# Reinoud Jan SlagterUniversity of Amsterdam | UVA · Institute for Theoretical Physics

Reinoud Jan Slagter

PhD theoretical physics

## About

62

Publications

2,358

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172

Citations

Introduction

After my PhD in theoretical physics at the University of Amsterdam, I started an independent research center (ASFYON) with fellow researchers in the field of astrophysics.

Additional affiliations

June 1975 - June 1980

**University of Utrecht**

Position

- Master's Student

Description

- Research in cosmology; Bianchi IX models

## Publications

Publications (62)

There is observational evidence that the spin axes of quasars in large quasar groups are correlated over hundreds of Mpc. This is found in the radio sector as well as in the optical range. There is not yet a satisfactory explanation of this "spooky" alignment. This alignment cannot be explained by mutual interaction at the time that quasars manifes...

We find evidence of the alignment of the azimuthal angle of the spin vectors of quasars in their host galaxy in large quasar groups of different redshift. This effect could be explained by symmetry breaking of the scalar-gauge field of cosmic strings in the early universe. It is expected that this effect will be more profound for higher red shift.

We find evidence of the alignment of the azimuthal angle of the spin vectors of quasars in their host galaxy in large quasar groups of different redshift. This effect could be explained by symmetry breaking of the scalar-gauge field of cosmic strings in the early universe. It is expected that this effect will be more profound for higher red shift.

We applied the conformal dilaton gravity model on a BTZ-like black hole spacetime in five dimensions using the warped Randall-Sundrum-1 variant. We find exact $(t,r)$-dependent solutions for the dilaton field and the metric components, written as $g_{\mu\nu}=\omega^{\frac{4}{n-2}}\tilde g_{\mu\nu}$, from the 5D Einstein equations, as well as from t...

We review the Baňados–Teitelboim–Zanelli (BTZ) black hole solution in connection with the spinning string solution. We find a new exact solution, which can be related to the (2 + 1)-dimensional spinning point particle solution. There is no need for a cosmological constant, and so the solution can be up-lifted to (3 + 1) dimensions. The exact soluti...

We find evidence of the alignment of the azimuthal angle of the spin vectors in large quasar groups of different redshift. This effect is probably of cosmological origin and could be explained by symmetry breaking of the scalar-gauge field of cosmic strings in the early universe. It is expected that this effect will be more profound for higher reds...

We review the (2+1)-dimensional Ba\u nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole solution in conformally invariant gravity, uplifted to (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. As matter content we use a scalar-gauge field. The metric is written as $g_{\mu\nu}=\omega^2\tilde g_{\mu\nu}$, where the dilaton field $\omega$ contains all the scale dependencies and where $\...

We investigate the space–time of a spinning cosmic string in conformal invariant gravity, where the interior consists of a gauged scalar field. We find exact solutions of the exterior of a stationary spinning cosmic string, where we write the metric as [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text] a dilaton field which contains all the scale depend...

We reviewed the Ba\u nados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole solution in connection with the spinning string solution. We find a new exact solution, which can be related to the $(2+1)$-dimensional spinning point particle solution. There is no need for a cosmological constant, so the solution can be up-lifted to $(3+1)$ dimensions. The exact solut...

We investigate the conformal invariant Lagrangian of the self-gravitating U(1) scalar-gauge field on the time-dependent Bondi–Marder axially symmetric spacetime. By considering the conformal symmetry as exact at the level of the Lagrangian and broken in the vacuum, a consistent model is found with an exact solution of the vacuum Bondi–Marder spacet...

We investigate the spacetime of a spinning cosmic string in conformal invariant gravity, where the interior consists of a gauged scalar field. We find an exact solutions of the exterior of a stationary spinning cosmic string, where we write the metric as $ g_{\mu\nu}=\omega^2\tilde g_{\mu\nu}$ with $\omega$ a dilaton field. The equation for the ang...

We show that the Einstein field equations for a five-dimensional warped spacetime, where only gravity can propagate into the bulk, determine the dynamical evolution of the warp factor of the four-dimensional brane spacetime. This can be explained as a holographic manifestation. The warped 5D model can be reformulated by considering the warp factor...

We investigate the conformal invariant Lagrangian of the self-gravitating U(1) scalar-gauge field and find new features of the model on the time-dependent axially symmetric Bondi-Marder spacetime. By considering the conformal symmetry as exact at the level of the Lagrangian and broken in the vacuum, a consistent model is found with an exact solutio...

We show that the Einstein field equations for a five-dimensional warped spacetime, where only gravity can propagate into the bulk, determine the dynamical evolution of the warp factor of the four-dimensional brane spacetime. This can be explained as a holographic manifestation. The warped 5D model can be reformulated by considering the warp factor...

We find an azimuthal-angle dependent approximate wave like solution to second order on a warped five-dimensional manifold with a self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field (cosmic string) on the brane using the multiple-scale method. The spectrum of the several orders of approximation show maxima of the energy distribution dependent on the azimuthal-...

We find an azimuthal-angle dependent approximate wave like solution to second order on a warped five-dimensional manifold with a self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field (cosmic string) on the brane using the multiple-scale method. The spectrum of the several orders of approximation show maxima of the energy distribution dependent on the azimuthal-...

The recently found alignment of the polarization axes (PA) of quasars in large quasar groups (LQGs) on Mpc scales can be explained by general relativistic cosmic string networks. By considering the cosmic string as a result of spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauged U(1) abelian Higgs model with topological charge [Formula: see text], many stab...

If we live on the weak brane with zero effective cosmological constant in a
warped 5D bulk spacetime , gravitational waves and brane fluctuations can be
generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor and carries information of the
gravitational field outside the brane. We consider on a cylindrical symmetric
warped FRW background the U(1) self-gravitatin...

The recently discovered alignment of quasar polarizations on very large scales could possibly explained by considering cosmic strings on a warped five dimensional spacetime.
Compact objects, such as cosmic strings, could have tremendous mass in the bulk, while their warped manifestations in the brane can be consistent with general relativity in 4D....

The recently discovered alignment of quasar polarizations on very large scales could possibly explained by considering cosmic strings on a warped five dimensional spacetime.
Compact objects, such as cosmic strings, could have tremendous mass in the bulk, while their warped manifestations in the brane can be consistent with general relativity in 4D....

In a flat Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) geometry, we consider the expansion of the universe powered by the gravitationally
induced ‘adiabatic’ matter creation. To demonstrate how matter creation works well with the expanding universe, we have considered
a general creation rate and analysed this rate in the framework of dynamical analys...

It is known for a long time that the space time around a spinning cylindrical
symmetric compact object such as the cosmic string, show un-physical behavior,
i.e., they would possess closed time like curves (CTC). This controversy with
Hawking's chronology protection conjecture is unpleasant but can be understood
if one solves the coupled scalar-gau...

We present a U(1) gauge cosmic string solution on a warped 5-dimensional space time, where we solved the effective 4-dimensional equations modified by the projection of the Weyl tensor on the brane together with the junction and boundary conditions. Where the mass per unit length of the string in the bulk can be of order of the Planck scale, in the...

If we live on the weak brane with zero effective cosmological constant in a warped 5D bulk spacetime, gravitational waves and brane fluctuations can be generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor and carries information of the gravitational field outside the brane. We consider on a cylindrical symmetric warped FLRW background a U(1) self-gravitating...

If we live on the weak brane in a warped 5D bulk spacetime, gravitational
waves and brane fluctuations can be generated by a part of the 5D Weyl tensor
and carries information of the gravitational field outside the brane. We
consider the U(1) self-gravitating scalar-gauge field on the warped spacetime
without bulk matter. It turns out that "branons...

The time evolution of a self-gravitating U(1) cosmic string on a warped five-dimensional (5D) axially symmetric spacetime is numerically investigated. Although cosmic strings are theoretically predicted in four-dimensional (4D) general relativistic models, there is still no observational evidence of their existence. From recent observations of the...

On a warped 5-dimensional axially symmetric space time an exact solution
is found of a bulk scalar field with a cosmological constant. It turns
out that from the effective field equations on the brane, where a U(1)
scalar-gauge field is present, no signs of the features of a cosmic
string with an asymptotically conical space time is found as in the...

At first glance, it seems possible to construct in general relativity theory
causality violating solutions. The most striking one is the Gott spacetime. Two
cosmic strings, approaching each other with high velocity, could produce closed
timelike curves. It was quickly recognized that this solution violates physical
boundary conditions. The effectiv...

We present the "classical" Nielsen-Olesen vortex solution on a warped five
dimensional space time, where we solved the effective four-dimensional
equations from the five-dimensional equations together with the junction and
boundary conditions. Four dimensional cosmic strings show some serious problems
concerning the mechanism of string smoothing re...

We derive a class of approximate solutions of the coupled Einstein-scalar-gauge field equations on an axially symmetric spacetime. An analytic solution of the resulting elliptic PDE’s can be obtained to any desired order by constructing the Riemann functions. As an example model, a solution is presented, which resembles the Nielsen-Olesen vortex cl...

We present a cosmic string on a warped five dimensional space time in
Einstein-Yang-Mills theory. Four-dimensional cosmic strings show some serious
problems concerning the mechanism of string smoothing related to the string
mass per unit length, $G\mu \approx 10^{-6}$. A warped cosmic string could
overcome this problem and also the superstring requ...

We present a cosmic string solution in Einstein-Yang-Mills Gauss-Bonnet theory on a warped 5 dimensional space-time conform the Randall-Sundrum-2 theory. In a simplipied model, we find an exact solutions with exponential decreasing or periodic warp function. In a more general setting, where the metric- and Yang-Mills components depend on both scale...

We present a numerical solution on a five-dimensional spherically
symmetric space-time, in Einstein-Yang-Mills — Gauss-Bonnet
theory, using a two-point boundary value routine. It turns out that the
Gauss-Bonnet contribution has a profound influence on the behavior of
the particle-like solution: it increases the number of nodes of the YM
field. When...

We present a numerical solution of a stationary 5-dimensional spinning cosmic string in the Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) model, where the extra bulk coordinate psi is periodic. It turns out that when gpsipsi approaches zero, i.e., a closed time-like curve (CTC) would appear, the solution becomes singular. We also investigated the geometrical structure...

We investigate numerically the behaviour of the self-gravitating coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills system on an axially symmetric five dimensional space time, with and without the Gauss-Bonnet term. We observe that the critical behaviour at the threshold of black hole formation is present in the 5-dimensional model and depends critically on the value of...

We present a numerical solution of a stationary 5-dimensional spinning cosmic string in the Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) model, where the extra bulk coordinate $\psi$ is periodic. It turns out that when $g_{\psi\psi}$ approaches zero, i.e., a closed time-like curve (CTC) would appear, the solution becomes singular. When a negative cosmological constan...

The dilatonic Ernst solution describing a Schwarzschild black hole immersed in a background magnetic field is generalized by including a Liouville-type potential in the action principle. We prove that the thermodynamic properties of this new black hole dilaton solution are unaffected by an external magnetic field passing through it.

We investigated numerically dyon-like solutions of the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a cylindrically symmetric space time with a cosmological constant. We find a new kind of behaviour not found in the spherically symmetric models. For positive values of $\Lambda$ we have an oscillatory behaviour of the magnetic component of the YM field aroun...

We find new Melvin-like solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with a Liouville-type dilaton potential. The properties of the corresponding solution in Freedman-Schwarz gauged supergravity model are extensively studied. We show that this configuration is regular and geodesically complete but do not preserve any supersymmetry. An exact soluti...

We investigated the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a time-dependent non-diagonal cylindrical symmetric spacetime. From the numerical investigation, wave-like solutions are found, consistent with the familiar string-like features and dressed with gauge-charges.

We investigated the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a stationary axially symmetric nondiagonal spacetime. The equations are numerically solved. There is evidence for the existence of a regular solution with nonvanishing angular momentum, and finite energy density for all r. The behavior of the solution depends critical on the ratio of the Planc...

We investigated the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a time-dependent non-diagonal cylindrical symmetric spacetime. From the numerical investigation, wave-like solutions are found, consistent with the familiar string-like features and dressed with gauge-charges.

We investigated the SU(2) Einstein–Yang–Mills system with a cosmological constant on a time-dependent non-diagonal cylindrical symmetric spacetime. Only for suitable negative Λ and specific initial values, we find numerically regular wave-like solutions dressed with both electric and magnetic charges. The cosmic string feature is maintained by the...

We investigated the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system on a time-dependent non-diagonal cylindrical symmetric spacetime. From the numerical investigation, wave-like solutions are found, consistent with the familiar string-like features. They possess an angle deficit which depends on the initial form of the magnetic component of the Yang-Mills field,...

We investigated the stability of the spherically symmetric non-abelian (Bartnik-McKinnon) black hole solution of the SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills system using the multiple-scale analysis. It is found, in contrast with the vacuum situation, that a spherically symmetric oscillatory perturbation to second order cannot be constructed. The singular behavio...

The coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills equations on a time dependent axially symmetric spacetime are investigated, without a priori any conditions on the gauge field. There is numerical evidence for the existence of a regular solution with the desired asymptotic features. Just as in the supermassive abelian counterpart model, the formation of a singularit...

It is claimed that it will be exceedingly unlikely to obtain CTC's in the spacetime of a spinning EYMH-string. It is conjectured that the pathological problems concerning the induced angular momentum and helical structure of time that afflict the U(1)-gauge string, will be solved in the non-abelian YM string model. In the pure YM case we find regul...

The dynamical evolution of a spinning gauge string is investigated. We find that the formation of closed timelike curves in these models is exceedingly unlikely, because they require unrealistic values of the gauge-string parameters, probably found in the spacetime surrounding a supermassive string. The junction conditions across the boundary layer...

The full coupled Einstein scalar gauge field equations are obtained together with the high-frequency perturbations on a cylindrical symmetric background. The vortex solution and the first order perturbations depend critically on the parameters of the model. In the static case, an exact solution of the vortex is found. In the nondiagonal case, an ax...

Proefschrift Universiteit van Amsterdam. Met lit.opg. Bevat o.a. eerder verschenen en nog te verschijnen art.

An approximate wave solution of order two of Einstein's theory of
gravitation coupled with a Higgs field is presented using the
multiple-scale method. The characteristic (eikonal) equation as well as
propagation and back-reaction equations are investigated in the
Lorentz-gauge on a spherically symmetric background. From the constraint
equations it...

The behavior of higher modes of gravitational waves is investigated in a
Bianchi IX model, and an asymptotic analysis is performed for large
values of the intrinsic magnetic quantum number of the angular momentum
operator. The asymptotic equations fit naturally into the theory of the
quantum motions of the rigid rotor. To investigate the interactio...

The problem in perturbation theory in general relativity is finding a natural gauge which simplifies the equations considerably. The first and second order perturbation equations in the 'Lorentz gauge' were solved using the two-timing method. The equations were deduced from the equations of Einstein in the presence of a matter energy-momentum tenso...

## Projects

Projects (2)

On a five dimensional warped brane world spacetime, the self-gravitating U(1) scalar gauge field is investigated by an approximation scheme to second order using the multiple-scale method.
In four dimensional models, this local field theory admits vortex-like behavior and is a generalization of the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity. A lattice of Abrikosov vortices can be formed, carrying a quantized flux dependent of the winding number or "vortex charge" $n$. Vortices with $n>1$ are unlikely, since the energy is reduced if they split up into single vortices. However, in the general relativistic case, gravity comes
into play and the energy of the configuration of the vortices must be calculated covariantly, i.e., the energy momentum tensor. This general relativistic vortex solution (cosmic strings) can build up a huge mass per unit length in the bulk and can induce massive Kaluza-Klein-modes felt on the brane, where the standard model fields reside. Disturbances don't fade away during the expansion of the universe due to the warp factor.
It turns out that the equations for the first and second order perturbations of the metric and scalar-gauge field show a spectrum of polar-angle dependent wavelike modes with extremal values,
dependent of the winding numbers of the background, first and second order perturbations of the scalar field respectively.
This result can be used to explain the recently found spooky alignment of the rotation axes of quasars over large distances and can serve as an evidence for the existence of cosmic strings.