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The REDMAP project aims to measure, model and project real vehicular emission levels of key pollutants (including NO, NO2, PM and Ammonia) from in-use vehicles in Dublin. The real-world emissions will be measured using remote sensing and PEMS.
Emissions from real-world driving are often higher than estimated emission levels based on Euro emissions standards and type-approval tests. Consequently, the air quality in cities has not improved as originally anticipated from fleet renewal and stringent emission regulations for newer vehicles. This paper presents the real-world emission factors...