Rei Yamashita

Rei Yamashita
The University of Tokyo | Todai · Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute

About

43
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Floating plastic debris was investigated in the transition region in the North Pacific between 141°E and 165°W to understand its transportation process from Asian coast to central subtropical Pacific. Distribution was influenced primarily by the current system and the generation process of the high concentration area differed between the western an...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic marine debris is a threat to marine organisms. Understanding how this debris spatially distributes at sea and may become associated with marine wildlife are key steps to tackle this current issue. Using bird-borne GPS- and video-loggers on 13 black-footed albatrosses Phoebastria nigripes breeding in Torishima, Japan, we examined the d...
Article
Sonic boom prediction around buildings has previously been conducted under the assumption of linear wave propagation. In this work, a more detailed analysis considering the nonlinear effect is achieved by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The two-dimensional Euler equations are solved by employing a level set method for tracking a moving...
Article
Full-text available
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in plastic resin pellets collected from 65 beaches across 27 countries worldwide. They were detected at 49 locations at concentrations of the sum of 49 congeners of up to 46 ng/g-pellet and a median of 2 ng/g-pellet. These values are one to two orders of magnitude lower than those of polychlorina...
Article
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Plastic pollution, and its associated impacts on marine fauna due to chemical contamination, is an area of growing global concern. We analyzed 145 preen gland oil samples from 32 seabird species belonging to 8 families with different foraging habits and life history strategies from around the world for plastic additives and legacy persistent organi...
Article
Microplastic pollution in marine environments is an emerging global issue revealing the importance of microplastic monitoring. Although numerous papers have been published in recent years in relation to microplastics, the methods and techniques for identifying and quantifying them remain underdeveloped, and many researchers are working to develop o...
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Plastic pollution in the oceans is a priority environmental issue. The recent increase in research on the topic, coupled with growing public awareness, has catalyzed policymakers around the world to identify and implement solutions that minimize the harm caused by plastic pollution. To aid and coordinate these efforts, we surveyed experts with scie...
Article
This paper develops a full-field direct numerical simulation methodology of sonic boom in a stratified atmosphere. The entire flow field, ranging from the near field around a supersonic body to the far field extending to the ground, is modeled by the three-dimensional Euler equations with a gravitational source term. Thus far, it has been solved us...
Article
Plastic debris is ubiquitous and increasing in the marine environment [1]. A wide range of marine organisms ingest plastic, and its impacts are of growing concern [2]. Seabirds are particularly susceptible to plastic pollution because of high rates of ingestion [3]. Because marine plastics contain an array of hazardous compounds, the chemical impac...
Article
PCBs and PBDEs in microplastics and zooplankton collected in surface water at 27 locations in the Pacific Ocean and around the coast of Japan were investigated. Both PCBs and PBDEs were observed in buoyant microplastics, even in smaller particles of 0.315-1 mm. Concentrations of Σ13 PCBs were 0.04-124 ng/g, and were higher in urban bay areas such a...
Article
Full-text available
Situated at high positions on marine food webs, seabirds accumulate high concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Our previous studies proposed the usefulness of seabirds preen gland oil as a nondes...
Chapter
Marine plastic debris, including microplastics <5 mm, contain additives as well as hydrophobic chemicals sorbed from surrounding seawater. A volunteer-based global monitoring programme entitled International Pellet Watch (IPW) is utilizing the sorptive nature of plastics, more specifically of beached polyethylene (PE) pellets, in order to measure p...
Chapter
Field observations of seabirds and whales indicate transfer of chemicals from ingested plastics to the tissue of organisms which have ingested the plastics. To determine the significance of plastic-mediated exposure of chemicals, it should be compared with natural prey-mediated exposure. In case where background pollution is high, plastic-mediated...
Article
Following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident, regional road dust, heavily contaminated with radiocesium, now represents a potential source of radiocesium pollution in river water. To promote effective countermeasures for reducing the risk from radiocesium pollution, it is important to understand its sources. This study evaluated...
Article
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Oil pollution in the marine environment is an unavoidable problem due to chronic input from local sources, particularly in urban areas and oil spills. Oil pollution not only causes immediate physical damages to surrounding wildlife but also some components, including higher molecular weight PAHs, can persist in the environment for many years and po...
Article
Plastic resin pellets collected at Minh Chau island and Ba Lat estuary between 2007 and 2014 in Vietnam were analyzed for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). The study was carried out as part of the International Pellet Watch program for monitoring the global distribution of...
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The assimilation efficiency and growth of Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata chicks (30-35 age of days) fed with Japanese Sand Lance Ammodytes personatus and Antarctic Krill Euphausia superba were investigated. Chicks were fed 79.4 ± 3.1 gwet /d (mean ± SD) of sand lance, which included 497.2 ± 14.9 kJ energy, 4.3 ± 0.2 g lipid, and 12.3 ± 0.5...
Article
Our previous study suggested the transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants from ingested plastics to seabirds' tissues. To understand how the PBDEs are transferred, we studied leaching from plastics into digestive fluids. We hypothesized that stomach oil, which is present in the digestive tract of birds in the order Procella...
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The release of radiocesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant caused environmental contamination. We analyzed sources, behavior, and temporal trends of radiocesium by 1-year monitoring in an urban river, the Ohori River. The concentrations of 137 Cs in both particulate and dissolved phases decreased to ~ 16% within 1 year. The partitio...
Article
Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39-69ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1-15ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs...
Article
This paper describes the effectiveness of the direct simulation for the sonic boom prediction over the whole computational domain from the body to the ground and the nature of the sonic boom propagation for the hypersonic vehicle. Both the near and far fields around an axi-symmetric paraboloid are numerically obtained by the axi-symmetric Euler ana...
Article
Full-text available
Ocean-scale monitoring of pollution is challenging. Seabirds are useful indicators because they travel over a broad foraging range. Nevertheless, this coarse spatial resolution is not fine enough to discriminate pollution in a finer scale. Previous studies have demonstrated that pollution levels are higher in the Sea of Japan and South and East Chi...
Article
We analyzed polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in abdominal adipose of oceanic seabirds (short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris) collected in northern North Pacific Ocean. In 3 of 12 birds, we detected higher-brominated congeners (viz., BDE209 and BDE183), which are not present in the natural prey (pelagic fish) of the birds. The same...
Article
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are extensively used as flame retardants in many consumer products, and leachates from landfills have been identified as one of the possible sources of PBDEs in the environment. Meanwhile, the unprecedented economic and population growths of some Asian countries over the last decade have led to significant inc...
Article
Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans and the Caribbean Sea were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane and its degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). Concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners) in the pellets were 0.1-9.9 ng...
Article
Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chroma...
Article
We investigated the plastics ingested by short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris, that were accidentally caught during experimental fishing in the North Pacific Ocean in 2003 and 2005. The mean mass of plastics found in the stomach was 0.23 g per bird (n=99). Plastic mass did not correlate with body weight. Total PCB (sum of 24 congeners) c...
Article
Full-text available
Seabirds and large fishes are important top predators in marine ecosystems, but few studies have explored the potential for competition between these groups. This study investigates the relationship between an observed biennial change of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) biomass in the central Bering Sea (23 times greater in odd-numbered than in...
Article
To understand the spatial variation in concentrations and compositions of organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris and their sources, we analyzed plastic fragments (∼10 mm) from the open ocean and from remote and urban beaches. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and i...
Article
Full-text available
Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2'-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), poly...
Article
Oil secreted from the preen gland (located at the base of the tail feathers) of seabirds can be collected from live birds. We determined PCB concentrations and profiles in the preen gland oil and corresponding abdominal adipose tissue collected from 30 seabirds (2 orders, 3 families, 10 genera, 13 species) to examine the utility of the oil as a mon...
Article
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in beached resin pellets were examined to reveal variability between individual particles and differences among beaches. Fifty-five resin pellets from a beach in Tokyo were individually analyzed for PCBs, and showed concentrations ranging from <28 to 2,300 ng/g. This indicates that concentrations a...
Article
Full-text available
NOT THE ABSTRACT; there is no one, but this in the Introduction. Marine plastics including plastic fragments and plastic resin pellets are distributed widely in the ocean. Because the marine plastics contain organic pollutants [1], their adverse effects have been of great concern. To assess the risks of plastic-associated chemicals, understanding...

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