Reinout Heijungs

Reinout Heijungs
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam | VU · Department of Operations Analytics

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334
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Publications

Publications (334)
Article
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Introduction Many methodological papers report a comparison of methods for LCA, for instance comparing different impact assessment systems, or developing streamlined methods. A popular way to do so is by studying the differences of results for a number of products. We refer to such studies as quasi-empirical meta-comparisons. Review of existing ap...
Article
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Dairy farms are systems with multiple dependent variables whose practices influence their economic and environmental performances. Decisions made and actions taken to improve environmental performances of dairy farms carry the risk of decreasing farm profitability. Correlations among multiple variables must therefore be considered to reliably asses...
Article
Biofuel systems may represent a promising strategy to combat climate change by replacing fossil fuels in electricity generation and transportation. First-generation biofuels from sugar and starch crops for ethanol (a gasoline substitute) and from oilseed crops for biodiesel (a petroleum diesel substitute) have come under increasing levels of scruti...
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Understanding the spatiotemporal patterns of carbon footprints (CFs) of grains production is important to formulate regional heterogeneous greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies. This study evaluates the CFs, farm CFs (FCFs: CFs of per unit area), and production CFs (PCFs: CFs of per unit yield) of main grains production in China based on a new...
Article
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Gennaria diphylla (Link) Parl. is a terrestrial, inconspicuous green orchid. Its distribution includes the central and western Mediterranean region as well as the Canary Islands and Madeira. Investigations on its pollination biology are scarce. In literature, there are mentions of autogamy and of allogamy. Pollination and pollen import and export w...
Article
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In economics, opportunity cost is defined as the benefit foregone by choosing another course of action. Considering opportunity costs enables the improved handling of trade-offs to better support strategic decision-making. We introduce the concept of opportunity cost into life cycle assessment (LCA). In our framework, opportunity cost extends the s...
Article
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Phalaenopsis is an important ornamental pot plant for the global horticultural market. The inflorescences of Phalaenopsis horticultural hybrids require support from a stick during plant cultivation because of the weight of multiple large flowers. Developing a horticultural hybrid with a sufficiently lignified inflorescence stem that does not requir...
Article
Limited and uneven distributed water resources have become one of the main obstacles to China's sustainable development, and the “virtual water hypothesis” (VWH) is expected to help mitigate water stress. This study discusses the virtual water transfer pattern and water resources stress in China from the VWH perspective. Economic sectors in China a...
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Over the past years, an increasing number of scholarly papers have used the planetary boundaries (PBs) within life cycle assessment (LCA) to determine if the life cycle impacts of a product system fit within those PBs and thereby establish the absolute sustainability of the product system. This type of LCA is nowadays coined as LCA‐based Absolute E...
Article
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Buying reused products rather than new ones could reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). There are many aspects that can influence whether used products actually cause emissions to increase or decrease. This paper assesses the effects of secondhand markets on GHG emissions by using data on twelve product categories from Troostwijk Auction...
Article
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There is a general agreement in the LCA community that there are two types of LCAs: attributional and consequential. There have been numerous discussions about the pros and cons of the two approaches and on differences in methodology, in particular about methods that can be used in consequential LCA. There are, however, methodological aspects of at...
Article
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Finkbeiner (2021) comments on our critique (Heijungs et al., 2021) of the amendment to ISO 14044. We summarize hereafter his comment: • According to him, the ISO amendment does not rule out system expansion (in the sense of expanding the functional unit) in favor of substitution (in the sense of subtracting the avoided impacts of coproducts); inste...
Article
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Life cycle assessment (LCA) models and databases have increased in size, resolution, and complexity, requiring analysts to rely on an ever‐increasing number of uncertain model inputs. Such increased complexity calls for systematic approaches to assessing the uncertainty of the output results of LCA models and the sensitivity of LCA model outputs to...
Article
Water consumption, energy use, and carbon emission are three related key anthropogenic impacts on the natural environment. China is the largest carbon emitter and energy consumer, with the serious unevenly distributed water resources. Therefore, investigating the water–energy–carbon (WEC) nexus is important for China's environmental footprint reduc...
Chapter
This chapter gives an overview of the mainstream approaches and solutions to the problem of multifunctionality in the Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) phase. Many industrial processes are multifunctional. Their purpose generally comprises more than a single product or service. Practitioners in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are thus faced with the problem t...
Article
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To assess the potential environmental impact of human/industrial systems, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a very common method. There are two prominent types of LCA, namely attributional (ALCA) and consequential (CLCA). A lot of literature covers these approaches, but a general consensus on what they represent and an overview of all their difference...
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In a recent contribution, Ref. [1] study the life cycle impacts of a noise-reducing technology for a combined heat and power plant [...]
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A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-021-01903-3
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Necklace orchids (Coelogyninae, Epidendroideae) have been used in traditional medicine practices for centuries. Previous studies on a subset of unrelated orchid species utilized in these traditional practices revealed they possessed antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activity, providing experimental proof for their medicinal propert...
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Introduction Most LCA studies are comparative and to an increasing extent the effects uncertainty are included in LCA results. This raises the question how the best option from a set of product alternatives can be selected when the product scores are uncertain. The starting point of this article is a set of Monte Carlo results for a number of alter...
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Systematic reviews, sometimes including meta-analyses, are often presented as an approach for identifying healthy and sustainable diets. Here we explore to which extent systematic review protocols have been adopted by studies comparing environmental impacts of foods based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results, and to which extent they comply with...
Article
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Purpose Weighting in life cycle assessment (LCA) incorporates stakeholder preferences in the decision-making process of comparative LCAs. Research efforts on this topic are concerned with deriving weights according to different principles, but few studies have evaluated the relationship between normalization and weights and their effect on single s...
Article
A continuous growth of international trade, especially between developing countries, has greatly increased carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with energy consumption over the past two decades. Given the more intensified intraregional cooperation and trade within the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), this study aims to trace the imbalance of CO...
Article
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Purpose The methods for assessing the impact of using abiotic resources in life cycle assessment (LCA) have always been heavily debated. One of the main reasons for this is the lack of a common understanding of the problem related to resource use. This article reports the results of an effort to reach such common understanding between different sta...
Article
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PurposeIt is frequently mentioned in literature that LCA is linear, without a proof, or even without a clear definition of the criterion for linearity. Here we study the meaning of the term linear, and in relation to that, the question if LCA is indeed linear.Methods We explore the different meanings of the term linearity in the context of mathemat...
Article
The current study makes use of life cycle assessment to evaluate the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) savings in coal electricity generation by 5% co-firing with sorghum pellets. The research models the utilization of 100 thousand hectares of under-utilized marginal land in Flores (Indonesia) for biomass sorghum cultivation. Based on equivalent energ...
Article
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Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is a lively field of research, and data and models are continuously improved in terms of impact pathways covered, reliability, and spatial detail. However, many of these advancements are scattered throughout the scientific literature, making it difficult for practitioners to apply the new models. Here, we present...
Article
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Industrial ecology tools are increasingly being used in ways that require high computational times. In the policy arena, this becomes problematic when practitioners want to live‐test various alternatives in a responsive and web‐based platform. In research, computational times come into play when analyzing large systems with multiple interventions o...
Article
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PurposeThis study aims to minimize the environmental impacts of thermal seawater desalination by optimizing the required fossil fuel mixture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is applied to simulate the environmental impacts for each fuel mixture. To prevent mixture designs inherited collinearly from correlating LCA results, fuel mixtures are first sampl...
Article
A key source of uncertainty in the environmental assessment of emerging technologies is the unpredictable manufacturing, use, and end-of-life pathways a technology can take as it progresses from lab to industrial scale. This uncertainty has sometimes been addressed in life cycle assessment (LCA) by performing scenario analysis. However, the scenari...
Article
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Wildlife trade is a threat to species survival and wild collected orchids are a notable component of it. In the first systematic patent review of any wild species, we find many innovative and industrial uses of orchids, using the example of traditional product salep made with wild harvested Mediterranean and Central Asian terrestrial orchids. Despi...
Article
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Purpose In 1995, the original method for assessing the impact category abiotic resource depletion using abiotic depletion potentials (ADPs) was published. The ADP of a resource was defined as the ratio of the annual production and the square of the ultimate (crustal content based) reserve for the resource divided by the same ratio for a reference r...
Article
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Introduction The Monte Carlo technique is widely used and recommended for including uncertainties LCA. Typically, 1000 or 10,000 runs are done, but a clear argument for that number is not available, and with the growing size of LCA databases, an excessively high number of runs may be a time-consuming thing. We therefore investigate if a large numbe...
Article
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The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake which was missed during typesetting. The caption to Fig. 5 was incorrect. The correct version is given below.
Article
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Missing heritability is a common problem in psychiatry that impedes precision medicine approaches to autism and other heritable complex disorders. This proof-of-concept study uses a systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between variants of the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) and autism to explore the hypothesis that some...
Article
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Purpose Improving the quality and quantity of unit process datasets in Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) databases affects every LCA they are used in. However, improvements in data quality and quantity are so far rather directed by the external supply of data and situation-driven requirements instead of systematic choices guided by structural dependencies...
Article
Residential buildings and service sector buildings have an important contribution to climate change, directly via energy use in these buildings and indirectly through construction activities and the production and disposal of buildings materials. In this paper, we introduce a model that looks at total global building stock for 26 regions between 19...
Article
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Introduction It is widely recognized that LCA is in most cases relative and contains uncertainties due to choices and data. This paper analyses the combination of the two comparative uncertainties. Basic concepts We carefully define the idea of relativity and uncertainty within LCA. We finish off by giving an example of case where inappropriate ha...
Article
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We investigated the pollination of Habenaria tridactylites, an endemic orchid of the Canary Islands. The entirely green, widely open flowers have a long spur containing nectar. In this study, we carried out fieldwork, a molecular clock analysis, herbarium surveys and measured the length of orchid floral spurs and insect tongues using a combination...
Article
In order to consider the effects of land use, and the land cover changes it causes, on ecosystem services in life cycle assessment (LCA), a new methodology is proposed and applied to calculate midpoint and endpoint characterization factors. To do this, a cause-effect chain was established in line with conceptual models of ecosystem services to desc...
Article
Green waste is a type of biomass consisting mainly of grass, leaves and fresh prunings originating from gardens and parks. It can be used as feedstock for composting, or for energy recovery. The EU Waste Directive 2008/98/EC advocates composting to prevent waste. This directive allows green waste to be used for (renewable) energy valorization only...
Conference Paper
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In LCIA, the resource issue is still debated and remains the least consensual area of concern. The currently popular assessment models for resource depletion are based on “heuristic” considerations. This presentation deals with the use of a stock dynamic model to address the resource depletion by marginal approach. Based on empirical data simulatin...
Article
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Efficient seed dispersal in flowering plants is enabled by the development of fruits, which can be either dehiscent or indehiscent. Dehiscent fruits open at maturity to shatter the seeds, while indehiscent fruits do not open and the seeds are dispersed in various ways. The diversity in fruit morphology and seed shattering mechanisms is enormous wit...
Data
Time-line of developing Cynorkis fastigiata and Epipactis helleborine fruits, embedded in LR White and stained with toluidine blue. (A–F) C. fastigiata. (G–I). E. helleborine. Scale bars (A,C–F,I) = 0.2 mm, (B) = 0.1 mm, (G,H,J) = 0.5 mm, (K,L) = 1 mm. F, fertile valve; S, sterile valve.
Data
Growth of E. pusilla fruits by cell division and cell elongation. (A) Graph showing the number of cells in different growth stages. Cell number was determined in cross sections of fruits at different growth stages from at least 6 sterile and 6 fertile valves per growth stage. A trend line was drawn through the different data points. The error bars...
Data
ML tree of the SPATULA/ALCATRAZ genes in seed plants. Branch colors denote the following taxa: Persian green, Gymnosperms; Blue, Basal angiosperms; Middle washed yellow, Monocots; Green, Basal eudicots; Purple, Core eudicots; Red, Brassicaceae. Bootstrap values are placed above the nodes.
Data
ML tree of the REPLUMLESS/POUNDFOOLISH genes in seed plants. Branch colors denote the following taxa: Persian green, Gymnosperms; Blue, Basal angiosperms; Middle washed yellow, Monocots; Green, Basal eudicots; Purple, Core eudicots; Red, Brassicaceae. Bootstrap values are placed above the nodes.
Data
3D X-ray macroscopic reconstruction of a 3 WAP E. pusilla fruit. Umbilical cords (funiculi) can be detected between the vascular bundles of the fertile valves and the placenta regions. (No scale bar can be included for a 3D movie). WAP, week after pollination.
Data
Number of cell layers of Erycina pusilla, Epipactis helleborine, and Cynorkis fastigiata fruits during development. DAP, days after pollination; WAP, weeks after pollination; Cf, Cynorkis fastigiata; Eh, Epipactis helleborine.
Data
Accession numbers of RPL/PNF sequences used in the alignments and phylogenetic analyses. The Orchidaceae subfamilies are provided in parentheses.
Data
Alignment of the bHLH domain of SPATULA/ALCATRAZ proteins based on Pabon-Mora et al. (2014) extended with orchid gene lineages. The bHLH was drawn based on Toledo-Ortiz et al. (2003) and corresponds with positions K359-Q410. Within the bHLH domain, black arrows indicate positions E13, R16, L27, K39, L56, which are conserved in all bHLH plant and an...
Data
Alignment of the bHLH domain of HECATE3/INDEHISCENT proteins based on Pabon-Mora et al. (2014) extended with orchid gene lineages. The bHLH was drawn based on Toledo-Ortiz et al. (2003) and corresponds with positions N462-L515. Left black dashed box: N-flank of the bHLH domain: HEC domain (Kay et al., 2013) including domain 17 (Pires and Dolan, 201...
Data
Difference in MADS-box gene expression between developmental stages of the fruit of E. pusilla as calculated using a variance analysis of measures using a Tukey multi-comparisons test. P-value style: GP: >0.05 (ns), < 0.05 (*), < 0.01 (**), < 0.001 (***), < 0.0001 (****). No value, No expression; DAP, days after pollination, WAP, weeks after pollin...
Data
Accession numbers of IND/HEC3 sequences used in the alignments and phylogenetic analyses. The Orchidaceae subfamilies are provided in parentheses.
Data
Development of E. pusilla fruits from unfertilized ovary to mature fruit with ripe seeds. (A) Ovary. (B) Fruit 1 DAP. (C) Fruit 5 DAP. (D) Fruit 1 WAP. (E) Fruit 2 WAP. (F) Fruit 3 WAP. (G) Fruit 4 WAP. (H) Dehisced fruit 16 WAP. (I) Ripe seeds of dehisced fruit. DAP, days after pollination; WAP, weeks after pollination; Fl, flower; Cr, carpel; Fr,...
Data
Time-line of developing E. pusilla fruit cross sections of one of the fertile valves. (A) 2 WAP. (B) 5 WAP. (C) 8 WAP. (D) 11 WAP. Dashed circles indicate the left pollen tube bundle located in the fertile valve. Scale bar (A) = 0.2 mm, (B–D) = 0.5 mm.
Data
Results of the yeast-two hybrid assay. Thirteen E. pusilla MADS-box proteins and one Arabidopsis protein (AtFUL) were screened against each other. After mating, the diploid yeast were grown for 5 days on SD medium lacking Leu, Trp, and His, supplemented with 5 mM 3-amino-1,2,4 triazole. Growth indicates an interaction between bait and prey.
Data
Alignment of the BELL-domain and the Homeo-domain of REPLUMLESS/POUNDFOOLISH (PNF) proteins based on Pabon-Mora et al. (2014) extended with orchid gene lineages. The BELL domain (Smith et al., 2002) and the conserved Homeodomain, based on Mukherjee et al. (2009) were drawn.
Data
ML tree of the HECATE3/INDEHISCENT genes in seed plants. Branch colors denote the following taxa: Persian green, Gymnosperms; Blue, Basal angiosperms; Middle washed yellow, Monocots; Green, Basal eudicots; Purple, Core eudicots; Red, Brassicaceae. Bootstrap values are placed above the nodes.
Data
AttB-primers used for the creation of inserts for Gateway cloning.
Data
Transcript primer sequences and amplicon characteristics used for quantitative real-time PCR validation of the expression profiles of different transcripts, following MIQE guidelines (Bustin et al., 2009). The sequences listed here were downloaded from NCBI GenBank (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), Orchidstra (orchidstra2.abrc.sinica.edu.tw) and our own frui...
Data
Accession numbers of SPT/ALC bHLH transcription factor sequences used in the alignment. The Orchidaceae subfamilies are provided in parentheses.