Reiner Rugulies

Reiner Rugulies
National Research Centre for the Working Environment · Psychosocial Work Environment Research

Ph.D., M.Sc., M.P.H.

About

396
Publications
77,267
Reads
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15,339
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2002 - present
National Research Centre for the Working Environment
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1999 - May 2000
University of California, Berkeley
Field of study
  • Public Health
July 1993 - October 1998
Bielefeld University
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1987 - June 1993
Bielefeld University
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (396)
Article
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Background Heavy alcohol consumption increases the risk of several chronic diseases. In this multicohort study, we estimated the number of life-years without major chronic diseases according to different characteristics of alcohol use. Methods In primary analysis, we pooled individual-level data from up to 129,942 adults across 12 cohort studies w...
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Objective Depressive and anxiety disorders are prevalent among employees in general. Still, knowledge regarding the contribution of these disorders to the dynamics of the labor market in terms of working time, sickness absence, and unemployment is scarce. We aim to quantify the linkage of depressive and anxiety disorders with labor market participa...
Article
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Purpose Eldercare work is characterised by high quantitative work demands and high occurrence of musculoskeletal pain and sickness absence. Our aim was to investigate the association between quantitative demands aggregated at the different organizational levels of eldercare and low back pain (LBP) and sickness absence due to pain among workers. Me...
Article
Introduction: Perceived quantitative demands at work have been associated with poor mental and physical health, long-term sickness absence and subsequent early retirement. Identifying modifiable determinants of perceived quantitative demands at different levels of the organization is key to developing effective interventions. The aim of the study...
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Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between work-unit level leadership quality and individual-level long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in the hospital sector and effect modification by chronic disorders. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 33 025 Danish public hospital employees who were followed-up for one year after...
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Objective: In terms of prevention, it is important to determine effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) when some workplace psychosocial resources are high while others are low. The aim of the study was to assess the prospective relationship between clustering of workplace psychosocial resources and risk of CVD among employees. Methods: We poole...
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze whether individuals reporting exposure to workplace bullying had a higher risk of suicidal behavior, including both suicide attempt and death by suicide, than those not reporting such exposure. Methods: Using a prospective cohort study design, we linked data from nine Danish questionnaire-based su...
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Objective: This study aimed to investigate the importance of combined psychosocial work factors for the risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods: We followed 69 371 employees in the general working population (Work Environment and Health in Denmark study 2012-2018), without LTSA during the preceding year, for up to two years in the Dan...
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We aimed to examine the association between exposure to work stress and chronic disease incidence and loss of chronic disease-free life years in the Danish workforce. The study population included 1,592,491 employees, aged 30–59 in 2000 and without prevalent chronic diseases. We assessed work stress as the combination of job strain and effort-rewar...
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Objective: Previous studies on effects of emotional demands on depression have relied on self-reported exposure data and lacked control for potential confounding by pre-employment risk factors for depression. This study used a register-based design to examine the risk of hospital-treated depressive disorder in relation to occupational levels of em...
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Purpose Managers’ knowledge and behaviors in addressing musculoskeletal pain and sickness absence is not well understood. We investigated the association between managers’ knowledge and behaviours in relation to employees’ pain and their future risk of musculoskeletal pain and associated sickness absence. Methods The prospective study included 535...
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Background Given current discussions about extending working lives, more knowledge is needed on working conditions associated with labour market status in older age. Objective To explore associations between combinations of job demands and job control among workers aged 55–64 years and their labour market status 11 years later. Methods A populati...
Article
We evaluated the influence of organization, eldercare worker and care situation on the use of assistive devices during resident handling in eldercare work. We conducted a multi-level study among 20 nursing homes, 126 wards within the nursing homes, 549 eldercare workers within the wards, who performed a total of 1306 care episodes including 3695 re...
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Objectives Numerous studies have examined the health consequences of workplace bullying, but little is known about workplace antecedents of workplace bullying. This study examines whether high psychological demands, low levels of justice at work, and low decision latitude increase the occurrence of being bullied or witnessing bullying. Methods In...
Article
Objective: To examine whether characteristics of workplace psychosocial resources are associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes among employees. Research design and methods: Participants were 49,835 employees (77% women, aged 40-65 years, and diabetes free at baseline) from the Finnish Public Sector cohort study. Characteristics of horizontal...
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Background High emotional demands at work can affect employees’ health and there is a need to understand whether such an association might be modified by other working conditions. We aimed to examine emotional demands at work as a risk factor for long-term sickness absence and analyse whether influence, possibilities for development, role conflicts...
Article
Context Organizational justice has been linked to lower risk of several chronic conditions among employees, but less is known about the long-term mechanisms underlying this risk reduction. Objective To assess whether self-reported organizational justice is associated with individual and composite metabolic trajectories. Design 25 years follow-up...
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Background: This study investigates the role of physical work demands and psychosocial work factors for early retirement among older workers. Methods: Data from three Danish surveys on work environment and health among employed older workers (age 55-59) were merged with a national register containing information on labour market participation. R...
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Objectives: Several studies have examined the health consequences of workplace threats and violence, however, due to methodological issues the epidemiological evidence is limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the prospective association between self-labelled exposure to work-related threats and violence and the risk of depression, meas...
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This issue of the journal includes a meta-review, ie, a systematic review of systematic reviews, summarizing the published evidence on the associations between exposure to adverse psychosocial working conditions and risk of developing diseases or disorders during the past 20 years (1). Although the authors allowed inclusion of reviews reporting res...
Article
Background We examined the association between annual changes in job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based cohort study in Denmark. Methods We studied all workers residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N = 1,660,150). Using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates, we assessed c...
Article
Background Aim: To examine the association of work stress with future chronic disease incidence and loss of chronic disease-free life years in the Danish workforce. Method A population-based prospective register-based cohort study of all employees aged 30-59 in 2000 in Denmark, without chronic diseases at baseline (n = 1,592,491). Using job exposu...
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Background Studies on the association between long working hours and health have captured only a narrow range of outcomes (mainly cardiometabolic diseases and depression) and no outcome-wide studies on this topic are available. To achieve wider scope of potential harm, we examined long working hours as a risk factor for a wide range of disease and...
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Objectives: We aimed to identify eldercare wards with different types of resident handling characteristics ('phenotypes') and determine the prospective association between these characteristics and musculoskeletal pain and sickness absence among workers during a one-year follow-up. Methods: Our study was based on the DOSES cohort, including 467...
Preprint
Full-text available
We aimed to examine the association between exposure to work stress and chronic disease incidence and loss of chronic disease-free life years in the Danish workforce. The study population included 1,592,491 employees, aged 30 to 59 in 2000 and without prevalent chronic diseases. We assessed work stress as the combination of job strain and effort-re...
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We examined whether the association between emotionally demanding work and risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA, ≥6 weeks) was buffered by high leadership quality among 25 416 Danish employees during 52-week follow-up. Emotional demands were measured at the job group level, whereas leadership quality was measured by workers ratin...
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Abstract Objectives Previous studies on the association between psychosocial work factors and blood pressure mainly focused on specific occupations or populations and had limited sample sizes. We, therefore, investigated the associations between psychosocial work factors and blood pressure in a large general working population in the Netherlands....
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Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing the WHO/ILO Joint Estimates of the Work-related Burden of Disease and Injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), supported by a large number of individual experts. Evidence from previous reviews suggests that exposure to long working hours may caus...
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Objectives: Poor psychosocial work environments in hospitals are associated with higher employee turnover. In this prospective cohort study, we aimed to identify and quantify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment have the greatest impact on one-year employee turnover rates within a hospital setting, both overall and within occupationa...
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Background World Health Organization (WHO) and International Labour Organization (ILO) systematic reviews reported sufficient evidence for higher risks of ischemic heart disease and stroke amongst people working long hours (≥55 hours/week), compared with people working standard hours (35–40 hours/week). This article presents WHO/ILO Joint Estimates...
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Objective This study investigates the role of age for the prospective association between physical work demands and long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Methods We followed 69 117 employees of the general working population (Work Environment and Health in Denmark study 2012–2018), without LTSA during the past 52 weeks preceding initial interview, fo...
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About one year ago, we wrote about how the COVID-19 pandemic was unfolding worldwide and started to impact our personal and professional lives (1). Little did we know that, one year later, more than 2.5 million people would have died, with the highest death tolls in Europe, North America, and Latin America (2). Whereas in many countries, life expec...
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Background Psychosocial work stressors may lead to low back pain (LBP) through depressive symptoms or to depression through LBP. Depressive symptoms or LBP may also modify these associations. Methods We examined prospective interrelationships between job demands, LBP and depressive symptoms. We used comparable data from three consecutive biennial...
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Background: We examined the association between probability of work-related violence and first diagnosis of depressive disorder whilst accounting for the potential selection of individuals vulnerable to depression into occupations with high probability of work-related violence. Methods: Based on a pre-published study protocol, we analysed nationwid...
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Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may increase alcoh...
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Objectives We aimed to examine whether a participatory organisational workplace intervention focusing on core tasks at work resulted in lower primary healthcare utilisation of employees. Methods The cluster randomised controlled trial included 78 preschools, 44 allocated to the intervention group (1745 employees) and 34 allocated to the control gr...
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In this issue of the Journal, a group of distinguished Nordic researchers, led by Anne Helene Garde and including four of our Associated Editors, present a discussion paper that originated from a workshop and provides detailed recommendations on night shift work (1). The recommendations are very clear: to protect workers’ health, night shift schedu...
Preprint
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ABSTRACT Aim: To present a protocol for the analysis of the prospective association between workplace bullying and suicidal behaviour. Method: The analyses will be carried out on a sample of 98,330 participants (64% women, n=62,582) taken from a pooled dataset of nine Danish questionnaire-based surveys (2004-2014) including self-reported measures...
Article
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PurposeMulti-site musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is highly prevalent among eldercare workers, leading to increased incidence of sickness absence and early retirement. Most research on MSP in eldercare workers has focused on individual-level factors reported by the employees, with limited focus at the organisation and ward level. To address this gap, th...
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Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association between combinations of job demands/control and future sickness absence (SA) and disability pension (DP) trajectories over 11 years. Methods: A population-based prospective cohort study of female (n = 1,079,631) and male (n = 1,107,999) employees in 2001. With group-based trajectory a...
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Background: Maternal stressors during pregnancy are potential risk factors for asthma in offspring. However, previous studies have been limited by the use of self-reported data focusing on stressors either in private life or at work. This study examined the association between maternal stressors both in private life and at work during pregnancy an...
Article
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Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing Joint Estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of experts. Evidence from mechanistic data suggests that exposure to long working hours may cause ischaemi...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to examine the onset of workplace bullying as a risk factor for BMI increase. Methods: Repeated biennial survey data from three Nordic cohort studies were used, totaling 46,148 participants (67,337 participant observations) aged between 18 and 65 who did not have obesity and who were not bullied at the baseline. Multi...
Article
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Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO) are developing joint estimates of the work-related burden of disease and injury (WHO/ILO Joint Estimates), with contributions from a large network of individual experts. Evidence from mechanistic data and prior studies suggests that exposure to long wor...
Article
Background As discussions about extending working lives are ongoing, more knowledge is warranted on working conditions that are associated with labour market status in older age. Aim Among employees aged 55-64 years, associations between job demands/job control with their labour market status 11 years later were explored. Methods A population-bas...
Article
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As of 1 January 2021, the Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health (SJWEH) will become a full open access (OA) journal. Under the "gold" OA status, all new articles will be published as "unlocked content" on the journal’s website. This makes the final version of an article freely accessible for everyone, and allows for distribution and...
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Objective/background Associations between exposure to effort-reward imbalance at work (eg, high time pressure/low appreciation) and risk of sleep disturbances have been reported, but the direction of the effect is unclear. The present study investigated changes in effort-reward imbalance and risk of concomitant and subsequent onset of sleep disturb...
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Background: Previous studies have found low job control to be associated with a higher risk of disability pension (DP). Most studies have measured job control only at one time-point, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding the role of exposure duration. This study examines the prospective association between job control and DP measuring exposur...
Article
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Background The study aimed to determine the association of individual cognitive ability in late midlife with labor market participation among older workers. Methods This prospective cohort study estimates the risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), disability pension, early retirement, and unemployment from scores on the Intelligenz-Struktur-Te...
Article
Background Whether workplace social capital affects employees’ mental health is debated. We examined the association between work-unit aggregated social capital and incident purchase of psychotropic medications among employees. Methods We used data from the WHALE (Well-being in Hospital Employees) cohort study. The study population comprised 21711...
Article
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Background We studied onset of workplace sexual harassment and subsequent risk of depressive symptoms and depressive disorder. Methods We examined 9,981 individuals who participated in the Work Environment and Health in Denmark survey in 2012 and 2014 and 6,647 individuals who also participated in 2016, all unexposed to sexual harassment in 2012....
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Objectives: Investigate prospective associations between combinations of job demands/job control and future labor market situation. Methods: A population-based prospective cohort study of 2,194,694 individuals in paid work. Using multinomial logistic regression, we calculated the association between combinations of job demands/control in 2001, a...
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Objectives The demographic changes in Europe underline the need for an extension of working lives. This study investigates the importance of physical work demands and psychosocial work factors for working beyond the state pension age (65 years). Methods We combined data from three cohorts of the general working population in Denmark (DWECS 2005 and...
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Background Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease ( PAD ) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD , using individual‐level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Jo...
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Importance It is well established that selected lifestyle factors are individually associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but how combinations of these factors are associated with disease-free life-years is unknown. Objective To estimate the association between healthy lifestyle and the number of disease-free life-years. Design, Setting,...
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Purpose To determine the prospective relation between workplace violence and the risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), and study if work-unit social capital could buffer this effect. As an explorative analysis, the association between work-unit social capital and workplace violence is also tested. Methods The study is based on the Well-being...
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Purpose To explore the prospective association of objectively measured and self-reported occupational physical activity (OPA) with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among Danish eldercare workers. Methods The study population consisted of eldercare workers in 20 Danish nursing homes (N = 553, response rate 59%, 525 female). Baseline data were c...
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Objective To investigate the relation between effort‐reward imbalance (ERI) at work and subsequent weight changes. Methods We included participants from a population‐based cohort of workers in Denmark (mean age = 47 years, 54% women) with two (n = 9005) or three repeated measurements (n = 5710). We investigated the association between (a) ERI (ie,...
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Objective: To examine whether low leadership quality predicts long-term sickness absence (LTSA) in Denmark. Methods: Using Cox models, we estimated the association between exposure to low leadership quality and onset of register based LTSA (≥6 weeks) during 12-months follow-up among 53,157 employees without previous LTSA. Results: During 51,15...
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We live in unprecedented modern times experiencing how an outbreak of a particular viral disease, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, also commonly referred to as the Coronavirus, is disrupting societies and personal lives. The virus is likely to spread to most, if not all, countries, illustrating the interconnectedness of the world. At the time of wri...