Rebecca Price

Rebecca Price
University of Pittsburgh | Pitt · Department of Psychiatry

PhD

About

96
Publications
16,846
Reads
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3,305
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2012 - March 2020
Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (96)
Article
Full-text available
Intravenous ketamine has shown rapid antidepressant effects in early trials, making it a potentially attractive candidate for depressed patients at imminent risk of suicide. The Implicit Association Test (IAT), a performance-based measure of association between concepts, may have utility in suicide assessment. Twenty-six patients with treatment-res...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is well-known heterogeneity in affective mechanisms in depression that may extend to positive affect. We used data-driven parsing of neural connectivity to reveal subgroups present across depressed and healthy individuals during positive processing, informing targets for mechanistic intervention. Methods: Ninety-two individuals...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Biased patterns of attention are implicated as key mechanisms across many forms of psychopathology and have given rise to automated mechanistic interventions designed to modify such attentional preferences. However, progress is substantially hindered by limitations in widely used methods to quantify attention, bias leading to imprecisi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Compulsive behaviors are a core feature of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders but appear across a broad spectrum of psychological conditions. It is thought that compulsions reflect a failure to override habitual behaviors "stamped in" through repeated practice and short-term distress reduction. Animal models suggest a possible caus...
Article
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Objective: Intravenous ketamine, which displays rapid antidepressant properties, is posited to reverse depression by rapidly enhancing neuroplasticity. The authors tested whether an automated, computer-based approach could efficiently leverage enhanced neuroplasticity to extend the durability of rapid clinical response. Methods: A total of 154 a...
Article
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Depression is disabling and highly prevalent. Intravenous (IV) ketamine displays rapid-onset antidepressant properties, but little is known regarding which patients are most likely to benefit, limiting personalized prescriptions. We identified randomized controlled trials of IV ketamine that recruited individuals with a relevant psychiatric diagnos...
Article
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There are known disparities in the burden of illness and access/quality of care for African, Latino/a, Asian, and Native American (ALANA) patients diagnosed with depressive disorders, which may occur because of health inequities. Racial stress and trauma (RST), or the significant fear and distress that can be imparted from exposure to racism, is on...
Article
Compulsive behaviors (CBs) have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function in animal and human studies. However, brain regions function not in isolation but as components of widely distributed brain networks—such as those indexed via resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Sixty-nine individuals with CB disorders were randomized to re...
Conference Paper
Biases in attention to emotional stimuli (i.e., affect-biased attention) contribute to the development and mainte-nance of depression and anxiety and may be a promising target for intervention. Past attempts to therapeutically modify affect-biased attention have been unsatisfactory due to issues with reliability and precision. Electroencephalogram...
Article
Title. TMS doses based on motor threshold differ between DLPFC, OFC, and motor cortex: a case for electric field dosimetry in clinical studies Authors. Helmet T. Karim1,2, Ahmad Mayeli1, Francesco L. Donati1,3, Brian A. Coffman1, Daniel M. Blumberger4, Noah S. Philip5, Mary L. Phillips1, Carmen Andreescu1, Rebecca Price1, Fabio Ferrarelli1 Affili...
Article
Depressive symptomology has been linked to low-grade peripheral inflammatory markers (PIMs), specifically C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count (WBC). However, such associations may be affected by multiple moderators (including race/ethnicity), though few well-powered and racially diverse studies have examined this. We examined 31 mod...
Article
Background Both low-grade elevation in peripheral inflammatory markers (e.g., white blood count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) and physical illness (both chronic and acute) have been associated with depressive symptomology. However, it is unclear if low-grade elevation in inflammatory markers mediates relationships between physical illness and...
Article
Patients with disorders of compulsivity show impairments in goal-directed behavior, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction. We recently showed that continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), which reduces OFC activity, had a beneficial effect on compulsive behaviors both immediately and at 1 week follow-up compared with in...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and disabling but seem particularly tractable to investigation with translational neuroscience methodologies. Neuroimaging has informed our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders, but research has been limited by small sample sizes and low statistical power, as well as heterogenous imaging meth...
Article
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The goal of this study was to compare brain structure between individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and healthy controls. Previous studies have generated inconsistent findings, possibly due to small sample sizes, or clinical/analytic heterogeneity. To address these concerns, we combined data from 28 research sites worldwide through th...
Article
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Dopaminergic function is a critical transdiagnostic neurophysiological dimension with broad relevance in psychiatry. Normalized T2*-weighted (nT2*w) imaging has been previously investigated as a method to quantify biological properties of tissue in the striatum (e.g., tissue iron), providing a widely available, in vivo marker with potential relevan...
Article
Resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) in ventral affective (VAN), default mode (DMN) and cognitive control (CCN) networks may partially underlie heterogeneity in depression. The current study used data-driven parsing of RSFC to identify subgroups of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD; n=70) and determine if subgroups generaliz...
Article
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Background Altered amygdala activation in response to the emotional matching faces (EMF) task, a task thought to reflect implicit emotion detection and reactivity, has been found in some patients with internalizing disorders; mixed findings from the EMF suggest individual differences (within and/or across diagnoses) that may be important to conside...
Article
Background Evidence supports raised circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), among clinically depressed adults, although preliminary findings in adolescents are mixed. Independently, meta-analyses identify correlations between childhood trauma and elevated cytokine levels in adulth...
Article
Background Depressive disorders are linked to dysfunction in reward-related behaviors and corticostriatal reward circuitry. Low-grade dysregulation of the immune system, e.g., elevations in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), have been thought to affect corticostriatal reward circuitry. Little is presently known abou...
Article
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During adolescence, increases in social sensitivity, such as heightened attentional processing of social feedback, may be supported by developmental changes in neural circuitry involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control, including fronto-amygdala circuitry. Less negative fronto-amygdala circuitry during social threat processing may contri...
Article
Background Cytokines are an important part of the immune system. Certain cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), have well-described associations with depression. Various mechanisms exist that may explain bidirectional effects of cytokines on depression and vice versa. No recent reviews to our knowledge have...
Article
Peer feedback becomes highly salient during adolescence, especially for girls. The way in which adolescents react to social feedback is associated with psychosocial adjustment and mental health. Consequently, researchers are increasingly interested in understanding the physiological and neural underpinnings of adolescent response to feedback by sim...
Article
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Over the last two decades, neuroscientists have used antidepressant placebo probes to examine the biological mechanisms implicated in antidepressant placebo effects. However, findings from these studies have not yet elucidated a model-based theory that would explain the mechanism through which antidepressant expectancies evolve to induce persistent...
Chapter
In recent years, the role of the immune system in depression has been increasingly studied. Cytokines are small proteins that are part of the immune system and have been associated with depression, particularly the cytokine interleukin-6. IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine, with effects on both T cells and B cells, and is involved in both propagation o...
Article
Full-text available
Implicit self-associations are theorized to be rigidly and excessively negative in affective disorders like depression. Such information processing patterns may be useful as an approach to parsing heterogeneous etiologies, substrates, and treatment outcomes within the broad syndrome of depression. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on the...
Article
Background: Depression has been associated with low-grade elevation of plasma cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα) in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in adults. Preclinical and clinical studies also suggest that IL-6 and TNFα elevation are associated with anhedonia. However, few studies have examine...
Chapter
Emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) are a set of chronic and often recurrent psychiatric disorders that are associated with significant impairment in quality of life, productivity, and interpersonal functioning. These disorders are increasingly conceptualized as neurodevelopmental disorders, as they frequently begin to emer...
Chapter
Juvenile-onset of emotional disorders (i.e., depressive and anxiety disorders) is associated with chronic and recurrent disruption to intrapersonal, interpersonal, and professional functioning. Emotional disorders are increasingly conceptualized as neurodevelopmental disorders as they are associated with aberrations in the development of key neural...
Article
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Introduction Altered attention to threatening stimuli at initial and sustained stages of processing may be dissociable dimensions that influence the development and maintenance of transdiagnostic symptoms of anxiety, such as vigilance, and possibly require distinct intervention. Attention bias modification (ABM) interventions were created to implic...
Article
Attention to socio-emotional stimuli (i.e., affect-biased attention) is an integral component of emotion regulation and human communication. Given the strong link between maternal affect and adolescent behavior, maternal affect may be a critical influence on adolescent affect-biased attention during mother-child interaction. However, prior methodol...
Article
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The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA‐Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega‐analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodolo...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: This study sought to validate a real-world speech task designed to assess attention and interpretation bias in an integrated and ecologically valid manner. Methods: Thirty adolescent girls gave a speech in front of an emotionally ambiguous judge and a positive judge while wearing mobile eye tracking glasses to assess how long they...
Preprint
The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodolo...
Article
Background Computational models show great promise in mapping latent decision-making processes onto dissociable neural substrates and clinical phenotypes. One prominent example in reinforcement learning (RL) is model-based planning, which specifically relates to transdiagnostic compulsivity. However, the reliability of computational model-derived m...
Article
Full-text available
During adolescence, youth may experience heightened attention bias to socially relevant stimuli; however, it is unclear if attention bias toward social threat may be exacerbated for adolescents with a history of anxiety. This study evaluated attentional bias during the Chatroom-Interact task with 25 adolescents with a history of anxiety (18F, Mage...
Article
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Purpose of Review Given recent increases in rates of suicide and lack of rapid treatments for suicidality, ketamine has been identified as a potential fast-acting anti-suicidal treatment. Our review seeks to describe the effects of ketamine on suicidality, given the growing literature on the use of ketamine in reducing suicidality. We examine open-...
Article
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Chronic stress and depressive-like behaviors in basic neuroscience research have been associated with impairments of neuroplasticity, such as neuronal atrophy and synaptic loss in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. The current review presents a novel integrative model of neuroplasticity as a multi-domain neurobiological, cognitive...
Article
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On average, anxious patients show altered attention to threat—including early vigilance toward threat and later avoidance of threat—accompanied by altered functional connectivity across brain regions. However, substantial heterogeneity within clinical, neural, and attentional features of anxiety is overlooked in typical group-level comparisons. We...
Article
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Although attention biases have been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression in adults, findings from studies of depressed adolescents have been inconsistent. While some research has shown that youth with depressive symptoms exhibit sustained attention to negative stimuli, other findings demonstrate attentional avoidance. Additio...
Article
Enduring cognitive models of anxiety posit that negative biases in information processing are implicated in the etiology, maintenance, and recurrence of anxiety disorders in youth and adults. Specifically, the vigilance-avoidance model of attention is an influential hypothesis proposed to explain anxious individuals’ attentional patterns. The vigil...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with clinical anxiety demonstrate an attention bias toward threatening information, which is thought to be partially driven by heightened amygdala activity to perceived threat. Attention Bias Modification (ABM) is a computer-based treatment that trains attention toward neutral stimuli and away from threatening stimuli. Alterations in in...
Article
Objective: Children who are fearful and anxious are at heightened risk for developing depression in adolescence. Treating anxiety disorders in pre-/early adolescence may be one mechanism through which depressive symptoms later in adolescence can be prevented. We hypothesized that anxious youth who responded positively to cognitive-behavioral thera...
Article
Full-text available
Biased patterns of attention towards threat are implicated as key mechanisms in anxiety which can be modified through automated intervention (Attention Bias Modification; ABM). Intervention refinement and personalized dissemination efforts are substantially hindered by gaps in understanding the precise attentional components that underlie ABM’s eff...
Article
Full-text available
Attention biases toward negative stimuli are implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. However, research is needed to understand how depression impacts attention biases as they unfold in a dynamic social environment, particularly during adolescence when depression rates significantly increase due to enhanced reactivity to social...
Article
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Until recently, therapeutic development in psychiatry was targeted solely toward symptom reduction. While this is a worthwhile goal, it has yielded little progress in improved therapeutics in the last several decades in the field of mood disorders. Recent advancements in our understanding of pathophysiology suggests that an impairment of neuroplast...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Clinical anxiety is prevalent, highly comorbid with other conditions, and associated with significant medical morbidity, disability, and public health burden. Excessive attentional deployment toward threat is a transdiagnostic dimension of anxiety seen at both initial and sustained stages of threat processing. However, group-level obser...
Article
Background: Vigilant attention to threat is commonly observed in anxiety, undergoes developmental changes in early adolescence, and has been proposed to interfere with sleep initiation and maintenance. We present one of the first studies to use objective measures to examine associations between vigilant attention to threat and difficulties initiat...
Article
Full-text available
Depressed patients show abnormalities in brain connectivity at rest, including hyperconnectivity within the Default Mode Network (DMN). However, there is well-known heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of depression that is overlooked when averaging connectivity data. We used data-driven parsing of neural connectivity to reveal subgroups amon...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The past decade of research has seen considerable interest in computer-based approaches designed to directly target cognitive mechanisms of anxiety, such as attention bias modification (ABM). Methods: By pooling patient-level datasets from randomized controlled trials of ABM that utilized a dot-probe training procedure, we assessed t...
Article
Full-text available
Computer-based approaches, such as Attention Bias Modification (ABM), could help improve access to care for anxiety. Study-level meta-analyses of ABM have produced conflicting findings and leave critical questions unresolved regarding ABM's mechanisms of action and clinical potential. We pooled patient-level datasets from randomized controlled tria...
Chapter
Suicide is a psychiatric emergency, and there are limited pharmacological options to treat acute risk. Recent findings that intravenous ketamine is associated with reductions in suicidal thoughts have fueled interest in ketamine as an antisuicidal agent. The initial data on ketamine and suicide are promising but have not reached the level and rigor...
Article
Full-text available
Vigilance and avoidance of threat are observed in anxious adults during laboratory tasks, and are posited to have real-world clinical relevance, but data are mixed in anxious youth. We propose that vigilance-avoidance patterns will become evident in anxious youth through a focus on individual differences and real-world strategic avoidance. Decrease...
Article
Full-text available
Anxious youth are at heightened risk for subsequent development of depression; however, little is known regarding which anxious youth are at the highest prospective risk. Biased attentional patterns (e.g., vigilance and avoidance of negative cues) are implicated as key mechanisms in both anxiety and depression. Aberrant attentional patterns may dis...
Article
Objectives: Although generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders in older adults, very little is known about the neurobiology of worry, the hallmark symptom of GAD in adults over the age of 60. This study investigated the neurobiology and neural circuitry of worry in older GAD patients and controls. Method:...
Article
Full-text available
Inability to engage with positive stimuli is a widespread problem associated with negative mood states across many conditions, from low self-esteem to anhedonic depression. Though attention retraining procedures have shown promise as interventions in some clinical populations, novel procedures may be necessary to reliably attenuate chronic negative...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide is a devastating public health problem and very few biological treatments have been found to be effective for quickly reducing the intensity of suicidal ideation (SI). We have previously shown that a single dose of ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is associated with a rapid reduction in depressive sympt...
Article
Full-text available
Ketamine, a widely used anesthetic agent, is currently being investigated as a novel therapeutic for depression and suicidality. Ketamine has garnered substantial attention from researchers, clinicians, media outlets, and patients alike, but numerous questions remain. One of the compelling features of ketamine is the rapidity of its antidepressant...