available at least at base...
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Gait deterioration caused by prolonged walking represents one of the main consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This study aims at proposing quantitative indices to measure the gait deterioration effects. The experimental protocol consisted in a 6-min walking test and it involved nine patients with MS and twenty-six healthy subjects. Pathology s...
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Treatment of Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is still based on non-specific immunosuppression. Long-term high dose corticosteroids is still a major cause of side effects, in young as well as in elderly patients in whom comorbidities further increase the burden of chronic immunosuppression. Moreover, awareness of the limits of traditional therapies has led t...
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Introduction Inter-individual variation in drug efficacy and tolerability in myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disorder mostly treated by chronic immunosuppression, highlights the need of specific, safe and tailored precision medicine approaches. By targeting the disease-effector molecules, biological drugs are the most promising therapeutic ag...
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Background: Four main clinical phenotypes have been traditionally described in patients mutated in SCN4A, including sodium-channel myotonia (SCM), paramyotonia congenita (PMC), Hypokaliemic type II (HypoPP2), and Hyperkaliemic/Normokaliemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP/NormoPP); in addition, rare phenotypes associated with mutations in SCN4A are con...
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Objective To assess whether eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, improves patient‐ and physician‐reported outcomes (evaluated using the myasthenia gravis activities of daily living profile and the quantitative myasthenia gravis scale, respectively) in patients with refractory anti‐acetylcholine receptor antibody‐positive generalized myasthe...
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Introduction Acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) is effectively treated with symptomatic and immunosuppressive drugs but a proportion of patients has a persistent disease and severe adverse events (AEs). The unmet medical needs are specific immunosuppression and AE lowering. Eculizumab blocks C5 protecting n...
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Laminopathies are a wide and heterogeneous group of rare human diseases caused by mutations of the LMNA gene or related nuclear envelope genes. The variety of clinical phenotypes and the wide spectrum of histopathological changes among patients carrying an identical mutation in the LMNA gene make the prognostic process rather difficult, and classic...
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Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated innate immune responses are critically involved in the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis (MG), an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular junction mainly mediated by antiacetylcholine receptor antibodies. Considerable evidence indicate that uncontrolled TLR activation and chronic inflammation significantly cont...
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Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease whose period of typical onset is around 20-40 years (i.e., early onset), thus in the peak of working age, or around 60-80 years (i.e., late onset). However, the information on work-related issues and employment status are sparse and not systematically reported. Therefore, we performed a...
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Beneficial effects of probiotics on gut microbiota homeostasis and inflammatory immune responses suggested the investigation of their potential clinical efficacy in experimental models of autoimmune diseases. Indeed, administration of two bifidobacteria and lactobacilli probiotic strains prevented disease manifestations in the Lewis rat model of My...
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Introduction: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction characterized by a presynaptic defect of neuromuscular transmission resulting in muscle weakness and fatigability. Diagnostic features are specific neurophysiological alterations and autoantibody detection. The present review is focused on the use...
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The article “Eculizumab improves fatigue in refractory generalized myasthenia gravis”, written by “Henning Andersen, Renato Mantegazza, Jing Jing Wang, Fanny O’Brien, Kaushik Patra, James F. Howard Jr. and The REGAIN Study Group” was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 23 March 2019 wit...
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Purpose of review: This article provides an update on the most recent advances in diagnostic procedures and therapeutic approaches for myasthenia gravis, spanning from autoantibody and neuroelectrophysiological tests as diagnostic tools, to innovative and promising treatments based on biological drugs. Recent findings: Novel studies performed by...
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Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder affecting neuromuscular transmission currently treated with chronic immunosuppression. Inter-subject variation in treatment response and side effects highlight the need for personalized therapies by identification of biomarkers predictive of drug efficacy in individual patients, still lacking in MG....
Article
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the corticospinal tract and leading to motor neuron death. According to a recent study, magnetic resonance imaging-visible changes suggestive of neurodegeneration seem absent in the motor cortex of G93A-SOD1 ALS mice. However, it has not yet been ascertained whether the co...
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Objective: To investigate safety and explore efficacy of efgartigimod (ARGX-113), an anti-neonatal Fc receptor immunoglobulin G1 Fc fragment, in patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (gMG) with a history of anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) autoantibodies, who were on stable standard-of-care myasthenia gravis (MG) treatment. Methods: A ph...
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. In ALS mice, neurodegeneration is associated with the proliferative restorative attempts of ependymal stem progenitor cells (epSPCs) that normally lie in a quiescent in the spinal cord. Thus, modulation of the proliferation of epSPCs may represen...
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Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset muscle disease caused by an abnormal (GCN) triplet expansion within the polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear 1 gene and consequent mRNA processing impairment and myogenic defects. Because a reduced cell proliferation potential and the consequent regeneration failure of aging muscle have bee...
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Purpose To evaluate the effect of eculizumab on perceived fatigue in patients with anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody-positive, refractory, generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) using the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QOL) Fatigue subscale, and to evaluate correlations between improvements in Neuro-QOL Fatigue and other clinical e...