Rebecca Janis

Rebecca Janis
Pennsylvania State University | Penn State · Center for Collegiate Mental Health

Doctor of Philosophy

About

35
Publications
24,429
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750
Citations
Introduction
I study college student psychotherapy and mental health, as well as methodological issues in the modeling of psychotherapy.

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
Data from psychotherapy groups are nested by nature. Ignoring this nesting when performing statistical tests can result in inflated Type I error rates and spurious significant results. This presents a serious problem for interpreting research that does not account for members nested within a specific group. Factor analytic methods are not immune to...
Article
There are mixed findings regarding the differential efficacy of the group and individual format. One explanation of these mixed findings is that nearly all-recent meta-analyses use between-study effect sizes to test format equivalence introducing uncontrolled differences in patients, treatments, and outcome measures. Only 3 meta-analyses were locat...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article is to present information about a standardized multidimensional measure of psychological symptoms, the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS; Locke et al., 2011; Locke, McAleavey, et al., 2012; McAleavey, Nordberg, Hayes, et al., 2012), developed to assess difficulties specific to college students' m...
Article
Full-text available
The current study employs an intersectional framework to understand how well counselors are meeting the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, questioning (LGBQQ) and religious clients by examining clients’ initial anxiety and depression levels and changes in these symptoms through psychotherapy. Data from 12,825 participants from the Center for C...
Article
Full-text available
Interest has been growing in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. Whereas, most research on this topic has been conducted with the 26-item Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), a briefer 12-item version of the instrument, the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form (SCS-SF), also exists. The SCS-SF has demonstrated good validity and reliability in non-cl...
Article
Objective: The literature regarding dropout from psychotherapy has suffered from issues of diverse operationalization of the construct. Some have called for a more uniform definition to aid in generalization across research; this study aimed to assess the viability of such a definition by examining the rate of occurrence for three distinct definiti...
Article
Objective While agreement between clients and their clinicians on therapy goals has frequently been investigated as a process-level variable (i.e., working alliance), dyadic convergence on presenting concerns is also important for initial case formulation. Transdiagnostic presenting problems, like sleep difficulty, pose a particular challenge for c...
Article
Treatment context may have a unique impact on psychotherapy outcomes, above and beyond client, therapist, and therapy process variables. University counseling centers represent one such treatment context facing increasing treatment demands. This study examined the role of counseling centers and center variables in explaining differences in psychoth...
Article
This study assessed the mental health predictors of academic distress using the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms–34 (Locke et al., 2011) across matched pairs (N = 2,836) of military and nonmilitary students accessing counseling services between 2014 and 2016. Findings suggested the predictors of academic distress did not diffe...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared pre-treatment distress and the changes in that distress over the course of therapy between sexual trauma clients and non-sexual trauma clients. Reasons for therapy ending were also examined. Data for this study were collected at 139 university counseling centers. Psychological distress was measured using the Counseling Center As...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial invariance of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms–62 (CCAPS-62) across military background and gender identity. A sample of 2,208 military students and 2,208 nonmilitary students were chosen from a large database of university and college counseling centers. Using explora...
Article
Objective: Most research on the dose-effect (DE) and good-enough level (GEL) models of change has used general outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to determine if predictions from these models generalize to specific presenting concerns and outcome measures. Method: A large sample of treatment-seeking college students (N = 64,319) who...
Article
The addition of group psychotherapy as a specialty by the APA in 2018 creates a need for rigorous empirical reviews of group treatments for specific disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested the effect of group psychotherapy for mood disorders, including depression and bipolar disorder, at posttreatm...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: There is a paucity of studies examining the experience of clients who undergo multiple courses of psychotherapy. Conducted within a large practice research network, this study demonstrated that returning therapy clients comprise a considerable portion of the clinical population in university counseling settings, and identified variables...
Article
Comorbidity of generalized anxiety and depression is common in clinical populations. Understanding how change in generalized anxiety and depression are related during counseling may help improve treatment. College student data (N = 51,922) from university and college counseling centers across the United States were used to examine relationships bet...
Article
This study assessed factorial invariance of scores from the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms − 34 (CCAPS-34) across military (n = 2,836) and nonmilitary (n = 2,836) students accessing counseling services between 2014 and 2016. Based on factorial invariance tests, findings suggest the CCAPS-34 measures the same constructs acros...
Article
This study sought to identify predictors of suicidal behavior among college students who are psychotherapy clients, as well as to determine underlying classes of clients with suicidal ideation. Data were gathered from 101,570 clients, 391 of whom engaged in suicide behavior during treatment. Regression analyses revealed that suicide behavior was po...
Article
Full-text available
Interpersonal, social, and structural stressors have been identified as key elements that explain health disparities between transgender and cisgender individuals. However, most of this research has focused on binary transgender individuals or has not differentiated between binary and nonbinary individuals; little research has examined the experien...
Article
Full-text available
Transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) People of Color experience stressors unique to both TGNC and racial and/or ethnic minority communities, resulting in disparities in mental health. Guided by minority stress and intersectionality theories, we examined initial anxiety and depression, as well as changes in symptoms, in 41,691 clients from th...
Preprint
Full-text available
College counseling centers nationwide are having difficulty meeting the increasing demand for services they are seeing. We present an undergraduate positive psychology course taught as outreach and prevention by counseling center therapists as a way to potentially address this demand. During the two primary semesters of the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014...
Article
The use of outcome monitoring systems to identify clients that are at-risk for treatment failure has now become part of daily clinical practice, shown in >25 empirical studies to improve client outcomes. These promising findings have led to outcome monitoring systems being recognized as evidence-based. Feedback systems based on client perception of...
Article
Despite growing evidence that a greater number of students are seeking counseling in college and university counseling centers throughout the United States, there is a dearth of empirical information about (a) the presenting concerns for which students seek treatment and (b) how these concerns differ according to client demographic factors. The pur...
Article
The current state of college student mental health is frequently labeled a “crisis,” as the demand for services and severity of symptomatology have appeared to increase in recent decades. Nationally representative findings are presented from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health, a practice research network based in the United States, composed of...
Article
This study is a longitudinal examination of the impact of therapist stage of training on client outcomes in psychotherapy. The study included 22 PhD-level psychologists who work in a university counseling center (8 female, 14 male) who had completed at least 2 training periods in the center where data were gathered. Therapists worked with 4,047 cli...
Article
Conducted within a practice-research network in private practice, this exploratory study was aimed at examining whether clinicians can accurately predict and recall profiles of therapeutic interventions they used during an entire treatment for a given client. Based on a small sample (7 clinicians and 30 clients), the results tentatively suggest tha...
Article
Dropout has been a pervasive and costly problem in psychotherapy, particularly for college counseling centers. The present study examined potential predictors of dropout using a large data set (N = 10,147 clients, 481 therapists) that was gathered through a college counseling center practice research network as a replication and extension of recent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aim: Although psychotherapy is effective for a majority of people, there is a subset of people who fail to improve over the course of therapy. Prior research has shown that clients whose actual rate of change in therapy deviates significantly from the expected rate of change are much more likely to have a negative outcome. This expected trajectory...
Article
Full-text available
Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60% of all dementia. Numerous biomarkers have been developed that can help in making an early diagnosis. The P300 is an event-related potential that may be abnormal in Alzheimer's disease. Given the possible association between P300 amplitude and Alzheimer's disease and the need for biomarkers in early Alzheimer's d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Previous research shows that psychotherapy is generally effective; however, studies have estimated that 30% to 50% of clients fail to respond to treatment, with 5% to 10% of clients actually worsening during treatment. However, therapists consistently fail to predict treatment failure. We examined several potential predictors of poor treatment outc...

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