Reinhard Pietrowsky

Reinhard Pietrowsky
Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf | HHU · Institut für Experimentelle Psychologie

About

238
Publications
48,067
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,981
Citations
Citations since 2016
49 Research Items
2117 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (238)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Since the term orthorexia nervosa (ON) was coined from the Greek (ὀρθός, right and ὄρεξις, appetite) in 1997 to describe an obsession with “correct” eating, it has been used worldwide without a consistent definition. Although multiple authors have proposed diagnostic criteria, and many theoretical papers have been published, no consensus de...
Article
Full-text available
Background The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) personality disorder model comprises, among other elements, five maladaptive personality trait domains (negative affectivity, detachment, dissociality, disinhibition, anankastia). Recently, the personality inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD) has emerged as one of the most widely...
Article
Full-text available
Nightmares are a substantial burden for sleep quality. Previous studies have shown that traumatic experiences can increase the probability of nightmares, and also waking-life distress can enhance this effect. There is evidence that the intensity of negative dream emotions is more responsible for rating a dream as a nightmare than threatening dream...
Article
Full-text available
The link between perfectionism and poor sleep has been intensively debated, and previous studies on perfectionism-sleep associations have yielded mixed results. Recent research suggests that the two-dimensional perfectionism model, differentiating perfectionistic concerns (centered around concerns over imperfections) and perfectionistic strivings (...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Vorgestellt wird die Entwicklung und testpsychologische Evaluation des Multidimensionalen Düsseldorfer Trauminventars (MDTI), eines Fragebogens zur Erfassung des Traumerlebens unabhängig vom Trauminhalt. Dazu wurde eine Vorläuferversion, das Düsseldorfer Trauminventar (DTI; 51 Items), einer Stichprobe aus N = 715 vorgelegt, welche...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Recently, the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) has introduced a paradigm shift in personality disorder conceptualization. The novel ICD-11 personality disorder model comprises a dimensional assessment of personality dysfunction and five maladaptive personality trait domains. Maladaptive personality plays...
Chapter
Der Begriff „Orthorexie“ gründet auf den griechischen Begriffen orthos für „richtig, korrekt“ und orexis für Appetit. Der Begriff „Orthorexia nervosa“ wurde von dem US-amerikanischen Arzt Steven Bratman geprägt und soll auf eine psychogene Essstörung verweisen, in Analogie zur Anorexia nervosa. Unter Orthorexia nervosa wird daher eine Essstörung ve...
Chapter
Hunger und Sättigung sind komplexe psychophysiologische Zustände, die durch physiologische, biologische und soziale Faktoren gesteuert werden. Die biologischen Prozesse umfassen metabolische Faktoren im Magen-Darm-Trakt und komplexe endokrine und zentralnervöse Regulationsprozesse, v. a. im Hypothalamus. Psychologisch werden Hunger und Sättigung du...
Article
Full-text available
A central innovation in the International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) is a dimensional personality disorder model differentiating five personality trait domains. The Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD) is a frequently used measure to assess these components of the ICD-11 personality disorder model. Conceptually, the ICD-11...
Article
Being the aggressor in dreams has been investigated relatively sparsely. On the one hand, these kinds of nightmares may represent continuity of aggression in waking-life, but on the other hand, being the aggressor in dreams may compensate failing (suppressed) aggression from waking-life. Two subtypes of aggressor nightmares should thus be distingui...
Article
The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) contains a dimensional model of personality disorder. Beyond general personality dysfunction, this model accommodates six personality descriptors depicting maladaptive personality characteristics. Perfectionism is a well-researched multidimensional personality disposition with stro...
Article
Former studies have shown that in many Islamic cultures people view dreams as a product of external sources and therefore have a high appreciation towards dreams in their waking life. In contrast, people in Western cultures in general do not value their dreams strongly in their waking life and mostly view them as a product from their inner reality....
Article
Full-text available
The reopening of child-care programs during COVID-19 demanded comprehensive preventive measures. Research to date has overlooked this reopening process as well as early childhood professionals’ (ECPs) implementation efforts and resulting changes in their work practices and well-being. As a result, this study sought insights into (1) the practical i...
Article
Full-text available
The view that perfectionists are prone to experiencing sleep disturbance is widely held. Yet, almost three decades of empirical research have yielded conflicting results. Whereas some researchers viewed perfectionism as a risk factor for sleep disturbance, others spoke of “adaptive” or “positive” forms of perfectionism in the context of sleep. The...
Article
Full-text available
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01219-z
Article
Personality traits act as a predisposing factor in the development of insomnia. In this context, neuroticism, low conscientiousness and perfectionism appear to be of particular interest. Prior research indicates that personality traits contribute to a poorer sleep quality via several underlying mechanisms and coping strategies. On a cognitive level...
Preprint
In nightmares, the dream-self is mostly the victim, but there are also dreams in which the dream-self is the offender. Little is known yet about these offender-nightmares ; thus, the main goal of the present study was to carry out the frequencies of offender nightmares and to investigate if the dream-self is offending mostly in self-defense and ang...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although anecdotal reports suggest a relation between orthorexic eating behavior and symptoms of somatoform disorders, this issue has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to compare orthorexic eating behavior and other characteristics of disordered eating behavior in patients with somatoform disorders to a sample of health...
Article
PurposeTo analyse the relation of illness anxiety, dysfunctional cognitions characteristic of somatic symptom disorders and orthorexic eating behaviour in a non-clinical sample.MethodsN = 445 participants (n = 363 females) completed an online survey with the following questionnaires: the Düsseldorf Orthorexia Scale to measure orthorexic eating beha...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeTo analyze body dissatisfaction in relation to orthorexic eating behavior in a sample of young females to further investigate characteristic features of orthorexic eating behavior and its association with other eating disorders.MethodsN = 197 young females (age: M = 29.59, SD = 10.85 years) completed an online survey with the following quest...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Long-term effectiveness is a critical aspect of the clinical utility of a treatment; however, a meta-analytic evaluation of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED), including weight loss treatments, is outstanding. This meta-analysis sought to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effectiveness...
Article
The application of Internet-based interventions within stepped-care models raises the question of when patients should receive Internet-based treatment and when patients should receive face-to-face (FtF) treatment. To address this question, the patient perception and effects of working mechanisms were evaluated after brief psychotherapy for insomni...
Chapter
Menschen mit der Diagnose einer Binge-Eating-Störung (BES) leiden unter regelmäßig auftretenden Essanfällen. Charakteristisch für einen Essanfall ist, dass die Betroffenen in einem begrenzten Zeitraum (z. B. innerhalb von zwei Stunden) eine erheblich größere Nahrungsmenge zu sich nehmen als die meisten Menschen unter vergleichbaren Umständen (Ameri...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bullying among students is associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and whether associations are comparable to other traumatic events leading to PTSD. Methods: Data were collected from 219 German children and adolescents: 150 students from grade six to ten and...
Article
Aim of the current research was to newly conceptualize nightmare distress. The special focus was on the appraisal of nightmare distress while applying a theory-driven approach based on Lazarus' transactional model of stress. It was argued that individuals feel the more distressed the more they feel threatened and harmed by their nightmares (primary...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the association between the importance of several reasons to follow a vegan diet and the degree of orthorexic eating behavior in a sample of vegan individuals (N = 65, 53.8% women, age: M = 28.22 (SD = 9.13) years, BMI: M = 22.91 (SD = 3.44) kg/m2). Results: The results reveal that orthorexic eating behavior...
Article
Background Recent studies have directly compared the effects of Internet-based self-help interventions with face-to-face (FtF) treatment, but groups may also differ regarding other aspects, aside from the fact that the former is online and the latter offline. Thus, we examined the effects of a brief three-session psychotherapy for insomnia that was...
Article
Full-text available
This consensus paper provides an overview of the state of the art in research on the aetiology and treatment of nightmare disorder and outlines further perspectives on these issues. It presents a definition of nightmares and nightmare disorder followed by epidemiological findings, and then explains existing models of nightmare aetiology in traumati...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the efficacy of psychological and medical treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED), including those targeting weight loss. Method: Through a systematic search before March 2018, 81 published and unpublished randomized-controlled trials (RCTs), totaling 7,515 individuals with BED (Diagnosti...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood experiences are considered to be of crucial importance in the formation of maladaptive schemas, according to Young's concept. Although some schema questionnaires already exist for children, these instruments differ in their schema structures with between 8 and 12 identified factors. To obtain a deeper understanding of early maladaptive sc...
Article
Full-text available
Study objectives The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a type of sleep-related breathing disorder and a highly prevalent disease. Because of frequent arousals during the night, OSAS leads to a fragmentation of sleep and the loss of its restorative function. Being in the supine position during sleep makes the individual more susceptible to...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Orthorektisches Ernährungsverhalten bezeichnet die Fixierung auf eine gesundheitsbewusste Ernährungsweise, welche möglicherweise in extremer Ausprägung als weitere Variante der Essstörungen von klinischer Relevanz ist. Zur Erfassung orthorektischen Ernährungsverhaltens kann im deutschsprachigen Raum die D...
Article
Being the victim of an aggressor in nightmares is quite common for most persons, but there are also nightmares where the dream-self can become the offender. Two studies were conducted in two nonclinical samples of participants with frequent nightmares to investigate the so-called offender-nightmares. Study 1 served to assess the frequency of offend...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeOrthorexic eating behaviour, restrained eating, and veganism/vegetarianism are food selection strategies sharing several characteristics. Since there are no studies investigating their interrelationships, aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in (1) a sample of vegans and vegetarians and (2) a sam...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sensitivity to negative affect is considered the central defining characteristic of neuroticism and has been found to be associated with poor sleep quality. Objectives: Following recent theories distinguishing between sensitivity to negative affect and the capacity to self-regulate affective states, this study aimed at demonstrating the...
Article
Recent research suggests that obese individuals with binge eating disorder (BED) show deficits in response inhibition, but findings are not consistent, especially when food-associated stimuli are presented. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of moderating factors by taking into account restrained eating and mood. Seventeen obese wo...
Chapter
Unter Alpträumen werden Träume verstanden, die einen starken negativen Affekt hervorrufen und von ihm begleitet werden. Dieser Affekt ist in der Regel Angst, es kann sich aber auch um andere starke negative Emotionen handeln, wie Scham, Ärger, Hass oder Wut. Alpträume führen häufig zum Erwachen, obgleich das Erwachen kein notwendiges Definitionskri...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In der vorliegenden Studie wird der Frage nachgegangen, ob sich Zeugen mit einer Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung (BPS) von Zeugen ohne diese Störung hinsichtlich der Fähigkeit zur Wirklichkeitskontrolle unterscheiden, und ob dies Auswirkungen auf die Qualität der Aussage zum angezeigten Delikt im Hinblick auf die Konstanz und die...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Nightmares are extremely dysphoric dreams, which are prevalent and associated with psychological strain. This study investigated (a) the efficacy of an internet-based imagery rehearsal therapy (IRT), (b) the role of imagery rescription, and (c) the role of guidance during internet-based IRT. Methods: A total of 127 patients suffering...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Orthorexia nervosa is defined as the fixation on health-conscious eating behaviour and has recently been discussed as a new variant of disordered eating. The aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic eating behaviour in an inpatient treatment sample of female anorexics to investigate the relation between anorexic and orthorexic e...
Article
A number of different causes have been discussed with respect to the etiology or treatment of nightmares. Among them, however, relatively little attention has been given to early developing emotional factors, like attachment. Previous results hint to a relationship between nightmare frequency and attachment style. The present study thus served to f...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Binge-eating disorder (BED) was included as its own diagnostic entity in the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). An increasing number of treatment studies have been published, but an up-to-date comprehensive meta-analysis on diverse treatment approaches for BED is lacking. In an updated a...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Orthorexie bezeichnet eine Fixierung auf den ausschlieslichen Verzehr von Lebensmitteln, die nach subjektiven Kriterien als gesund gelten. Fragestellung: Ziel der Studie war die Analyse der strukturellen psychopathologischen Merkmale orthorektischen Ernahrungsverhaltens, um Hinweise zur nosologischen Eino...
Article
The paper highlights the essential pillars of schema therapy as well as outlining the basic concepts of early maladaptive schemas, domains, emotional core needs, and the mode model. We present an overview of the important features of the schema therapy and look at the special schematic therapeutic relationship work, thereby focusing on emotional pr...
Article
Zusammenfassung Orthorexia nervosa bezeichnet ein Essverhalten, das durch eine extreme Fokussierung auf gesunde Ernährung gekennzeichnet ist und zu körperlichen Schäden und psychischen Beeinträchtigungen führen kann. Es spiegelt einen aktuellen Lebensstil wider, der über Ernährungsgewohnheiten Werthaltungen vermittelt und Identität stiftet. Orthore...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Der Cognitive Interference Questionnaire (CIQ) ist das am häufigsten verwendete Messinstrument zur Erfassung kognitiver Interferenz während einer Aufgabenbearbeitung. Ziel war, die psychometrischen Kennwerte des CIQ zu bestimmen. Hierzu wurden die 22 übersetzten Items 269 Studierenden nach Selbsteinschätzung, 206 dysphorisch Herabg...
Article
Compulsive buying (CB) is a pathological behavior leading to impairment and distress. Evidence suggests that CB is associated with impulsivity and hoarding. However, multi-method investigations of impulsivity in CB with and without hoarding are sparse. In this study, consumers with high CB propensity (CBs; n=28) and controls (n=21) were compared wi...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Orthorektisches Ernahrungsverhalten bezeichnet eine Fixierung auf gesunde Ernahrung, die mit psychischen, korperlichen und sozialen Beeintrachtigungen einhergehen kann. Fragestellung: Konstruktion und Evaluation eines Messinstruments zur Erfassung orthorektischen Ernahrungsverhaltens. Methode: Konstruktio...
Article
Full-text available
Hintergrund: Dieser Artikel beschreibt die Entwicklung eines internetbasierten begleiteten Selbsthilfetrainings (Albtraumcoach) zur Bewaltigung von Albtraumen, das innerhalb zweier Pilotstudien auf seine Durchfuhrbarkeit und Anwendbarkeit getestet wurde. Methoden: Innerhalb eines neunstufigen Modells wird die Entwicklung der Intervention beschriebe...
Article
Chronic nightmares which lead to a psychological strain can be regarded as a mental disease. Nightmares can be subdivided into either idiopathic or posttraumatic nightmares. For both kinds of nightmares, the imagery-rehearsal-therapy (IRT) is regarded to be the method of choice. IRT consists of the rescription of a nightmare into a new and non-thre...
Article
Full-text available
Nightmares are extremely dysphoric dreams. But nightmare distress, and not the mere frequency of nightmares, is associated with well-being and psychopathology. Nightmare distress has been conceptualized in different ways: (a) nightmare intensity, (b) nightmare effects, (c) nightmare related symptoms, and (d) the perception of nightmare distress. Th...
Article
Full-text available
The present review gives an overview on common theories of dreaming with a specific emphasis on how they are able to explain lucid dreaming. The theories are grouped either to such that describe structural or biological processes of dreams or to such that describe evolutionary and adaptive functions of dreams. This overview shows that none of the t...
Article
Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD) suffer from intrusive thoughts, which are assumed to be due to diminished inhibitory processes. The spatial cueing task indicates that a deficit in the inhibition of return (IOR) can be used as a marker for inhibitory deficits.Method The present study served to replicate previous findings with this...
Article
Full-text available
Chronic nightmares have a prevalence of 3 to 8% in the general population, but they seem not to play a relevant role in the health care system despite the existence of evidence-based treatments. The aim of this study was to identify nightmare-related knowledge, attitudes and coping approaches in the German mental health care system. A total of 219...
Article
Compulsive buying (CB) is excessive and leads to impairment and distress. Several studies aimed to explore the phenomenology and antecedents of CB, especially affective states. However, these studies mostly used retrospective self-report and mostly focused on compulsive buyers only. Therefore, this study aims to directly compare consumers with CB p...
Article
Objective: Nightmares may be seen as a symptom of traumatization in both children and adults. Nightmares are assumed to be more frequent and more distressing among traumatized children and adolescents than among those without trauma. A total of 38 traumatized and 40 nontraumatized children and adolescents were surveyed. Method: Nightmare-induced...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretischer Hintergrund: Die meisten diagnostischen Instrumente stellen bei Zwangsstörung, bzw. den Symptomkategorien Zwangsgedanken und -handlungen, in erster Linie den Schweregrad und nicht deren Generalisierung fest. Fragestellung: Sind Zwangsgedanken bzw. -handlungen situationsspezifisch oder generalisiert auf viele Bereiche? Methode: 142 Pat...
Article
Hintergrund: Dargestellt wird die Anwendung einer standardisierten Alptraumtherapie bei einem Patienten mit posttraumatischer Belastungsstörung (PTBS). Falldarstellung: Inhalt der posttraumatischen Alpträume waren dabei Oneiroide, d.h. bizarre Illusionen und Halluzinationen mit ausgeprägtem Wirklichkeitscharakter, die im Rahmen einer mehrwöchigen i...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory refers to the conscious recollection of a personal experience that contains information on what has happened and also where and when it happened. Recollection from episodic memory also implies a kind of first-person subjectivity that has been termed autonoetic consciousness. Episodic memory is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging a...
Article
Cognitive models stress the importance of cognitive belief domains (CBD) for the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relative contribution of responsibility and metacognition - core aspects of CBD - to OC symptoms is not fully understood yet. Furthermore, two subcomponents of overestimation of threat (OET), overestimat...
Article
Full-text available
Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21-45), mid...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether systematic reviews investigating psychotherapeutic interventions for depression are affected by publication bias. Only homogeneous data sets were included, as heterogeneous data sets can distort statistical tests of publication bias. Method: We applied Begg and Mazumdar's adjusted rank corre...
Article
Uncontrollable thoughts are considered to be one of the major factors leading to insomnia. One major source of uncontrollable thoughts may be emotional stress induced by deliberating personal problems and their consequences. If that is the case, a deliberating mindset should affect sleep quality mainly in state-oriented but not in action-oriented i...
Article
Sleep parameters have been reported to be related to cognitive function in a variety of ways. Problem solving and procedural learning were found to be improved after sleep but training also affected subsequent sleep and some parameters were related to cognitive trait variables, e.g. IQ. Additional to rapid-eye-movement (REM) and slow wave sleep (SW...
Article
Orthorectic eating behaviour is characterised by a fixation on a healthy diet and rigidity regarding self-imposed nutrition standards. Besides malnutrition, subjective distress and social isolation might be consequences of clinical relevance. So far there are few reliable data about nosology and prevalence rates, so that it is not yet possible to e...
Article
The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between dream structure, the concept of boundary structure, and the Big Five personality dimensions. Dream structure was assessed with the recently developed Düsseldorf Dream Inventory, which is based on a factorial assessment of dream structure. Dream structure was correlated with boundary...
Article
Nightmares are a common and serious problem in psychotherapeutic practice, although they are seldom considered as independent mental disorders. There are some promising approaches to the treatment of nightmares, notably Imagery Rehearsal Therapy, a cognitive-restructuring treatment. The core of this approach is the modification of the nightmare scr...
Article
Meta-analyses are prone to publication bias, the problem of selective publication of studies with positive results. It is unclear whether the efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions for schizophrenia is overestimated due to this problem. This study aims at enhancing the validity of the results of meta-analyses by investigating the degree and im...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung. Theoretischer Hintergrund: Die Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) gilt als Goldstandard zur Erfassung kognitiver und korperlicher Erregung in der Phase vor dem Einschlafen. Fragestellung: Bestimmung der Gutekriterien der deutschen Ubersetzung. Methode: Die 16 ubersetzten Items wurden 268 uberwiegend studentischen Versuchspersonen vorge...
Article
Full-text available
Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive pa...
Article
Full-text available
Zur Behandlung nicht erholsamen Schlafes bietet die kognitive Verhaltenstherapie eine Reihe von Interventionen an, deren Wirksamkeit jedoch geringer ist als die für affektive Störungen und Angststörungen. Auf der Grundlage bestehender aktueller Ätiologiemodelle wird der mögliche Beitrag motivations- und volitionspsychologischer Ansätze zur Verbesse...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive behaviour therapy provides a range of interventions to treat nonrestorative sleep, though their effect sizes are smaller than those reported for mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Based on current models explaining the etiology of non-restorative sleep, we introduce possible contributions derived from motivational and volitional theory...
Article
Nightmares are a common phenomenon, especially in people with other mental disorders like depression, anxiety disorders or post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some auspicious approaches already exist. Notably the approach of Imagery Rehearsal Therapy (IRT), a cognitive-restructuring treatment. A German-speaking manual for the treatment of nightm...
Chapter
Menschen mit der Diagnose einer »Binge-Eating-Störung« (BES oder BED = Binge Eating Disorder; vgl. DSM-IV-TR, American Psychiatric Association 2000) leiden unter regelmäßig auftretenden Essanfällen (»Fressattacken«), bei denen sie große Nahrungsmengen verzehren und das Gefühl haben, die Kontrolle über ihr Essverhalten zu verlieren. Ähnlich wie bei...
Article
The sleep enhancing effect on memory (sleep-memory-effect) is well documented for night-time sleep as well as for midday naps. Several reasons may account for this effect. One may be a diminished interference during sleep which may support an undisturbed memory consolidation. To test this hypothesis, memory performance was compared after a midday n...
Article
It has long been known that emotions can modulate learning and memory processes in humans and non-human mammals. Here we will review evidence from clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and animal research suggesting an important role of emotions for the establishment of long-term episodic memories in the mammalian brain. In the first part of t...
Article
Episodic memory is that part of our memory which enables us to memorize a personal event (what) in terms of place (where) and time (when). It is expressed on verbal and behavioral level. In this report we describe a novel method to induce de novo episodic memories in humans for unique events in the laboratory and measure them with standardized rati...
Article
Zusammenfassung Auf der Grundlage einer kürzlich im Rahmen der Entwicklung der S3-Leitlinien für die Diagnostik und Therapie der Essstörungen in Deutschland durchgeführten Metaanalyse pharmakologischer und psychotherapeutischer Studien zur Behandlung der Binge-Eating-Störung (BES) bietet die Arbeit eine Übersicht über die derzeitigen nach den Krite...
Article
This article presents a new database of 2,654 German nouns rated by a sample of 3,907 subjects on three psycholinguistic attributes: concreteness, valence, and arousal. As a new means of data collection in the field of psycholinguistic research, all ratings were obtained via the Internet, using a tailored Web application. Analysis of the obtained w...
Article
The aim of this study was to compute and compare mean effects of various treatments for binge eating disorder. A total of 38 studies with 1973 participants fulfilled the defined inclusion criteria. Effect sizes, odds ratios, and simple rates were integrated in fixed and random (mixed) effects categorical models. From randomized controlled trials, p...
Article
Full-text available
In certain areas of the behavioral sciences, such as cognitive and perceptual psychology, researchers may choose to have their experiments partially or completely driven by software programs, which instruct and guide subjects through the sequence of tasks. Despite distinct advantages of unattended trial execution, on frequent occasions, experimente...
Article
Diurnal effects on fatigue are well established. However, evidence exists that fatigue can be subdivided into physical and mental components. Diurnal effects on these subcomponents of fatigue are not known. The present study served to investigate diurnal influences on physical and mental signs of fatigue. A number of self-report measures of sleepin...
Article
The neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is present in abundance in the central nervous system, where it is involved in the regulation of a wide range of functions. It also takes part in the modulation of memory processes, but its effect on human memory systems and processes is not yet well understood. The present experiment was conducted to examine...
Article
Athletes of light-weight sport classes are under a constant strain to control eating and body shape, which can make them prone to develop eating disorders. In the present study, cognitive control of eating (restrained eating) and body dissatisfaction were investigated in male elite athletes of light-weight and heavy-weight classes at different ages...
Article
Full-text available
Various studies have demonstrated that a night of sleep has a beneficial effect on the retention of previously acquired declarative material. In two experiments, we addressed the question of whether this effect extends to daytime naps. In the first experiment we assessed free recall of a list of 30 words after a 60 min retention interval that was e...
Chapter
Unter biologischen Gesichtspunkten wird die Nahrungsaufnahme durch Hunger und Sättigung gesteuert. Hunger führt über die Initiierung von entsprechenden, die Nahrungsaufnahme vorbereitenden appetitiven Verhaltensweisen schließlich zur Nahrungsaufnahme. Diese bewirkt die Aktivierung von Sättigungsprozessen, die zu einer Beendigung der Nahrungsaufnahm...
Article
Abstract Evidence suggests a facilitative effect of sleep on the retention of relevant material. However, little is known about its impact on task-irrelevant material that was acquired incidentally. This study examined recall for task-irrelevant stimuli after 7 h of nocturnal sleep versus nocturnal and diurnal wakefulness. Subjects were instructed...
Article
Perception of hunger and satiety was examined by means of event-related potential (ERP) recordings. On the basis of Helson's frame-of-reference theory, it was hypothesized that hunger is perceived with reference to an actual adaptation level. ERPs were recorded to adjectives (hungry, thirsty, tired) combined with one of five adverbs (very, almost,...