Ravi Mehrotra

Ravi Mehrotra
Emory University | EU · Rollins School of Public Health

MD, DPhil FRCPath
Prevention & Early diagnosis of Cancer | Tobacco control | Pathology | Epidemiology

About

430
Publications
223,632
Reads
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31,699
Citations
Citations since 2017
278 Research Items
29428 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302,0004,0006,0008,000
Introduction
Prof Ravi Mehrotra is a Director of the ICGA, and member of the Scientific Council of WHO-IARC. He holds an Adjunct Professorship of Epidemiology at the Emory and York Universities. Earlier he has been the CEO of the ICMR-ICRC and also directed the ICMR-National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research as well as the WHO-FCTC Global Hub on Smokeless Tobacco. In addition to Armed Forces Medical College, he has trained at the Royal College of Pathology, Johns Hopkins & Pennsylvania Univ.
Additional affiliations
January 2022 - present
Indian Cancer Genomics Atlas
Position
  • Director
November 2020 - present
Pan African Cancer Research Institute, University of Pretoria
Position
  • Professor
January 2020 - December 2022
The University of York
Position
  • Professor
Education
January 2006 - December 2010
The Royal College of Pathology
Field of study
  • Cytopathology
January 2006 - December 2010
University of Allahabad
Field of study
  • Life Sciences
January 1981 - December 1983
University of Allahabad
Field of study
  • Pathology

Publications

Publications (430)
Article
Full-text available
Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy among women globally. From being fourth in the list of most common cancers in India during the 1990s, it has now become the first. In this review, we examine the available literature to understand the factors that contributed to the high burden of breast cancer in the country. We also provide the landscape...
Article
An expert panel review of strategies for preventing oral cancer report that the use of tobacco (both smoking and smokeless), areca nut exposure, and heavy alcohol consumption are major contributors to this illness.
Article
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Betel nut (BN), betel quid (BQ) and products derived from them are widely used as a socially endorsed masticatory product. The addictive nature of BN/BQ has resulted in its widespread usage making it the fourth most abused substance by humans. Progressively, several additives, including chewing tobacco, got added to simple BN preparations. This add...
Article
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Xenobiotic metabolic enzymes CYP1A1 and GSTM1 are known to increase the risk of head and neck cancer. However, their role in the development of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) in the Indian population is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the CYP1A1 and GSTM1 gene polymorphism in the urban population of the state of Delhi as we...
Article
The International Academy of Cytology has joined with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to bring together a group of experts in lung cytopathology to develop a WHO Reporting System for Lung Cytopathology (WHO System). This WHO System defines five categories for reporting lung cytopathology, that is, “Insufficient”/“Inadequate”/...
Article
The World Health Organization (WHO), the International Academy of Cytology, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, with expert contributors from around the world, present an international approach to standardized reporting of pancreaticobiliary cytopathology. This reporting system is one of the first in a series from various body site...
Article
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Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are a threat to public health and sustainable development. NCDs were equated to being a 'pandemic' before COVID-19 originated. Globally, NCDs caused approximately 74% of deaths (2019). India accounted for nearly 14·5% of these deaths. NCDs and COVID-19 have a lethal bi-directional relationship with both exacerbating...
Article
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Background Reducing the burden of death due to infection is an urgent global public health priority. Previous studies have estimated the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant infections and sepsis and found that infections remain a leading cause of death globally. Understanding the global burden of common bacterial pathogens (both suscept...
Chapter
Abstract Areca nut and tobacco are widely consumed across the world by ~600 million and 1.3 billion people due to their addictive properties, respectively. Globally, AN is the fourth most common psychoactive substance after caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. It is not only a psychostimulant and addictive substance, but also a potential carcinogen as...
Article
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Introduction Illicit smokeless tobacco (ST) trade has seldom been documented despite ST use in at least 127 countries across the world. Based on non-compliance with packaging regulations, we report the proportion of illicit ST products from samples on sale in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan where 85% of global ST users reside. Methods We purchased u...
Article
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Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a significant cause of lip and oral cavity cancers. Globally, oral cancer prevalence is strongly linked to the types of tobacco products used, their chemical composition, and their pattern of use. Except snus, all SLT products sold in different World Health Organization regions are strongly associated with oral cancer...
Article
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Background: Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods:...
Article
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Malignant mesotheliomas (MM) are hard to treat malignancies with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This cancer is highly misdiagnosed in Sub-Saharan African countries. According to literature, the incidence of MM is likely to increase particularly in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). The burden of asbestos-induced diseases was estimated t...
Article
The fibroadenoma is considered as a manifestation of aberration in normal development and involution (ANDI); however, its exact etiopathogenesis is poorly understood. We investigated the role of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in Fibroadenoma, to assess the ER and PR expression in epithelium and stroma of fibroadenoma and to co-relat...
Article
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Background: The early detection of breast cancer (BrC) is associated with improved survival. We describe a blood-based breast cancer detection test based on functional enrichment of breast-adenocarcinoma-associated circulating tumor cells (BrAD-CTCs) and their identification via multiplexed fluorescence immunocytochemistry (ICC) profiling for GCDF...
Article
Full-text available
When breast cancer is detected and treated early, the chances of survival are very high. However, women in many settings face complex barriers to early detection, including social, economic, geographic, and other interrelated factors, which can limit their access to timely, affordable, and effective breast health care services. Previously, the Brea...
Article
Full-text available
Background Areca nut (AN) is an addictive substance consumed in the Southeast region and is highly associated with oral premalignant lesions and oral cancer. The impact of AN use in the United States (US) is largely unknown, but the products are readily available and probably used by a significant fraction of Asian immigrants or descendants living...
Article
India is considered a demographically young country with over 65% of the population aged below 35 years. However , improvements in maternal and child health, and infectious diseases, have created a rapid epidemiological transition with an aging population (8.6% in 2011) with a projected increase (19% by 2050), equating to 104 million. In addition t...
Article
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Importance: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2019 (GBD 2019) provided systematic estimates of incidence, morbidity, and mortality to inform local and international efforts toward reducing cancer burden. Objective: To estimate cancer burden and trends globally for 204 countries and territories and by Sociodemographic...
Article
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PURPOSE The rising cancer burden in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) stresses already weak health care systems and poses unique challenges. In resource-constrained LMICs and in circumstances where most patients must pay out of pocket for diagnostic tests, these may not be available or affordable for many. Cytopathology provides a simple, in...
Article
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Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oral cancers is on the rise. However, epidemiological data of this subset of cancers are limited. Dental hospital poses a unique advantage in detection of HPV-positive oral malignancies. We assessed the utility of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, which are readily available, for eva...
Article
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Background In estimating the global burden of cancer, adolescents and young adults with cancer are often overlooked, despite being a distinct subgroup with unique epidemiology, clinical care needs, and societal impact. Comprehensive estimates of the global cancer burden in adolescents and young adults (aged 15–39 years) are lacking. To address this...
Article
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Oral cancer is usually preceded by oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and early detection can downstage the disease. The majority of OPMDs are asymptomatic in early stages and can be detected on routine oral examination. Though only a proportion of OPMDs may transform to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), they may serve as a surrogate c...
Article
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Background & objectives: Lack of awareness is one of the major reasons for the high morbidity and mortality associated with cancers. The present study was aimed to evaluate the awareness of prevalent cancers among the rural population in a district of north India and its association specifically with mobile phone usage. Methods: Using a stratified...
Article
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Purpose Cervical cancer is the second most common cancers of women in India, despite being largely preventable. This review traces the journey of formulation of the Operational Guidelines for the management of common cancers and its implementation. Methods A literature review was done to document the process of formulation of the guidelines, in ad...
Article
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The advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in modern oncology has significantly improved survival in several cancer settings. A subgroup of women with breast cancer (BC) has immunogenic infiltration of lymphocytes with expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). These patients may potentially benefit from ICI targeting the programmed dea...
Article
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The influence of the naturally occurring population of microbes on various human diseases has been a topic of much recent interest. Not surprisingly, continuously growing attention is devoted to the existence of a gut brain axis, where the microbiota present in the gut can affect the nervous system through the release of metabolites, stimulation of...
Article
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Oral cancer is among the most common cancers in India. Tobacco, its primary risk factor, is widely consumed across the country, in both smoked and smokeless forms. The current study assessed the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral lesions in a section of the New Delhi population. Population-based cross-sectional survey was used. House vis...
Article
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INTRODUCTION Smokeless tobacco (ST) remains poorly regulated in Bangladesh. This study describes the prevalence and trends of ST use in Bangladesh, presents ST-related disease burden, identifies relevant policy gaps, and highlights key implications for future policy and practice for effective ST control in Bangladesh. METHODS We analyzed secondary...
Article
Adolescence and early adulthood are the most susceptible phase of life for tobacco initiation and its use during this period can have profound public health implications. Anti-smoking campaigns have helped in reducing the social acceptability of smoking; however, newer nicotine products are becoming increasingly popular, globally. Evidence suggests...
Preprint
Full-text available
Incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated oral cancers is on the rise. However, epidemiological data of this subset of cancers is limited. Dental hospital pose a unique advantage in detection of HPV-positive oral malignancies. We assessed the utility of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, which are readily available, for eval...
Article
Full-text available
Background A systematic understanding of the burden of neurological disorders at the subnational level is not readily available for India. We present a comprehensive analysis of the disease burden and trends of neurological disorders at the state level in India. Methods Using all accessible data from multiple sources, we estimated the prevalence or...
Article
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India has witnessed a major paradigm shift in the eld of breast cancer and its management over the past 4 decades. The discipline of medical oncology has evolved exponentially over this period-a growth that few other scientific disciplines have experienced. Interventions at the individual, institutional, and health-care delivery levels have signica...
Article
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Purpose Incidence of breast cancer (BC), particularly in young women, are rising in India. Without population-based mammography screening, rising rates cannot be attributed to screening. Investigations are needed to understand the potential drivers of this trend. Methods An international team of experts convened to discuss the trends, environmenta...
Data
This is a supplementary material for the article entitled "Measuring universal health coverage based on an index of effective coverage of health services in 204 countries and territories, 1990–2019"
Article
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Background: Tobacco consumption in India varies based on the place of residence (urban/rural). Minimal, exclusive information exists regarding the same for 'urban slum' dwellers. The current study determines the tobacco use pattern among such individuals in Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the ur...
Conference Paper
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https://api.ltb.io/show/BFZDN AIM The scientific process is enhanced by high-quality research data management. Data should be available, accessible, discoverable, and usable to ensure maximum benefits to patients and the public, as well as the health research community. However, there are many challenges when working on projects spanning multiple...
Article
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Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women in both transitioned and transitioning countries and has become a major women’s health problem. Although recent advances in our understanding of the biological nature of cancer, improved awareness coupled with better early detection facilities, use of chemotherapy, hormone therapy, a...
Article
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Background Certain oral bacterial pathogens may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. We assessed the feasibility of conducting a population-based study in India to examine the distributions and levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia in relation to oral leukoplakia (a potentially malignant disorder) and...
Article
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the leading causes of deaths in men globally. This is a heterogeneous and complex disease that urgently warrants further insight into its pathology. Developed countries have thus far the highest PCa incidence rates, with comparatively low mortality rates. Even though PCa in the Asian population seems to have high inc...
Article
Introduction In continuation to our concern about the harms of nicotine and smokeless tobacco products,1,2 through this letter we want to draw attention toward the new Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) strategy which is designed to reduce the health risks associated with tobacco use. Modern Oral Products (MOPs), also referred to as tobacco-free nicotine...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Smokeless Tobacco (ST) is consumed globally by more than 350 million people, with approximately 85% of all users based in South and Southeast Asia. In this region, ST products are cheap and easily accessible. Evidence-based interventions to people quit ST use are lacking. This study aims to test the feasibility of conducting a future de...
Article
Breast cancer consists of various subtypes like Her2+, ER/PR + Her2-, ER/PR + Her2+, TNBCs (Triple-Negative Breast Cancers), TPBCs (Triple-Positive Breast Cancers), etc., according to hormonal receptors and Her2 profile. Among these, TNBCs have limited therapeutic interventions, due to lack of receptors for ER, PR and Her2. Apart from BRCA1 and BRC...
Article
The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection is caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affecting the lungs. All tobacco-related illnesses including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary artery disease are known to reduce the lung capacity and impair the immune system o...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection is caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily affecting the lungs. All tobacco-related illnesses including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and coronary artery disease are known to reduce the lung capacity and impair the i...
Article
Full-text available
Background The association of air pollution with multiple adverse health outcomes is becoming well established, but its negative economic impact is less well appreciated. It is important to elucidate this impact for the states of India. Methods We estimated exposure to ambient particulate matter pollution, household air pollution, and ambient ozone...
Article
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Cancer is a highly proliferative disease, which is caused due to the loss of regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, DNA damage, faulty repair system etc. The cancer microenvironment plays a pivotal role in disease progression as they contain different types of innate and adaptive immune cells. The most important molecules that establish a correlat...
Article
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Introduction Smokeless tobacco (ST) was consumed by 356 million people globally in 2017. Recent evidence shows that ST consumption is responsible for an estimated 652 494 all-cause deaths across the globe annually. The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was negotiated in 2003 and ratified in 2005 to implement effective tobacco contr...
Article
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Dissemination of adequate information about cancer is a prerequisite for focused cancer control efforts. This study was aimed at assessing the content validity of the existing web-based cancer awareness resources and using these inputs to create an innovative India-specific website for cancer prevention. A gap analysis of 65 existing websites on va...
Article
Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy of the biliary tract. It is asymptomatic in its early stages, and often, characterized by a poor prognosis and worse treatment response. Distribution of GBC shows both geographical as well as ethnic variations. Several studies have elucidated the differential gene expression profile between the n...
Article
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Background: In common with many countries globally, India has a history of graphic health warnings (GHWs) being weakened or delayed due to tobacco industry influence. If tobacco iseliminated from society, nearly 30% of all cancers can be prevented. Objectives: This study examines the role of the media in the recent changes to the 85% GHWs implement...
Article
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Background Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) involves all people receiving the health services they need, of high quality, without experiencing financial hardship. Making progress towards UHC is a policy priority for both countries and global institutions, as highlighted by the agenda of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and WHO's...
Article
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The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides a rules-based synthesis of the available evidence on levels and trends in health outcomes, a diverse set of risk factors, and health system responses. GBD 2019 covered 204 countries and territories, as well as first administrative level disaggregations for 22 countr...
Article
Introduction Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is consumed by 356 million people across the world and accounts for about 650 000 deaths globally, with the WHO-SEAR bearing the major share (88%) of the burden.¹ According to US Food and Drug Administration registration and listing data, there are about 800 SLT products available in the market including more th...