R.C. Hayes

R.C. Hayes
New South Wales Department of Primary Industries · Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute

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160
Publications
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Publications

Publications (160)
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A poor understanding of the nature of variation of soil properties within a field can lead to management decisions that reduce productivity or increase off-site environmental risks. Methods The variability in total C%, total N%, plant-available (Colwell) P, and pH in CaCl2 at multiple depths is examined from two sites near Wagga Wagga and...
Article
Prospects for improving the productivity of species mixtures in transitions between phases by changing row configuration at sowing were examined in two series of field experiments in rain‐fed, semi‐arid environments in south‐eastern Australia. The first series explored how the choice of cover crop and use of alternate drill row configurations affec...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated the fatty acid profile and oxidative status of the meat from lambs that were fed a novel perennial wheat or a conventional annual wheat, either as a cereal monoculture or lucerne biculture. Twelve lambs were assigned to each of the four dietary treatments (48 lambs in total) and held within individual pens for the dur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To meet changing consumer demands the Australian lamb industry has undertaken much work, however a lack of data on eating quality remains (Fowler et al., 2018). Raman spectroscopy is a potential tool for prediction of eating quality as it can create a "chemical fingerprint" of proteins, collagen and fats (Abbas, Fernandez Pierna, Codony, von Holst,...
Article
This study compared longissimus lumborum (LL) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles, in 48 lamb carcasses, to determine their pH decline parameters and achievement of ideal pH criteria (hitting the window). These include the pH at temperature 18 °C ([email protected]) and temperature at pH 6 ([email protected] 6). No practical difference were found betwe...
Article
Soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are generally low in Australian semi-arid cropping systems, but can be reduced further by incorporating legumes into cereal-based rotations. We used automated and manual chambers to compare N2O emissions throughout a two-year legume-wheat field experiment. Two pulse crops [lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) and f...
Article
This study compared the effect of a novel perennial wheat forage and a conventional annual wheat forage, fed to lambs with or without lucerne, on the quality and mineral profile of the longissimus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles. This involved 48 Poll Dorset × Merino ewe lambs, 12 per treatment, managed for 28 days within individual pens. Cons...
Article
White clover and Lucerne are among the most important perennial forage legumes in agriculture. White clover has a reputation for sensitivity to drought whereas lucerne is considered to be quite drought tolerant although this tolerance is primarily conferred by its deep roots. This experiment, the first reported with these two species, by constraini...
Article
Full-text available
Spatial separation of species at sowing has been proposed as a means of managing interspecific competition in mixed swards. This study examined the effect of row configuration on persistence of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) in pastures and pasture–cover crop mixtures at three sites in the Central West, and in pasture mixtures at three sites in the R...
Article
There is very little robust, experimentally based knowledge comparing drought tolerance of one legume species with another. Dehydration tolerance and plant survival of the perennial legumes white clover (Trifolium repens L., considered quite sensitive to drought) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L., considered drought tolerant) were compared in a dryin...
Article
Perennial legumes have potential to increase pasture productivity in the high rainfall zone (600–850 mm) of south-eastern Australia through their ability to use summer rainfall and fix nitrogen (N2). Various perennial legumes are being evaluated for this environment; however, little information exists on legume–rhizobia cross-host compatibility and...
Article
Full-text available
AimsTo examine the legacy of pasture drill rows sown to various configurations of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.), on soil chemical characteristics and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the year following pasture removal.MethodsA field experiment comparing 10...
Article
Full-text available
A pen feeding study was conducted using 10 month old Poll Dorset × Merino ewe lambs to test the effect of perennial wheat forage on growth rates and carcass characteristics in comparison to annual wheat forage. Individual lambs (n = 48) were fed one of four diets, namely perennial wheat (PW), annual wheat (W), perennial wheat + lucerne (alfalfa) (P...
Article
Full-text available
Changed spatial configurations at sowing have been investigated as a strategy to minimize interspecific competition and improve the establishment and persistence of multi-species plantings in pastures, but the impact of this practice on the soil microbiome has received almost no previous research attention. Differences in populations of bacteria an...
Article
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This review examines the prospect of improving perennial legume adaptation to grazed mixed pasture swards across the higher-altitude regions of south-eastern Australia through improved management, particularly as it relates to soil fertility. The range of adapted perennial species available to farmers often remains limited to only one perennial for...
Article
The effect of increasing rates of potassium (K) fertiliser was studied on a soil with base exchangeable K values ≤ 0.1 cmol(+)/ kg by assessing biomass, feed quality, mineral concentration and grain yield for wheat, triticale and canola. The crops showed variable biomass response to K rates at early plant growth stages, however at anthesis there we...
Article
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Perennial grass-based pastures are uncommon in phased cropping rotations in south-eastern Australia, where rainfall often limits production and persistence. The high reliance on pure legume-based pastures limits overall pasture productivity and has adverse effects on environmental parameters such as weed incursion and ground cover. A field experime...
Article
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Nitrification and urease inhibitors have been used to reduce nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and increase nitrogen use efficiency in many agricultural systems. However, their agronomic benefits, such as the improvement of grain yield, is uncertain. A two-year field experiment was conducted to (1) investigate whether the use of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole p...
Article
Full-text available
Estimating the likely variance in soil organic carbon (OC) at the scale of farm fields or smaller monitoring areas is necessary for developing sampling protocols that allow temporal change to be detected. Given the relatively low anticipated soil OC sequestration rates (<0.5 Mg/ha.0.30 m/year) for dryland agriculture it is important that sampling s...
Article
This study examined the response of forage crops to composted dairy waste (compost) applied at low rates and investigated effects on soil health. The evenness of spreading compost by commercial machinery was also assessed. An experiment was established on a commercial dairy farm with target rates of compost up to 5 t ha ⁻¹ applied to a field contai...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined whether the productivity and persistence of mixed pastures that included subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.), lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), and/or phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) were improved if species were spatially separated rather than being sown together in each drill row. The study also compared the productivi...
Article
Full-text available
Perennial cereals may offer a novel forage source in mixed farming enterprises while improving the sustainability of grain farming. There has been limited analysis of the quality of this forage type and its likely value to mixed grazing/cropping farming systems. This study evaluated the biomass and grain production of four wheat×wheatgrass hybrid e...
Article
Full-text available
Rainfed farms in south-eastern Australia often combine annual cropping and perennial pasture phases with grazing sheep enterprises. Such diversity serves in managing diseases, pests and plant nutrition while stabilising income in the face of wide, uncorrelated variations in international commodity prices and local weather over time. We use an actua...
Article
New breeding lines of phalaris (Phalaris aquatica), cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea = syn. Lolium arundinaceum) are currently under evaluation for the selection of new cultivars for low rainfall environments. The aim was to test the relative tolerance of 6 elite genotypes of phalaris, cocksfoot and tall fescue to...
Article
Full-text available
A field experiment was established to test the impact on crop yield, total productivity and biological di-nitrogen (N 2 ) fixation of a self-regenerating annual legume, subterranean clover ( Trifolium subterraneum L.), grown in mixtures with experimental perennial wheat lines. Legume content was altered in one intermediate wheatgrass ( Thinopyrum i...
Article
Annual-based arable agroecosystems experience among the greatest frequency, extent and magnitude of disturbance regimes of all terrestrial ecosystems. In order to control non-crop vegetation, farmers implement tillage practices and/or utilize herbicides. These practices effectively shift the farmed ecosystems to early stages of secondary succession...
Article
Full-text available
Aims We hypothesised that a) species with greater acid soil tolerance have an increased capacity to utilise incipient rainfall; and b) liming increases the productivity and the ability of pasture species to utilise available water resources in the profile of an acid soil. Methods A field experiment was established on a moderately acidic yellow Kand...
Article
Dryland cereal production systems of south-eastern Australia require viable options for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions without compromising productivity and profitability. A 4-year rotational experiment with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-canola (Brassica napus L.)-grain legumes-wheat in sequence was established at Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia...
Article
Full-text available
Newly developed candidate cultivars of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. = syn. L. arundinaceum (Schreb) Darbysh.) were evaluated over four years for persistence and productivity against current commercial cultivars in small plots at five locations selected for lower and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Cultivars of phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) and cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) suited to lower rainfall cropping environments have existed in Australia for over 40 years, but remain rarely used in commercial crop rotations. A field experiment was established in 2010 at Ariah Park, NSW, to test the persistence of phalaris cv. Sirolan and cocksfo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A field experiment was established at Goulburn, NSW, to identify the likely potential of a range of alternative annual legume cultivars for use in grazing systems on the Southern Tablelands. One cultivar each of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum), purple clover (T. purpureum), balansa clover (T. michelianum), crimson clover (T. incarnatum), b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.) has been cultivated in Australia as a forage grass for over a century. Since the 1970’s it has developed a reputation for being sensitive to soil acidity with conventional wisdom typically advising against its use on acid soils. However, several recent studies have called this view into question and have prompted a r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Establishing and maintaining a balanced mixture of perennial and annual pasture species is often difficult, especially in drier environments. One method to reduce the competition between pasture species and to improve the potential productivity and nitrogen fixed by the pasture is to establish pasture species in separate rows (alternate row sowings...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the nature of summer dormancy in E. scaber and reports on hybridisation attempts with a range of wheat genotypes to determine the suitability of E. scaber as a donor species in the development of ‘perennial wheat’. In a field experiment, E. scaber populations sourced from agro-ecologically diverse sites in south-eastern Australi...
Article
Perennial grasses provide forage and environmental benefits in the agricultural systems of southern Australia, but persistent cultivars are lacking for the lower rainfall inland margins (<600 mm average annual rainfall). Potential new cultivars of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. = syn. Lolium arundinaceum...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We consider the limitations of optimisation analyses that ignore farm-level financial risks arising from combinations of high fixed costs, including debt burdens and highly variable local weather and prices. A sequential multivariate analysis method is used to compute cumulative distribution functions of decadal whole-farm cash balances for a farm...
Article
Pastures continue to provide essential functions for the mixed-farming zone in south-eastern Australia, where crop and livestock production are integral parts of most farms. Establishment of pastures in this zone needs to be low-cost and preferably with minimal risk. Pastures are typically sown either directly or in combination with a cover-crop (a...
Article
Incorporation of perennial pastures into cropping rotations can improve whole-farm productivity, profitability and sustainability of mixed farming systems in southern Australia. However, success in establishing perennial pastures depends on choice of species, time of sowing, method of establishment, seasonal conditions, and whether sowing is under...
Technical Report
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Australian farmers face between three and ten times the level of production risk faced by farmers in competing countries worldwide (OECD-FAO, 2011), Consequently, in Australia, identical management plans may result in sharply contrasting distributions of financial outcomes. These differences provide more complete management information than those b...
Article
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Grassland production systems contribute 40% to Australia's gross agricultural production value and utilise >50% of its land area. Across this area, diverse systems exist, but these can be broadly classified into four main production systems: (i) pastoral grazing, mainly of cattle at low intensity (i.e. <0.4 dry sheep equivalents/ha) on relatively u...
Article
In 2009, 95 farmers in the mixed farming zone of southern New South Wales (NSW), average annual rainfall 450–700 mm, were surveyed about their use of perennial pasture species. Survey responses indicated that, on average, 52% of land was under crop, 29% contained perennial pasture and 19% annual pastures. The proportion of land sown to perennial pa...
Article
Full-text available
Dual-purpose cereals have been important for increasing the flexibility and profitability of mixed farming enterprises in southern Australia, providing winter feed when pasture dry matter production is low and recovering to produce grain. A perennial dual-purpose cereal could confer additional economic and environmental benefits. For the first time...
Article
Full-text available
Developing new and improved grazing systems for crop–livestock farms where crop production is the major driver of farm management decisions presents a unique research and development challenge. In southern Australia, a substantial proportion of animal production from grazing comes from regions and farms where cropping is the major enterprise. In th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The prospective development of viable perennial cereal crops is as much about developing novel farming systems as it is about developing novel germplasm. Unlike the development of other new crops such as triticale which could be quickly deployed into existing farming systems with only minimal adjustment, a perennial crop will require a substantial...