Reed Johnson

Reed Johnson
The Ohio State University | OSU · Department of Entomology

PhD

About

116
Publications
43,960
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
9,478
Citations
Introduction
Reed Johnson currently works at the Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University. Reed does research in honey bee toxicology, pharmacology and looks to answer questions of honey bee foraging. Their most recent publication is 'A cross-border approach for assessing the risk of pesticides to bees in Canada and the US'.
Additional affiliations
September 2011 - present
The Ohio State University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
January 2009 - August 2011
University of Nebraska at Lincoln
Position
  • PostDoc Position
August 2002 - December 2008
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (116)
Article
Full-text available
The lack of seasonally sustained floral resources (i.e., pollen and nectar) is considered a primary global threat to pollinator health. However, the ability to predict the abundance of flowering resources for pollinators based upon climate, weather, and land cover is difficult due to insufficient monitoring over adequate spatial and temporal scales...
Article
Full-text available
Spring is an essential time for honey bee foraging in temperate climates. This is a period of increased brood rearing supporting colony growth and demands access to high-quality pollen and nectar resources. With the expansion of urban and agricultural landscapes, the availability of pollen and nectar producing flowers is declining in many areas. We...
Preprint
Full-text available
Among a long list of parasites and pathogens that threaten the European honey bee (Apis mellifera), European Foulbrood (EFB) has become an urgent apiary disease, as epidemic outbreaks are becoming increasingly common. EFB is a bacterial disease of larval honey bees, caused by a gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium, Melissococcus plutonius. The most e...
Article
Full-text available
Beekeepers report significant honey bee deaths during and after almond bloom. These losses pose a major problem for the California almond industry because of its dependence on honey bees as pollinators. This research aimed to determine if combinations of pesticides applied during almond bloom during daylight hours were a possible explanation for th...
Article
Full-text available
Honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies that pollinate California’s almond orchards are often exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals. Although agrochemicals applied during almond bloom are typically considered bee-safe when applied alone, their combined effects to honey bees are largely untested. In recent years, beekeepers providing pollination servi...
Chapter
Determining the effects of pesticide exposure on honey bees is one of the most controversial areas in honey bee health. While some pesticides, particularly insecticides, can cause substantial loss of bees and may result in bee‐kills and colony failure, it is relatively rare to observe a clear‐cut case where pesticides are obviously to blame. If pes...
Article
Full-text available
Most corn (Zea mays) seeds planted in the US in recent years are coated with a seed treatment containing neonicotinoid insecticides. Abrasion of the seed coating generates insecticide‐laden planter dust that disperses through the landscape during corn planting and has resulted in many ‘bee‐kill’ incidents in North America and Europe. We investigate...
Article
Understanding animal foraging ecology requires large sample sizes spanning broad environmental and temporal gradients. For pollinators, this has been hampered by the laborious nature of morphologically identifying pollen. Identifying pollen from urban environments is particularly difficult due to the presence of diverse ornamental species associate...
Article
Full-text available
A present goal of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is to manage land in agricultural landscapes to increase pollinator abundance and diversity. CP42, or the pollinator seed mix, is planted and managed to support foraging pollinators with blooming flowers present at all points in the foraging season. This high-quality habitat provides an excel...
Article
Plant pathogenic bacteria in the genus Erwinia cause economically important diseases, including bacterial wilt of cucurbits caused by E. tracheiphila (Et). Conventional bactericides are insufficient to control this disease. Using high-throughput screening 464 small molecules (SMs) with either cidal or static activity at 100 µM against a cucumber st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding animal foraging ecology requires large samples sizes spanning broad environmental and temporal gradients. For pollinators, this has been hampered by the laborious nature of morphologically identifying pollen. Metagenetic pollen analysis is a solution to this issue, but the field has struggled with poor quantitative performance. Buildi...
Article
While metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches are increasingly popular, questions remain about how best to analyze and taxonomically characterize the sequence data produced by such methods. Due to a lack of software infrastructure, important reference sequence curation steps are often ignored. We present MetaCurator, a software package designed fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The community-level analysis of samples containing diverse genetic material, via metabarcoding and metagenomic approaches, is increasingly popular. While the production of sequence data for such studies has become straightforward, questions remain about how best to analyze and taxonomically characterize sequence data. For many sequence classificati...
Article
Full-text available
Beekeepers providing pollination services for California almond orchards have reported observing dead or malformed brood during and immediately after almond bloom—effects that they attribute to pesticide exposure. The objective of this study was to test commonly used insecticides and fungicides during almond bloom on honey bee larval development in...
Presentation
Full-text available
In this session, you will learn how Health Canada’s PMRA and U.S. EPA developed a process to evaluate risk of pesticides to bees. The basic elements of risk assessment, required toxicity studies, methods to predict exposure to bees, higher-tier studies and their role in refining risk assessments will be discussed.
Preprint
Full-text available
We explored the pollen foraging behavior of honey bee colonies situated in the corn and soybean dominated agroecosystems of central Ohio over a month-long period using both pollen metabarcoding and waggle dance inference of spatial foraging patterns. For molecular pollen analysis we developed simple and cost-effective laboratory and bioinformatics...
Article
Full-text available
Metabarcoding is a popular application which warrants continued methods optimization. To maximize barcoding inferences, hierarchy-based sequence classification methods are increasingly common. We present methods for the construction and curation of a database designed for hierarchical classification of a 157 bp barcoding region of the arthropod cyt...
Article
Full-text available
Motivation: Correct taxonomic identification of DNA sequences is central to studies of biodiversity using both shotgun metagenomic and metabarcoding approaches. However, no genetic marker gives sufficient performance across all the biological kingdoms, hampering studies of taxonomic diversity in many groups of organisms. This has led to the adopti...
Article
Comparative analyses of genomes of ten bee species representing different degrees of social complexity have demonstrated that independent transitions to eusociality are often accompanied by or lead to expansions or contractions of gene families (albeit different families across independent lineages). Because collective gathering, processing, and st...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metabarcoding is a popular application which warrants continued methods optimization. To maximize barcoding inferences, hierarchy-based sequence classification methods are increasingly common. We present methods for the construction and curation of a database designed for hierarchical classification of a 157 bp barcoding region of the arthropod cyt...
Preprint
Full-text available
Metabarcoding is a popular application which warrants continued methods optimization. To maximize barcoding inferences, hierarchy-based sequence classification methods are increasingly common. We present methods for the construction and curation of a database designed for hierarchical classification of a 157 bp barcoding region of the arthropod cyt...
Article
Full-text available
Among invertebrates, cellular innate immunity is critical for wound healing and defense against parasites and pathogens. While the study of cellular immunity has received much attention in model insects, the study of hemocytes, including immune cells, in honey bees has received little attention. Much of our understanding of honey bee hemocytes is d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Correct taxonomic identification of DNA sequences is central to studies of biodiversity using both shotgun metagenomic and metabarcoding approaches. However, there is no genetic marker that gives sufficient performance across all the biological kingdoms, hampering studies of taxonomic diversity in many groups of organisms. We here present a major u...
Article
Across insect genomes, the size of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP) gene superfamily varies widely. CYPome size variation has been attributed to reciprocal adaptive radiations in insect detoxification genes in response to plant biosynthetic gene radiations driven by coevolution between herbivores and their chemically defended hostplants. Alt...
Article
The taxonomic classification of DNA sequences has become a critical component of numerous ecological research applications; however, few studies have evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used sequence classification approaches. Further, the methods and software available for sequence classification are diverse, creating an environment...
Article
Full-text available
The health of honey bee colonies cannot be understood apart from the landscapes in which they live. Urban and agricultural developments are two of the most dramatic and widespread forms of human land use, but their respective effects on honey bees remain poorly understood. Here, we evaluate the relative attractiveness of urban and agricultural land...
Article
Full-text available
Insecticide resistance is a growing threat to mosquito control programs around the world, thus creating the need to discover novel target sites and target-specific compounds for insecticide development. Emerging evidence suggests that mosquito inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels represent viable molecular targets for developing insecticides w...
Article
Full-text available
Premise of the study: Difficulties inherent in microscopic pollen identification have resulted in limited implementation for large-scale studies. Metabarcoding, a relatively novel approach, could make pollen analysis less onerous; however, improved understanding of the quantitative capacity of various plant metabarcode regions and primer sets is n...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of ten bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral...
Article
Full-text available
The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of ten bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral...
Article
Relative to most other insect genomes, the western honey bee Apis mellifera has a deficit of detoxification genes spanning Phase I (functionalization), II (conjugation) and III (excretion) gene families. Although honeybees do not display across-the-board greater sensitivity to pesticides, this deficit may render them vulnerable to synergistic inter...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some spe...
Article
Full-text available
The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some spe...
Article
Full-text available
Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized th...
Preprint
Foraging honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.) routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that...
Preprint
Full-text available
Foraging honey bees ( Apis mellifera L.) routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that...
Article
Full-text available
• Melissopalynology, the identification of bee-collected pollen, provides insight into the flowers exploited by foraging bees. Information provided by melissopalynology could guide floral enrichment efforts aimed at supporting pollinators, but it has rarely been used because traditional methods of pollen identification are laborious and require exp...
Conference Paper
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) extract enormous quantities of floral nectar and pollen from their environment and forage at an extremely large spatial scale. These traits suggest that the success of honey bee colonies would be sensitive to landscape composition at scales corresponding to their foraging range. Such a relationship has been observed i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Identification of the taxonomic provenance of pollen collected by honey bees provides information on the diversity of plants from which pollen is collected, effectiveness of pollination services provided, and the floral sources used by bees in the production of honey. To date, microscopic palynology has been used to address questions of pollen orig...
Article
Full-text available
Insecticides are chemicals used to kill insects, so it is unsurprising that many insecticides have the potential to harm honey bees (Apis mellifera). However, bees are exposed to a great variety of other potentially toxic chemicals, including flavonoids and alkaloids that are produced by plants; mycotoxins produced by fungi; antimicrobials and acar...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter proposes a method for estimating risk to honey bees (Apis mellifera) and non-Apis bees from pesticides that are applied through sprays (acting on contact) and through seed or soil treatments and tree trunk injections (acting systemically). It describes the risk assessment process for honey bees and non-Apis bees. Problem formulation ar...
Book
Full-text available
This chapter proposes a method for estimating risk to honey bees (Apis mellifera) and non-Apis bees from pesticides that are applied through sprays (acting on contact) and through seed or soil treatments and tree trunk injections (acting systemically). It describes the risk assessment process for honey bees and non-Apis bees. Problem formulation ar...
Conference Paper
Coumaphos toxicity bioassays on honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers and queens indicated both castes tolerate much more oxon metabolite than the original phosphorothioate compound, with queens tolerating approximately 3 times more coumaphos and 10 times more oxon than workers. As the honey bee target site is not insensitive, with honey bee acetylcho...
Conference Paper
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) depend on large amounts of floral nectar and pollen to meet their dietary needs, an average colony requiring an estimated 120 kg of nectar and 20 kg of pollen each year. Floral abundance, diversity, and temporal availability are, therefore, of central importance to colony survival and productivity. Of particular concern...