Reina Sikkema

Reina Sikkema
Erasmus MC | Erasmus MC · Department of Virology

DVM, MSc

About

65
Publications
23,354
Reads
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4,148
Citations
Introduction
Education
September 2006 - December 2010
Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
Field of study
  • Biomedical Sciences: International Public Health and Infectious Diseases
September 2002 - December 2010
Utrecht University
Field of study
  • Veterinary Medicine

Publications

Publications (65)
Article
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The transmission routes and risk factors for zoonotic Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections are still unknown. We used the World Health Organization questionnaire for MERS-CoV case-control studies to assess risk factors for human MERS-CoV seropositivity at a farm complex in Qatar. Nine camel workers with MERS-CoV antibo...
Article
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Introduction The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and research...
Article
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Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due t...
Article
The risk of infection with avian influenza viruses for poultry workers is relatively unknown in China, and study results are often biased by the notification of only the severe human cases. Protein microarray was used to detect binding antibodies to 13 different haemagglutinin (HA1-part) antigens of avian influenza A(H5N1), A(H7N7), A(H7N9) and A(H...
Article
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To the Editor: Avian influenza A(H5N6) influenza viruses have circulated among poultry in southern (Jiangxi, Guangdong) and western (Sichuan) provinces of China since 2013 (1,2). In 2014, outbreaks of H5N6 virus infection occurred among poultry in China, Laos, and Vietnam (1). In April 2014, the first case of highly pathogenic H5N6 infection among...
Article
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Novel safe, immunogenic, and effective vaccines are needed to control the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Here, we describe the safety, robust immunogenicity, and potent efficacy elicited in rhesus macaques by a modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vector expressing a full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein (MVA-S). MVA-S vaccination was...
Article
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Here we describe a SARS-CoV-2 variant with diminished amplification of the ORF ORF1ab target in the Cobas® dual-target SARS-CoV-2 assay resulting in a discrepancy of Ct-values (Ct-value 20.7 for the E-gene and Ct-value 30.2 for ORF1ab). Five unique nucleotide mutations were identified in ORF1ab: C11450A (nsp10) C14178 T (RdRp), G15006 T (RdRp), G18...
Article
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p>In order to assess the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, transmission and reservoir development in swine, we combined results of an experimental and two observational studies. First, intranasal and intratracheal challenge of eight pigs did not result in infection, based on clinical signs and PCR on swab and lung tissue samples. Two serum samples retu...
Article
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In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020), SARS-CoV-2 was detected in farmed minks and genomic sequencing was performed on mink farms and farm personnel. Here, we describe the outbreak and use sequence data with Bayesian phylodynamic methods to explore SARS-CoV-2 transmission in minks and humans on farms. High number of farm infection...
Article
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Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal...
Article
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The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is the first to apply whole-genome sequencing near to real time, with over 2 million severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) whole-genome sequences generated and shared through the GISAID platform. This genomic resource informed public health decision-making throughout th...
Article
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The Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus. Despite its continuous circulation in Europe, knowledge on the pathology, cellular and tissue tropism and pathogenetic potential of different circulating viral lineages is still fragmentary. Here, macroscopic and microscopic evaluations are performed in association with the study of ce...
Preprint
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Worldwide exceptionally many COVID-19 clusters were observed in meat processing plants. Many contributing factors, promoting transmission, were suggested, including climate conditions in cooled production rooms favorable for environmental transmission but actual sampling studies are lacking. We aimed to assess SARS-CoV-2 contamination of air and su...
Article
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Animals like mink, cats and dogs are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the Netherlands, 69 out of 127 mink farms were infected with SARS-CoV-2 between April and November 2020 and all mink on infected farms were culled after SARS-CoV-2 infection to prevent further spread of the virus. On some farms, (feral) cats and dogs were present. This stu...
Article
We investigated the sources of infection among healthcare workers (HCWs) and patients in a teaching hospital during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic with epidemiological and whole genome sequencing data. This retrospective study is performed in a Dutch teaching hospital with nursing facilities located in Rotterdam and Schiedam with around...
Preprint
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Uncontrolled SARS-CoV-2 infections in farmed minks raised immediate concerns regarding human health which initiated intensive environmental investigations. Air sampling was performed in infected mink farms, at farm premises and at residential sites. A range of other environmental samples were collected from minks' housing units. Inside the farms, h...
Article
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The first highly pathogenic (HP) influenza A/H7N9 was reported in Guangdong in January 2017. To investigate the emergence and spread of HP A/H7N9 in Guangdong province, we sequenced 297 viruses (58 HP A/H7N9, 19 low pathogenic (LP) A/H7N9 and 220 A/H9N2) during 2016-2017. Our analysis showed that during the 5th wave, three A/H7N9 lineages were co-c...
Article
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The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 was accompanied by uncertainty about its epidemiological and clinical characteristics Once camelus dromedarius was found to be the natural reservoir of the virus public health systems across the Arabian Peninsula came under unprecedented pressure to control its transmi...
Article
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Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation using whole genome sequencing of outbreaks on 16 mink farms and the humans living or working...
Article
Background An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a nursing home in the Netherlands, following an on-site church service held on 8 March 2020, triggered an investigation to unravel sources and chain(s) of transmission. Methods Epidemiological data were collected from registries and through a questionnaire among church attendees. Sym...
Preprint
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Background: The Dutch province of Limburg borders the German district of Heinsberg, which had a large cluster of COVID-19 cases linked to local carnival activities in February, before any cases were reported in the Netherlands. However, Heinsberg was not included as an area reporting local or community transmission per the national case definition...
Article
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On 22 August, a common whitethroat in the Netherlands tested positive for West Nile virus lineage 2. The same bird had tested negative in spring. Subsequent testing of Culex mosquitoes collected in August and early September in the same location generated two of 44 positive mosquito pools, providing first evidence for enzootic transmission in the N...
Article
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An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Preprint
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Background This study aimed to assess the contribution of asymptomatic and presymptomatic residents and staff in SARS-CoV-2 transmission during a large outbreak in a Dutch nursing home. Methods Observational study in a 185-bed nursing home with two consecutive testing strategies: testing of symptomatic cases only, and weekly facility-wide testing o...
Article
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In late December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology were reported linked to a market in Wuhan, China1. The causative agent was identified as the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus and was named SARS-CoV-2 (ref. 2). By 16 April the virus had spread to 185 different countries, infected over 2,000,000...
Preprint
The zoonotic origin of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is still unknown. Animal experiments have shown that non-human primates, cats, ferrets, hamsters, rabbits and bats can be infected by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in felids, mink and dogs in the field. Here, we describe an in-depth investigation of outbreaks on 16 mink farm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding the coronavirus (CoV) antibody landscape in relation to disease and susceptibility is critical for modelling of steps in the next phase during the current covid-19 pandemic. In March 2020, during the first month of the epidemic in The Netherlands, we performed cross sectional studies at two time points amongst patients of the Erasmus...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background An outbreak of COVID-19 in a nursing home in the Netherlands, following an on-site church service held on March 8, 2020, triggered an investigation to unravel sources and chain(s) of transmission.Methods Epidemiological data were collected from registries and through a questionnaire among church visitors. Symptomatic residents and health...
Article
Full-text available
Background 10 days after the first reported case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the Netherlands (on Feb 27, 2020), 55 (4%) of 1497 health-care workers in nine hospitals located in the south of the Netherlands had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. We aimed to gain insight in possible sources of infecti...
Article
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Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no...
Preprint
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In April 2020, respiratory disease and increased mortality were observed in farmed mink on two farms in the Netherlands. In both farms, at least one worker had been found positive for SARS-CoV-2. Necropsies of the mink revealed interstitial pneumonia, and organ and swab samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by qPCR. Variations in viral genomes...
Preprint
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Background: Ten days after the first reported case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Netherlands, 3.9% of healthcare workers (HCWs) in nine hospitals located in the South of the Netherlands tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The extent of nosocomial transmission that contributed to the HCW infections was unknown. Methods: We combined epidemiological...
Article
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Identifying the origin of rabies virus (RABV) infection can have major implications for control measures. Here, we identified the origin of RABV infection of two Nepalese migrants in Qatar by comparing these RABV genomes with RABV genomes isolated from brains of a RABV infected camel and fox from Qatar.
Preprint
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SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that has rapidly spread across the globe. In the Netherlands, the first case of SARS-CoV-2 has been notified on the 27th of February. Here, we describe the first three weeks of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in the Netherlands, which started with several different introductory events from Italy, Austria, Germany and Franc...
Article
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The current pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was recently identified in patients with an acute respiratory syndrome, COVID-19. To compare its pathogenesis with that of previously emerging coronaviruses, we inoculated cynomolgus macaques with SARS-CoV-2 or MERS-CoV and compared the pathology and virology with historical reports of SARS-CoV infectio...
Article
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A new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has recently emerged to cause a human pandemic. Although molecular diagnostic tests were rapidly developed, serologic assays are still lacking, yet urgently needed. Validated serologic assays are needed for contact tracing, identifying the viral reservoir, and epidemio...
Preprint
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A new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has recently emerged to cause a human pandemic. Whereas molecular diagnostic tests were rapidly developed, serologic assays are still lacking, yet urgently needed. Validated serologic assays are important for contact tracing, identifying the viral reservoir and epidemiological studies. Here, we developed serological a...
Article
Whole genome sequencing can be used to characterize and to trace viral outbreaks. Nanopore-based whole genome sequencing protocols have been described for several different viruses. These approaches utilize an overlapping amplicon-based approach which can be used to target a specific virus or group of genetically related viruses. In addition to con...
Chapter
The risk of emergence and spread of novel human pathogens originating from an animal reservoir has increased in the past decades. However, the unpredictable nature of disease emergence makes surveillance and preparedness challenging. Knowledge of general risk factors for emergence and spread, combined with local level data is needed to develop a ri...
Article
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We tested samples collected from camels, camel workers, and other animals in Sudan and Qatar in 2015 and 2017 for evidence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. MERS-CoV antibodies were abundant in Sudan camels, but we found no evidence of MERS-CoV infection in camel workers, other livestock, or bats.
Article
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Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014–2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing genomic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine...
Article
Full-text available
Market surveillance showed continuing circulation of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus in live poultry markets in Guangdong Province in 2017, despite compulsory vaccination for avian influenza A(H5Nx) and A(H7N9). We analyzed H5N6 viruses from 2014–2018 from Guangdong Province, revealing genomic drift and decreased antibody response against the vaccine...
Technical Report
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World Health Organization Emergencies, Preparedness, Response Technical guidance on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) Investigation tools the 13-14 March 2017 WHO Informal Consultation on Environmental Contamination of MERS-CoV in health care settings A practical “how to” protocol for health care and public health profess...
Article
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Global status of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: a systematic review – CORRIGENDUM - Volume 147 - R. S. Sikkema, E. A. B. A. Farag, Mazharul Islam, Muzzamil Atta, C. B. E. M. Reusken, Mohd M. Al-Hajri, M. P. G. Koopmans
Article
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The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East in 2012 was associated with an overwhelming uncertainty about its epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Once dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) was found to be the natural reservoir of the virus, the public health systems across the Arabian...
Article
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Dromedary camels have been shown to be the main reservoir for human Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) infections. This systematic review aims to compile and analyse all published data on MERS-coronavirus (CoV) in the global camel population to provide an overview of current knowledge on the distribution, spread and risk factors of infections...
Article
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M.N.); halromaihi@moph.gov.qa (H.A.-R.); malthani@moph.gov.qa (M.A.T.); dralmarri@moph.gov.qa (S.A.-M.); malhajri1@moph.gov.qa (M.A.) Abstract: MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus) antibodies were detected in camels since 1983, but the first human case was only detected in 2012. This study sought to identify and quantify possibl...
Article
Full-text available
The transmission routes and risk factors for zoonotic MERS-CoV infections are still unknown. We used the WHO questionnaire for MERS-CoV case-control studies to assess risk factors for human MERS-CoV seropositivity at a farm complex in Qatar. Nine camel workers with MERS-CoV antibodies and 43 workers without antibodies were included. Some camel-rela...
Data
Virus isolation, sequencing methods, data sources, and description of complete genomes of 94 avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry and the environment, China.
Article
Full-text available
Influenza viruses are characterized by their highly variable surface proteins HA and NA. The third surface protein M2 is a nearly invariant protein in all Influenza A strains. Despite extensive studies in other animal models, this study is the first to describe the use of recombinant M2 protein and a peptide coding for the extracellular part of the...
Article
Leptospirosis, a disease that is often under- or misdiagnosed, significantly impacts human health in many parts of the world and generally affects the most vulnerable communities. Obtaining reliable and comparable information about the occurrence of leptospirosis in populations, and detecting changing trends, are critical for setting policy and pub...

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