Rebecca Anne Scarborough

Rebecca Anne Scarborough
University of Colorado Boulder | CUB ·  Department of Linguistics

About

39
Publications
6,137
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
651
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2007 - present
University of Colorado Boulder
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (39)
Article
Some models of speech production propose that speech variation reflects an adaptive trade-off between the needs of the listener and constraints on the speaker. The current study considers communicative load as both a situational and lexical variable that influences phonetic variation in speech to real interlocutors. The current study investigates w...
Article
No PDF available ABSTRACT Facing linguistic barriers to communication, talkers spontaneously adjust their speech, facilitating perception by their listener. These adjustments characteristically involve hyperarticulation, such as reduced speech rate, increased vowel dispersion, and increased segmental duration. Listener-based hyperarticulation could...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A production study explored the acoustic characteristics of /ae/ in CVC and CVN words spoken by California speakers who raise /ae/ in pre-nasal contexts. Results reveal that the phonetic realization of the /ae/-/ɛ/ contrast in these contexts is multidimensional. Raised pre-nasal /ae/ is close in formant space to /ɛ/, particularly over the second ha...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the nature of the oral-nasal vowel contrast in Brazilian Portuguese (BP). While vowel nasality is a salient property in the language, scholars differ on whether this property forms the basis of a phonological contrast. The presence of a consonant-like nasal resonance at the right edge of the heavily nasalized vowels (i.e., nasal...
Article
Vowels are enhanced via vowel-space expansion in perceptually difficult contexts, including in words subject to greater lexical competition. Yet, vowel hyperarticulation often covaries with other acoustic adjustments, such as increased nasal coarticulation, suggesting that the goals of phonetic enhancement are not strictly to produce canonical phon...
Poster
Full-text available
This study aims to establish differences in patterns of acoustic nasality between nasal and nasalized vowels in Brazilian Portuguese (BP). The difference in how nasality is implemented in the acoustic signal is hypothesized to reflect the different phonological status of these two vowel categories. Acoustic nasality is the difference between the am...
Article
Words from dense phonological neighborhoods (Hi-ND words) are realized with greater vowel hyperarticulation and increased coarticulation in English, relative to words from sparser neighborhoods (Lo-ND words) [e.g., Wright 2004]. Here, the relation between coarticulation and neighborhood density is investigated for French by looking at patterns for...
Article
Speakers may converge phonetically with another talker to whose speech they are exposed, resulting in reduced acoustic distance between interlocutors. However, it is unclear whether the target of imitation is raw acoustics or a linguistic pattern. Zellou et al. (2016) present a case that distinguishes these possibilities: after listening to a model...
Article
This study investigates the spontaneous phonetic imitation of coarticulatory vowel nasalization. Speakers produced monosyllabic words with a vowel-nasal sequence either from dense or sparse pho-nological neighborhoods in shadowing and word-naming tasks. During shadowing, they were exposed to target words that were modified to have either an artific...
Article
This study investigates the spontaneous phonetic imitation of coarticulatory vowel nasalization. Speakers produced monosyllabic words with a vowel-nasal sequence either from dense or sparse phonological neighborhoods in shadowing and word-naming tasks. During shadowing, they were exposed to target words that were modified to have either an artifici...
Article
Both VOT and vowel nasality show low-level variation in English that may be perceptually motivated (and which, in any case, has perceptual consequences). This study examines the perceptual salience of such variation, investigating in particular a possible perceptual asymmetry between increased vs. decreased degrees of these phonologically relevant...
Article
Full-text available
Lakota (Siouan) has both contrastive and coarticulatory vowel nasality, and both nasal and oral vowels can occur before or after a nasal consonant. This study examines the timing and degree patterns of acoustic vowel nasality across contrastive and coarticulatory contexts in Lakota, based on data from six Lakota native speakers. There is clear evid...
Article
Full-text available
Words produced to infants exhibit phonetic modifications relative to speech to adult interlocutors, such as longer, more canonical segments and prosodic enhancement. Meanwhile, within speech directed towards adults, pho-netic variation is conditioned by word properties: lower word frequency and higher phonological neighborhood density (ND) correlat...
Article
Previous research has shown that words from dense phonological neighborhoods, thus subject to greater lexical competition, are hyperarticulated (Wright, 2004; Munson and Solomon, 2004) and produced with a greater degree of coarticulation (Scarborough, 2013). The current study investigates listeners’ sensitivity to lexically conditioned degree of na...
Article
Nasality can be measured in the acoustical signal using A1-P0, where A1 is the amplitude of the harmonic under F1, and P0 is the amplitude of a low-frequency nasal peak (~250 Hz) (Chen 1997). In principle, as nasality increases, P0 goes up and A1 is damped, yielding lower A1-P0. However, the details of the relationship between A1 and P0 in natural...
Article
Full-text available
Speech produced in the context of real or imagined communicative difficulties is characterized by hyperarticulation. Phonological neighborhood density (ND) conditions similar patterns in production: Words with many neighbors are hyperarticulated relative to words with fewer; Hi ND words also show greater coarticulation than Lo ND words [e.g., Scarb...
Article
The experiments presented here provide a careful phonetic description of the effects of phonological neighborhood density (operationalized as relative neighborhood frequency) on speech production: not only on hyperarticulation (which has been described elsewhere as well (e.g., 92 and 93), but also on two types of coarticulation. Acoustic analysis o...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the imitability of contextual vowel nasalization in English. Unlike other phonetic features reported to be imitable [e.g., vowel formants (Babel, 2012), VOT (Nielsen, 2011)], vowel nasality is non-contrastive in English. Nasality is, however, systematically variable: words from dense lexical neighborhoods (high-ND words) are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates the acoustic and perceptual consequences of nasal coarticulation in American English. Nasalized (coarticulated) vowels were found to be closer in the F1-F2 acoustic vowel space than corresponding oral (non-coarticulated) vowels, indicating that contrast is reduced in the nasal vowel space, relative to the oral vowel space. W...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates the effect of contrastive stress on nasal coarticulation in English. There are two opposing findings about the correlation between coarticulation and hyperarticulation in the literature: first, that emphasis results in timing patterns which reduce coarticulation; second, that both increased hyperarticulation and increased co...
Article
Lexical similarity has been shown to play a role in speech production (as in speech perception). In production, words with many phonologically similar neighbors, i.e., those that are phonologically similar to a large number of other words, are produced with more hyperarticulated vowels than words with fewer neighbors (Wright, 1997 and Munson and So...
Article
Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society: General Session and Parasession on Phonetic Sources of Phonological Patterns: Synchronic and Diachronic Explanations (2003)
Article
Studies of the perception of vowel nasality often use synthesized stimuli to produce controlled gradience in nasality. To investigate the perception of nasality in natural speech, a method was developed wherein vowels differing naturally in nasality (e.g., from CVC and NVN words) are mixed to yield tokens with various degrees of nasality. First, mo...
Article
Full-text available
In a study of optical cues to the visual perception of stress, three American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements of the face were recorded. The production of stressed and unstressed syllables from these utterances was analyzed along many measures of fa...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has established that listeners can accommodate a wide range of talkers in understanding language. How this adjustment operates, however, is a matter of debate. Here, listeners were exposed to spoken words from a speaker of an American English dialect in which the vowel /ae/ is raised before /g/, but not before /k/. Results from two ex...
Poster
Full-text available
The acoustic properties of foreigner-directed speech are surprisingly understudied, and many existing studies evoke imagined interlocutors to elicit foreigner-directed speech. This study provides an acoustic comparison of foreigner-directed and native-directed speech in real and imaginary conditions. Ten native U.S. English speakers described the p...
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Recent laboratory phonology research has shown that lexical factors like frequency and phonological neighborhood density, which have well-established effects on lexical perception, can affect the details of speech production as well. For instance, English speakers hyperarticulate vowels in low frequency words and words with high neighborhood densit...
Article
In some American English dialects, /ae/ before /g/ (but not before /k/) raises to a vowel approaching [E], in effect reducing phonetic overlap between (e.g.) ``bag'' and ``back.'' Here, participants saw four written words on a computer screen (e.g., ``bag,'' ``back,'' ``dog,'' ``dock'') and heard a spoken word. Their task was to indicate which word...
Article
Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce ad...
Article
In a study of optical cues to the visual perception of stress, three American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements of the face were recorded. In a production analysis, stressed vs. unstressed syllables from these utterances were compared along many measu...
Article
Brown (2001) demonstrated that speakers adjust their production of coarticulation to accommodate potential lexical confusability (the possibility of one word being misheard as another), and that listeners' lexical recognition is facilitated by such adjustments. Speakers produced confusable, ``hard'' words (those with low-usage frequencies and many...
Article
Both Pima, a Uto-Aztecan language spoken in Arizona, and Santa Ana del Valle Zapotec (SADVZ), an Otomanguean language spoken in Oaxaca, Mexico, have sequences of two vowels separated by an intervening glottal stop. In both languages, this V?V sequence becomes reduced in certain occurrences, with the perceptual effect of the loss of /?/ in Pima and...
Article
Full-text available
In a study of optical cues to the visual perception of stress, three American English talkers spoke words that differed in lexical stress and sentences that differed in phrasal stress, while video and movements of the face were recorded. In a production analysis, stressed vs. unstressed syllables from these utterances were compared along many measu...
Article
Full-text available
Nasal coarticulation has been shown to vary systematically in words depending on the number of phonological neighbors: words with many neighbors are produced with a greater degree of vowel nasality than words with fewer phonological neighbors [9]. This study examines the effect of this systematic low-level variation on lexical perception. The degre...
Article
Full-text available
Thesis (Ph. D.)--UCLA, 2004. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 142-154).

Network

Cited By