Ray Paternoster

Ray Paternoster
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice

About

127
Publications
65,842
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
14,891
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
6118 Citations
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (127)
Article
Full-text available
This research-perspective article reviews and contributes to the literature that explains how to deter internal computer abuse (ICA), which is criminal computer behavior committed by organizational insiders. ICA accounts for a large portion of insider trading, fraud, embezzlement, the selling of trade secrets, customer privacy violations, and other...
Article
Objective Despite a recent surge of interest in the important role that identity change plays in the desistance process, much of the empirical work has been qualitative and conducted with small samples, usually of serious adult offenders. Drawing on a nationally representative sample of adolescents in South Korea, this study explores how the develo...
Article
Objectives We test the relationship between other-regarding preferences (concerns for other people) and intentions to drink and drive and whether these preferences condition the effect of sanction threats on willingness to drink and drive. Methods A sample of university undergraduates played common economic games (dictator and ultimatum games) and...
Article
Objectives Sanction risk perceptions are a central element of deterrence theory, but the process by which an offender’s direct and indirect criminal experiences contribute to future risk perceptions has been understudied. This note seeks to address this domain through an extension of updating model of Anwar and Loughran to account for two distinct...
Article
In an effort to build on previous theory and research it is argued that self-control is not synonymous with impulsivity, but rather should be conceptualized as self-regulation: the capacity to override impulsive desires. Using a sample of college students and a sample of serious adult criminal offenders, we test four hypotheses regarding the relati...
Article
Full-text available
PurposeThe purpose of this study is to measure the effect that age has on women’s gendered prisoner reentry experiences and the likelihood of desisting from crime and substance abuse. This study also seeks to evaluate the applicability of Paternoster and Bushway’s (2009) Identity Theory of Desistance (ITD) for a contemporary, all-female sample. Met...
Article
Minority groups are significantly overrepresented in crime. Theories of racial differences in crime developed using two separate and distinct approaches that highlight either increased exposure to criminogenic factors at the individual level or greater risk of crime due to disadvantaged neighborhood conditions. Neighborhood theories describe how st...
Article
Full-text available
Theories of desistance from crime have emphasized social processes like involvement in adult social bonds or prosocial social relationships to the deliberate neglect of individual subjective processes such as one’s identity. More recent theories, however, have stressed the role of identity and human agency in the desistance process. An important se...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The objective of the current study is to examine the hypothesis that correctional environments can facilitate the accumulation of “criminal capital” and might actually encourage offending by serving as a school of crime. Methods We use panel data from a sample of 615 serious juvenile offenders who reported illegal earnings and informatio...
Article
In the last few decades, rational choice theory has emerged as a bedrock theory in the fields of economics, sociology, psychology, and political science. Although rational choice theory has been available to criminologists for many years now, the field has not embraced it as other disciplines have. Moreover, rational choice scholars have fueled thi...
Article
Full-text available
Using a mixed-race sample of male and female drug-involved offenders who were released from prison in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2009 through 2011, this article represents perhaps the first attempt to determine the utility of the identity theory of desistance (ITD) in explaining desistance in a contemporary cohort of adult drug-involved...
Article
Full-text available
Using a sample of 118 drug-involved women originally released from prison in the 1990s and re-interviewed between 2010 and 2011, this paper examines the role motherhood played in the desistance process from crime and substance abuse. Interview narratives revealed that motherhood rarely functioned as a turning point per se that activated desistance,...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Paternoster and Bushway (2009) have recently proposed and developed (Bushway and Paternoster 2012, 2013) an identity theory of desistance (ITD). The current study is an initial attempt to empirically examine the tenability of the ITD by assessing whether self-identity and intentional self-change are critically involved in the desistance p...
Article
Aspects of criminological theory are premised on the belief that criminals make poor decisions. There have been suggestions that individual differences in self-control, willpower, impulsivity, time orientation, or more recently, thoughtfully reflective decision making (TRDM) influence choices and, ultimately, deviant outcomes. While much of the lit...
Chapter
There has always been an association between race and the death penalty in America, which should not be surprising given the history of racial animus in the country. This animus has been expressed in both formal and informal attempts to discipline racial minorities from the Slave Codes, lynchings after reconstruction, Jim Crow laws, to the historic...
Article
Full-text available
Extant theoretical work on desistance from crime has emphasized social processes such as involvement in adult social bonds or pro-social relationships, with very little attention given to individual subjective processes such as one's identity. The desistance theories of Sampson and Laub and Giordano seem to have reached the point of consensual acce...
Article
Objectives This paper aims to suggest a framework to think of a more practical way to consider the broader impact of a program intervention beyond just its average, by considering the concept of treatment effect heterogeneity—how the same intervention may produce differential effects for different subgroups of individuals. Methods Using an applicat...
Article
Full-text available
Research examining desistance from crime (the process of decreasing offending over time) has increased over the last 20 years. However, many explanations of desistance remain somewhat exploratory. One theory in particular that is becoming more prominent includes the idea that desistance is caused by a change in identity (e.g. from deviant to pro-so...
Article
Objective: Criminological researchers want people to reveal considerable private information when utilizing self-report surveys, such as involvement in crime, subjective attitudes and expectations, and probability judgments. Some of this private information is easily accessible for subjects and all that is required is for individuals to be honest,...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To determine whether the relationship between marriage and crime extends beyond the individual level of analysis by examining the relationship between marriage rates and crime rates at the county level. Methods: Linear regression analyses of marriage rates on various types of crime, including violent, property, drug, and juvenile crime...
Article
Objectives Through a mood induction procedure, we prime positive, negative, or a neutral affective state and examine its effect on intentions to cheat on an exam and drinking and driving. Method University students served as subjects for the study. They were provided with a questionnaire that randomized a mood induction procedure. Respondents were...
Article
In this study, we examine race, sex, and self-reported arrest histories (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY; N = 7,335) for the period 1997 through 2008 covering cumulative arrest histories through ages 18 and 23. The analysis produces three key findings: (1) males have higher c...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a partial test of Agnew’s general theory of crime and delinquency. Relying on a sample of adolescents and employing measures of the self, family, school, and peers domains, this study examines the contemporaneous and lagged effects of these four life domains on the likelihood of consuming alcohol and using marijuana. This study...
Article
Objectives This study addresses the enduring question about whether exposure to deviant peers causes individuals to engage in deviance. Ample literature comments on this point, but methodological limitations prevent strong conclusions about causality. Method The authors conducted a laboratory-based experiment under the guise of a memory/recall stu...
Article
There is a contentious debate within criminology about the causes of desistance from crime. Some theories, such as Sampson and Laub’s age-graded informal social control theory assert that desistance is due to the influences of structural factors such as placement in good jobs or finding good marriage partners. In large measure, those who find these...
Article
The study of desistance, the process by which individuals stop offending, is a dynamic field of interest to both academics and policymakers. This chapter reviews the existing theoretical thinking about desistance, and presents a new perspective on the role of identity change in desistance. We begin by verifying empirically that there are in fact pe...
Article
Several scholars have argued that the prevalence of an adult onset of offending necessitates research and theoretical explanation, whereas other scholars remain skeptical about the existence of offenders who onset in adulthood. The reconciliation of this debate holds significant implications for the sort of criminological theory the field should va...
Article
Full-text available
In striking down the use of victim impact evidence (VIE) during the penalty phase of a capital trial, the Supreme Court in Booth v. Maryland and South Carolina v. Gathers argued that such testimony would appeal to the emotions of jurors with the consequence that death sentences would not be based upon a reasoned consideration of the blameworthiness...
Article
Using data from the Supplemental Victimization Survey (SVS) of the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and relying on theoretical direction provided by Broidy and Agnew's gendered strain theory, we examine gender differences in the emotional reactions and behavioral outcomes to one type of serious strain: stalking. We found females experienc...
Article
A growing consensus suggests that incarcerating offenders tends to have either null or criminogenic effects at both the individual and neighborhood levels. There is also further evidence that there are unintended consequences of incarcerating juvenile offenders such as delayed psychosocial development and school dropout. The current study considers...
Article
Objectives This study examines the phenomena of intertemporal decision making—decisions involving costs and benefits that occur at different points in time. Two models of intertemporal time discounting are the exponential and hyperbolic models. Previous work in behavioral economics and psychology is relied on to make the case that the discounting o...
Article
Using data from the Supplemental Victimization Survey of the NCVS and relying on theoretical direction provided by Broidy and Agnew’s gendered strain theory, we examine gender differences in the concurrent emotional responses to a type of strain that has not been examined by GST researchers: stalking. In particular, we assess whether males and fema...
Article
Group-based analysis of developmental trajectories has been commonly used to study heterogeneity in criminal offending over the life course. While there have been several critiques of this method, we believe that it is useful in testing hypotheses from theory about the existence of groups and the characteristics and attributes of groups. We present...
Article
The primary goals of this study were to test the long‐term stability thesis of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) general theory of crime and to examine the relationship between self‐control and social control over time. The data come from a field experiment where the “treatment” consisted of an intentional effort to improve the childrearing behavior...
Article
Full-text available
We consider the problem of estimating the incidence of residential burglaries that occur over a well-defined period of time within the 10 most populous cities in North Carolina. Our analysis typifies some of the general issues that arise in estimating and comparing local crime rates over time and for different cities. Typically, the only informatio...
Article
This article reviews the landscape of capital punishment as it now exists. Section I discusses the use of capital punishment internationally. Section II, reviews the use and characteristics of capital punishment in the United States. Section III discusses issues of race, and Section IV examines major Supreme Court decisions. Section V reviews argum...
Article
To estimate the cumulative proportion of youth who self-report having been arrested or taken into custody for illegal or delinquent offenses (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from ages 8 to 23 years. Self-reported arrest history data (excluding arrests for minor traffic violations) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997...
Article
Full-text available
Deterrence theorists and researchers have argued that the critical dimension of sanction certainty is its level—increasing the certainty of punishment from a lower to a higher level will inhibit criminal conduct. However, the true certainty of punishment is rarely known with much precision. Both Sherman (1990) and Nagin (1998) have suggested that a...
Article
Full-text available
Deterrence theory and criminal justice policy hold that punishment enhances compliance and deters future criminal activity. Empirical research, however, is decidedly mixed, with some studies finding that punishment weakens compliance, some finding that sanctions have no effect on compliance, and some finding that the effect of sanctions depends on...
Article
To assess the generality of differential social control (DSC) theory, this study examines whether the core propositions of DSC could explain recidivism among a sample of adult offenders. Overall, the results do not lend support for DSC's ability to account for offenders' persistence in crime. Specifically, the results reveal that only two of the fi...
Article
Purpose This study presents a preliminary test of Agnew's general theory of crime and delinquency. This study examines whether each of the five life domain variables at the core of Agnew's theory is related to recidivism, whether there is a non-linear relationship between the life domains and recidivism, and whether the five life domains interact i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we explore the functional form of the risk-certainty effect for deterrence. Using a sample of serious youth offenders, we first estimate a simple linear model of the relationship between the perceived certainty of punishment and self-reported offending. Consistent with previous literature we find evidence of a moderate deterrent effec...
Article
Earlier research by Inciardi and colleagues established the long-term positive effects of a therapeutic community (TC) continuum of treatment for drug-involved offenders. Using data from his original longitudinal study and archival records of criminal justice re-arrest and recidivism, this paper extends these analyses to examine the effects of TC t...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we relate a particular type of decision making, thoughtfully reflective decision making (TRDM) in adolescence, to successful and unsuccessful life outcomes in young adulthood. Those who are thoughtfully reflective in their decision making are more likely to consider possible alternative routes to goal attainment, weigh the costs and b...
Article
Full-text available
One of the strongest findings in the juvenile delinquency literature is the relationship between a lack of school success, school disengagement, and involvement in the criminal justice system. This link has been deemed the "school-to-jail pipeline." To date, research has not clarified the antecedents or origins of this school failure and disengagem...
Article
Objectives This study examines the prevalence of overconfidence in the perceived risk of committing crime and whether such overconfidence is related to criminal behavior. Methods Two samples were used—a sample of high school students who committed minor offenses and a sample of serious juvenile offenders most with felony arrests. Overconfidence in...
Article
The past several decades have seen the emergence of a movement in the criminal justice system that has called for a greater consideration for the rights of victims. One manifestation of this movement has been the “right” of victims or victims' families to speak to the sentencing body through what are called victim impact statements about the value...
Article
This chapter argues that qualitative and quantitative data are equally useful in the scientific enterprise that is criminology. Both types of data can, and should be, used to test theoretical claims deductively. Both types of data can and should be used to generate insight inductively into the types of theories that might be useful in the first pla...
Article
Full-text available
Using a sample of college students, we apply the general theory of crime and the lifestyle/routine activities framework to assess the effects of individual and situational factors on seven types of cybercrime victimization. The results indicate that neither individual nor situational characteristics consistently impacted the likelihood of being vic...
Article
This Article discusses the deterrence of crime through sanctions. It begins with a brief intellectual history of deterrence theory in the work of Cesare Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, two Enlightenment philosophers who created the conceptual foundation for later deterrence and rational choice theory. Although a prominent intellectual current by the e...
Chapter
Missing data problems are a ubiquitous challenge for criminology and criminal justice researchers (Brame and Paternoster 2003). Regardless of whether researchers are working with survey data or data collected from official agency records (or other sources), they will inevitably have to confront data sets with gaps and holes. As a result, researcher...
Article
This Article develops both a framework for a theory of desistance from crime and an analytical strategy with which to examine desistance. With respect to the former, an identity theory of the desistance from crime that is more cognitive and individualistic than some and more forward-looking than others is sketched out. This framework contributes to...
Article
Full-text available
Notions of human agency are a prominent part of some but not all criminological theories. For example, McCarthy (Annu Rev Sociol 28:417–442, 2002) argues that rational choice theory, which allows persons great involvement in decision making, is more congenial with notions of human agency than others. It would appear from his argument that rational...
Article
This article examines the well-documented relationship between early initiation or onset of criminal behavior and a heightened risk of involvement in offending. Previous research examining this question conducted by Nagin and Farrington (Criminology 30:235-260, 1992a; Criminology 30:501-523, 1992b) used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent D...
Article
Approximately one third of U.S. high-school freshmen do not earn their high-school diploma on time. For African-American and Hispanic students, this figure nearly reaches one half. The long-term economic consequences of dropping out of school for both the student and the larger community have been well documented. It has also been argued that schoo...
Chapter
A prominent theory of white-collar crime holds that organizations have distinctive cultures which are more or less tolerant of law violation for the benefit of the firm. This explanation purports to account for why college-educated, relatively affluent, and seemingly conventional persons can commit crime when they are employed in white-collar occup...
Article
Sentencing policy in the United States is guided by two general philosophies of punishment: a crime-control or instrumental philosophy, and a retributive philosophy. A crime-control philosophy is predicated on the expectation that punishing offenders is justified only because it produces some greater good-a reduction in crime that would not have oc...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of prior research findings that employed youth, and especially intensively employed youth, have higher rates of delinquent behavior and lower academic achievement, scholars have called for limits on the maximum number of hours per week that teenagers are allowed to work. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 to assess t...
Article
A generation of research studies that were conducted in multiple states and covered different time periods has found evidence that individuals who kill white victims encounter a greater risk of facing the death penalty than killers of black victims. More recently, research has also examined the likelihood of death penalty processing for black defen...
Article
A large body of research has consistently found that intensive employment during the school year is associated with heightened antisocial behavior. These findings have been influential in prompting policy recommendations to establish stricter limits on the number of hours that students can work during the school year. We reexamine the linkage betwe...
Article
Full-text available
Research consistently demonstrates a positive correlation between hours of employment and problem behavior for adolescents. In response, the National Research Council (1998) proposed limits on youth work involvement, and its recommendation forms the basis for proposed legislation to amend federal child labor provisions. An unanticipated consequence...
Article
There is a long-standing debate in criminology about the relative impact of static versus dynamic factors on criminal behavior. Researchers interested in estimating the impact of dynamic factors like prior offending or association with delinquent peers on criminal offending must control for static factors like intelligence, family background, or se...
Article
This study examines the relationship between assessments of the risk of punishment and self-reported involvement in three illegal behaviors in a sample of college-aged respondents. It is found that those respondents who had not yet committed a particular offense were more likely to perceive a greater certainty of punishment than those with experien...
Article
Offending specialization has received considerable attention in past research on criminal careers. Relatively little attention has been given to examining the relationships between various sub-group differences and the extent to which individuals tend toward specialization or versatility in their criminal careers. In the present analysis, we examin...
Article
Among the best documented empirical regularities in criminology is the positive association between past and future delinquency and criminality. In this paper, we examine alternative interpretations of this association. One is that prior participation has a genuine behavioral impact on the individual. Prior participation may, for example, reduce in...
Article
A large and growing literature links stable individual differences established early in life to deviant behavior through the life course. This literature challenges basic premises of modern sociological and economic theories of deviance that emphasize explanatory factors that are more proximate in time and external to the individual. In this paper...
Article
It is possible to distinguish between broad-domain theories that offer an explanation for all phenomena of interest to a discipline and narrow-domain theories that attempt to explain a subset of those phenomena. In criminology, this distinction has prompted theorists and researchers to confront the question of whether the same etiological process c...
Article
This paper examines the theoretical import of disaggregating self-reported delinquency data into two constituent parts: (1) prevalence data, which record the proportion of any group involved in crime, reject the decision to participate in crime, and (2) incidence data, which record the frequency of offending within the subgroup of participants, rej...
Article
In a reexamination of the perceptual deterrence literature. Williams and Hawkins (1986) have suggested that previous tests of the deterrence doctrine have been guided by too narrow a conception of the deterrence process. In essence, they argue that the preventive mechanisms are triggered by formal sanctions should be included in the accounting of t...
Article
Criminological theorists and criminal justice policy makers place a great deal of importance on the idea of desistance. In general terms, criminal desistance refers to a cessation of offending activity among those who have offended in the past. Some significant challenges await those who would estimate the relative size of the desisting population...
Article
Research on the temporal distribution of criminal behavior has highlighted two distinct mechanisms—population heterogeneity and state dependence. Most of this work indicates that long-term patterns of criminal offending reflect a mixture of stable individual differences and the causal effect of life events and experiences. Yet several ambiguities r...
Article
Full-text available
Most deterrence research has investigated how perceptions about sanction threats influence decisions to offend. Far less scholarship has investigated the processes in which sanction threat perceptions are formed and modified. In this study, we advance and test a theoretical framework in which perceptions of the certainty of punishment are a functio...
Article
Deterrence theory describes a process of offender decision making that consists of two linkages—one in which official sanctions and other information affect a would-be offender's perceptions about the risks of criminal conduct, and another in which such perceptions influence the decision whether or not to offend. Decades worth of empirical research...
Article
Full-text available
This article considers the problem of estimating the effect of a binary independent variable (employment) on a binary outcome variable (involvement in criminal activity) for a nationally representative sample of adolescents (ages 15-18). The authors’ bivariate analysis confirms a common finding from the literature, that adolescent employment is ass...
Article
Full-text available
A basic function of criminal career research is to describe patterns of criminal offending. During the history of the criminal career framework, researchers have divided the conceptual terrain of criminal offending into different dimensions. Two such dimensions include offending frequency and offense switching. Although research on both of these di...
Article
Society’s efforts to deter crime with punishment may be ineffective because those individuals most prone to commit crime often act impulsively, with little thought for the future, and so they may be unmoved by the threat of later punishment. Deterrence messages they receive, therefore, may fall on deaf ears. This article examines this issue by test...
Article
What happens to high school youths when they take on jobs during the school year, sometimes working long hours, while trying to maintain the role of student? There is a consensus in the empirical literature that teenage employment, particularly what is termed "intensive" employment, results in a constellation of detrimental consequences: lower scho...
Article
This paper considers the problem of missing data in two circumstances commonly confronted by criminologists. In the first circumstance, there is missing data due to subject attrition—some cases drop out of a study. In this context, analysts are frequently interested in examining the association between an independent variable measured at time t(x...
Article
Full-text available
The United States Supreme Court has never ruled upon whether the constitutional right to counsel extends to the bail stage. Indeed in the vast majority of state and local criminal justice systems, indigent defendants appear alone and without legal representation when first appearing before a judicial officer following arrest. Without counsel, many...
Article
Part of the ongoing debate between Cantor and Land and Greenberg centers on differing opinions about the question of interest in Cantor and Land (1985). We begin this article with our opinion that Cantor and Land's theory relates changes in the business cycle to changes in the aggregate rate of crime. We then question whether year-to-year changes a...
Article
It is well documented that there is a strong association between involvement in adolescent delinquency and involvement in adult criminality. However, the association is not perfect. Some juveniles who offend at high rates do not go on to offend as adults while some do. Some juveniles who offend at low rates go on to offend as adults while some do n...
Article
In a paper previously published in Criminology (Paternoster and Brame, 1998), we used data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to investigate the association between criminal activity and a set of so-called “analogous behaviors” (i.e., excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, involvement in accidents, etc.). Our reading of Gottfredson...
Article
Criminological research has consistently uncovered a positive correlationbetween past and current criminal behavior. Continuity in offending overtime can be attributed to at least two processes—populationheterogeneity and state dependence. A population heterogeneity processattributes stability in offending over time to differences in ananti-social...
Article
Full-text available
An important theoretical problem for criminologists is an explanation forthe robust positive correlation between prior and future criminaloffending. Nagin and Paternoster (1991) have suggested that the correlationcould be due to time-stable population differences in the underlyingproneness to commit crimes (population heterogeneity) and/or thecrimi...