Regan L Bailey

Regan L Bailey
Purdue University | Purdue · Department of Nutrition Science

PhD, MPH, RD, CPH

About

220
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
Background A person's daily nutrient intake and overall nutritional status are determined by a complex interplay of the types and amounts of foods ingested in combination with the timing and frequency of eating. Objectives The aim was to summarize frequency of eating occasion data examined by the 2020 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, the mac...
Article
Background Dietary supplement (DS) use is widespread in the U.S. and contributes large amounts of micronutrients to users. Most studies have relied on data from one assessment method to characterize the prevalence of DS use. Combining multiple methods enhances the ability to capture nutrient exposures from DS and examine trends over time. Objectiv...
Article
Objectives Reliable dietary assessment tools for assessing nutrient intake from foods/beverages and dietary supplements (DS) are critical for population-level monitoring; yet, different tools vary in their strengths and weaknesses for assessing intake from foods/beverages, and less is known about the performance of these tools in measuring intake f...
Article
Objectives DS use is widespread in the U.S. and contributes large amounts of micronutrients to users. The prevalence of DS use over time has been characterized; however, most studies have relied on data from one assessment method. Combining multiple methods of assessment enhances the ability to capture nutrient exposures from DS; additional studies...
Article
Background: The goal of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) is to improve the likelihood that those eligible for SNAP will make healthy choices aligned with the latest Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate long-term ef...
Article
Background Voices for Food was a longitudinal community, food pantry-based intervention informed by the social ecological model, and designed to improve food security, dietary intake and quality among clients, that was carried out in 24 rural food pantries across six Midwestern states. Objective The objective was to evaluate changes in adult food...
Article
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Background Most dietary indices reflect foods and beverages and do not include exposures from dietary supplements (DS) that provide substantial amounts of micronutrients. A nutrient-based approach that captures total intake inclusive of DS can strengthen exposure assessment. Objective To examine the construct and criterion validity of the Total Nu...
Article
Background Sarcopenia, a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, can begin in the 4th decade of life. Protein intake predicts skeletal muscle mass and strength among older adults, but knowledge of similar associations among middle-aged adults is lacking. Objectives We aimed to assess associations between protein intake and skeletal...
Article
Background Inadequate or excessive intake of micronutrients in pregnancy has potential to negatively impact maternal/offspring health outcomes. Objective The aim was to compare risks of inadequate or excessive micronutrient intake in diverse females with singleton pregnancies by strata of maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and prepregnancy B...
Article
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Background Limited research suggests increased adverse behavioral outcomes, such as distractibility and hyperactivity, among children with ASD as a result COVID-19; however, little is known about how the pandemic has impacted food-related behaviors among children with ASD. Objective This study characterizes the impact of the pandemic on access to...
Article
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A priori dietary indices provide a standardized, reproducible way to evaluate adherence to dietary recommendations across different populations. Existing nutrient-based indices were developed to reflect food/beverage intake; however, given the high prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use and its potentially large contribution to nutrient intakes...
Article
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Objectives US adolescents with overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) consume larger and more frequent snacks (i.e., foods consumed between meals) than adolescents with normal weight (NW); but, the food group sources of these snacks by body weight status remains largely unknown. This research aimed to evaluate snack food group composition by weight statu...
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Objectives Both inadequate and excessive intake of micronutrients in pregnancy have the potential to negatively impact child health outcomes. We examined micronutrient intake in a large, diverse sample of women with singleton pregnancies across the United States, including intake by maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, and pre-pregnancy body ma...
Article
Objectives To develop and validate the total nutrient index (TNI), a nutrient-based scoring system that assesses nutrient exposures from foods/beverages and dietary supplements (DS). Methods The TNI includes 8 shortfall micronutrients identified in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: calcium, magnesium, potassium, choline, and vitamins A, C, D,...
Article
Objectives Policy proposals to limit use of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and to allow dietary supplement (DS) purchase with SNAP benefits draw attention to knowledge gap of usual nutrient intake and adherence to the Dietary Reference Intake recommendations from foods alone and with DS (total intake) among low-income older ad...
Article
Background Research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is lacking. Aims This study investigates the relationship between COVID-19 and behaviors of children with ASD living in the United States. Methods and procedures Parents and caregivers (n = 200) across the United States, as prox...
Article
Background Food insecurity is associated with poorer nutrient intakes from food sources and lower dietary supplement use. However, its association with total usual nutrient intakes, inclusive of dietary supplements, and biomarkers of nutritional status among US children remains unknown. Objective The objective was to assess total usual nutrient in...
Article
Background Elevated plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) and/or total homocysteine (tHcy), as well as low serum vitamin B12 and/or holotranscobalamin (holoTC) are indicative of vitamin B12 deficiency. Combined indicators (cB12), which pool some or all 4 markers into an index, may be a more reliable diagnostic tool to overcome inconclusive diagnoses with...
Article
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Objectives To characterize dietary supplement usage among U.S. children, including product type, motivations, user characteristics, and trends over time with a primary focus on non-vitamin/non-mineral dietary supplements (NVNM). Study design Overall, NVNM, and vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplement use; motivations for use, and trends in use ov...
Article
Folate, an essential nutrient found naturally in foods in a reduced form, is present in dietary supplements and fortified foods in an oxidized synthetic form (folic acid). There is widespread agreement that maintaining adequate folate status is critical to prevent diseases due to folate inadequacy (e.g., anemia, birth defects, and cancer). However,...
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Over the past 30-years, the U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans have included recommendations around dairy consumption, largely based on meeting recommendations for calcium intake with the intended purpose of osteoporosis prevention. Although dairy products provide more bone-beneficial nutrients (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, phospho...
Article
Food pantries provide free food to individuals at nutritional risk given lack of available foods. Frequent use of food pantries is associated with higher dietary quality; however, neither the nutrient contributions of food pantries to participant diets, nor their relationship with household food security are known. This cross-sectional analysis use...
Article
Background: Potential safety concerns relative to impaired cognitive function may exist when high folic acid exposures are combined with low vitamin B-12 status. Objectives: We aimed to examine the relation of the coexistence of high folate and low vitamin B-12 status with cognitive function, utilizing various definitions of "high" folate status...
Article
Background Food pantry users represent a predominantly food insecure population, yet dietary intake may differ among food secure (FS), low FS, and very low FS clients. Usual intake of food groups and nutrients by food security status has not previously been compared among food pantry clients. Objective This study aimed to estimate the usual intake...
Article
Background: The diet quality among adults receiving nutrition education lessons through Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) is currently unknown. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the diet quality of Indiana SNAP-Ed-eligible women; estimate their mean usual intake of fruits, vegetables, dairy...
Article
Full-text available
Snacks, while widely consumed in the United States (U.S.), do not have a standard definition, complicating research to understand associations, if any, with weight status. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between snacking frequency and weight status using various snacking definitions that exist in the scientific l...
Article
Objectives Most Americans have dietary sodium intakes that far exceed recommendations. Given the association of high sodium with hypertension, strategies to reduce sodium intakes are an important public health target. Glutamates, such as monosodium glutamate, represent a potential strategy to reduce overall intakes while preserving product palatabi...
Article
Objectives Little is known whether the prevalence of dietary supplement (DS) use among children varies by assessment method as it does among adults. We assessed the prevalence of use of different DS product types among U.S. children using four different combinations of assessment methods constructed from two instruments (i.e., frequency-based quest...
Article
Objectives Potential safety concerns may exist with high folate/folic acid exposures combined with low vitamin B12 (B12) status relative to cognitive function; therefore, we investigated this relationship, leveraging cognitive test performance with folate and B12 biomarker data among a nationally-representative survey of U.S. older adults. Methods...
Article
Objectives To estimate distributions of total usual vitamin D intakes from foods and supplements among U.S. adults, using four different methods of assessment. Usual intake is defined as long-term average daily intake. Methods Distributions of total usual vitamin D intakes were estimated from data provided by 9954 adults (≥19 y) from the 2011–2014...
Article
Objectives Menopause represents a period in which bone deterioration is accelerated; thus, primary prevention strategies to address age-related bone loss are crucial. Dairy products contain more than a dozen essential nutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and high-quality protein, as well as bioactive compounds that may promote bone...
Article
Objective To evaluate total usual intakes and biomarkers of micronutrients, overall dietary quality and related health characteristics of US older adults who were overweight or obese compared with a healthy weight. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Two 24-h dietary recalls, nutritional biomarkers and objective and subjective health characteri...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Menopause represents a period in which bone deterioration is accelerated; thus, primary prevention strategies to address age-related bone loss are crucial. Dairy products contain more than a dozen essential nutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and high-quality protein, as well as bioactive compounds that may promote bone...
Article
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Team-based active learning has been associated with enhanced communication and critical thinking skills, and improved clinical competency in other allied-health disciplines, but little is known about this pedagogical technique in nutrition. This study compared content retention and perceptions of a team-based, active learning course redesign interv...
Article
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There are no published harmonized nutrient reference values for the complementary feeding period. The aim of the study was to develop proposals on adequate and safe intake ranges of micronutrients that can be applied to dietary guidance and menu planning. Dietary intake surveys from 6 populous countries were selected as pertinent to the study and r...
Article
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of use and the micronutrient contribution of dietary supplements among pregnant, lactating, and nonpregnant and nonlactating women in the United States. Methods: Cross-sectional data from 1,314 pregnant, 297 lactating, and 8,096 nonpregnant and nonlactating women (aged 20-44 years) in the 1999-2014 National...
Article
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This study examined total usual micronutrient intakes from foods, beverages, and dietary supplements (DS) compared to the Dietary Reference Intakes among U.S. adults (≥19 years) by sex and food security status using NHANES 2011–2014 data (n = 9954). DS data were collected via an in-home interview; the NCI method was used to estimate distributions o...
Article
Background: Accurate and reliable methods to assess prevalence of use of and nutrient intakes from dietary supplements (DSs) are critical for research, clinical practice, and public health monitoring. NHANES has been the primary source of DS usage patterns using an in-home inventory with a frequency-based DS and Prescription Medicine Questionnaire...
Article
Background: Breakfast consumption has declined over the past 40 y and is inversely associated with obesity-related diet and health outcomes. The breakfast pattern of food pantry clients and its association with diet is unknown. Objective: The objective is to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with diet quality and usual nutrien...
Article
Full-text available
Most Americans have dietary sodium intakes that far exceed recommendations. Given the association of high sodium with hypertension, strategies to reduce sodium intakes are an important public health target. Glutamates, such as monosodium glutamate, represent a potential strategy to reduce overall intakes while preserving product palatability; there...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT Diet is a modifiable factor that is related to bone mass and risk for fractures; however, the use of calcium supplements for bone health is controversial, with little scientific agreement. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the change in lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD and the risk of bone fracture by the use of calcium supplem...
Article
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Fruit and vegetables (F&V) have been a cornerstone of healthy dietary recommendations; the 2015–2020 U.S. Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that F&V constitute one-half of the plate at each meal. F&V include a diverse collection of plant foods that vary in their energy, nutrient, and dietary bioactive contents. F&V have potential health-pr...
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Background Many updates to young child feeding recommendations have been published over the past decade, but concurrent intake trends have not been assessed. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate adequacy and trends in energy and nutrient intakes of US infants and children aged 0–47.9 mo through use of Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study...
Article
Background: Serum vitamin B-12 is measured to evaluate vitamin B-12 status. Serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a specific functional indicator of vitamin B-12 status; however, concentrations increase with impaired renal function. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of serum vitamin B-12 and MMA in US adults, and esti...
Article
Full-text available
Snacking is a significant contributor to energy intake among adolescents, but its association with weight status is unclear. To elucidate this association, data from 6545 adolescents (12–19 years) in the 2005–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. The mean number of daily snack occasions, mean snack size, and...
Article
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Whether snacks help young children meet nutritional needs or merely contribute to excessive intakes is debated. This research evaluated associations of snacking with dietary quality among US preschoolers (two to five years, n = 4217) in the 2005–2016 National Health Examination Survey (NHANES). Snacking occasions, size, and energy density (ED) were...
Article
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Importance Nutrition during pregnancy is a critical dimension not only for women’s health but also for the lifelong health of the offspring. Very limited national data exist on the usual dietary intakes of pregnant women. Objective To estimate total usual nutrient intakes (from foods and dietary supplements) and the population prevalence of meetin...
Article
Objectives: To estimate total mean usual micronutrient intakes (inclusive of dietary supplements (DS)), Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) adherence, and the % contribution of DS to total usual micronutrient intakes for U.S. adults (≥19y) using data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, n = 9474), by sex, age, a...
Article
Objectives: The purpose was to evaluate nutritional status, food security, and related health factors of older adults who were overweight or obese compared to those with a healthy weight. Methods: Data from 2969 adults aged ≥60 years from NHANES 2011-2014 were analyzed. Participants were categorized by sex and body weight status as healthy weigh...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The goal of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) is to assist low-income households to improve diet quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of SNAP-Ed nutrition education lessons on diet quality and key nutrient and food group outcomes among Indiana SNAP-Ed-eligible adults...
Article
Objectives The purpose of this analysis was to compare the association between adult snacking frequency and weight status and central adiposity across various definitions of a snack. Specifically, we investigated whether the definition of a snack alters the odds ratio (OR) of having overweight or obesity (OW/OB, BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) by consumption frequ...
Article
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Diet is a modifiable factor that can affect bone strength and integrity, and the risk of fractures. Currently, a hierarchy of scientific evidence contributes to our understanding of the role of diet on bone health and fracture risk. The strength of evidence is generally based on the type of study conducted, the quality of the methodology employed,...
Article
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Children’s food-security status has been described largely based on either the classification of food security in the household or among household children, but few studies have investigated the relationship between food security among household children and overall dietary quality. Our goal was to examine children’s dietary quality and micronutrie...
Article
The use of dietary supplements (DS) is pervasive and can provide substantial amounts of micronutrients to those who use them. Therefore when characterizing dietary intakes, describing the prevalence of inadequacy or excess, or assessing relations between nutrients and health outcomes, it is critical to incorporate DS intakes to improve exposure est...
Article
Background: Limited nationally representative data are available on dietary supplement (DS) use and resulting nutrient exposures among infants and toddlers. Objective: This study evaluated DS use among US infants and toddlers to characterize DS use, estimate nutrient intake from DSs, and assess trends in DS use over time. Methods: Using nation...
Chapter
Vitamin D plays an important role in bone health, but dietary intakes are below recommendations. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare perceptions of dietary vitamin adequacy with the biomarker of vitamin D exposure [25(OH)D] in two populations with (USA) and without (Germany) fortification among adults not using dietary suppleme...
Chapter
Fruit and vegetable consumption has consistently been identified as a favorable dietary strategy for bone health. Diets high in fruits and vegetables tend to be high in several minerals that are advantageous for bone health, including potassium, calcium, and magnesium, and low in sodium. The role of calcium in bone health has been well-characterize...
Chapter
FITS (the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study) 2016 is a national, cross-sectional survey to evaluate the diets and feeding practices of US infants and children <48 months (n = 3,235). Dietary intakes were assessed using 24-h recalls, including a replicate subsample (n = 799), to estimate usual intake distributions and compliance with dietary refere...
Article
The U.S. Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) established the regulatory framework for dietary supplements as foods through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). DSHEA outlined the legal definition, labeling requirements, and process for adverse event reporting for dietary supplements. FDA also issued formal guidance on current Goo...
Article
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that micronutrient supplements are warranted when requirements are not being met through the diet alone. Those with increased requirements secondary to growth, chronic disease, medication use, malabsorption, pregnancy and lactation, and aging may be at particular risk for inadequate dieta...
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Background: Hypertension contributes substantially to chronic disease and mortality. Mineral intakes can modify blood pressure. Objective: Individual minerals and their intake ratios in US adults and their association with blood pressure were examined. Methods: Regression models were used to examine the associations of sodium, potassium, and c...
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The global population, including the United States, is experiencing a demographic shift with the proportion of older adults (aged ≥ 65 years) growing faster than any other age group. This demographic group is at higher risk for developing nutrition-related chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes as well as infections such as influenza...
Article
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This analysis characterizes use of dietary supplements (DS) and motivations for DS use among U.S. children (≤18 years) by family income level, food security status, and federal nutrition assistance program participation using the 2011–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. About one-third (32%) of children used DS, mostly multi...
Article
Objective: This review summarizes the current and previous data on dietary supplement (DS) use collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), describes the NHANES dietary supplement database used to compute nutrient intakes from DSs, discussed recent developments and future direction, and describes ma...
Article
Objective: To describe the history, key features, recent enhancements, and common applications of the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD). Background and history: Although many Americans use dietary supplements, databases of dietary supplements sold in the United States have not been widely available. The DSLD, an easily accessible public-u...
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Background: The US Dietary Guidelines will expand in 2020 to include infants and toddlers. Understanding current dietary intakes is critical to inform policy. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to examine the usual total nutrient intakes from diet and supplements among US children. Methods: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016...
Article
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Background: A recent report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM) outlined priority nutrients for infants and children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Objective: The objective of this study was to assess usual nutrient intakes from foods and be...