Raveen Parboosing

Raveen Parboosing
University of KwaZulu-Natal | ukzn · Department of Virology

MBCHB, FCPath (SA) Viro, MMed, MS, PhD

About

121
Publications
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1,804
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2009 - present
January 2008 - present
University of KwaZulu-Natal
January 2002 - present
Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital
Position
  • Consultant Clinical Virologist

Publications

Publications (121)
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a public health threat, despite the advent of numerous potent antiretrovirals. To date, the search for new HIV treatment is ongoing. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using medicinal plants is an emerging technology that can be utilized as antiviral agents for the treatment of HI...
Article
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To understand the problem of persistent Hepatitis B virus (HBV) viraemia in HIV/HBV co-infected patients on HBV-active antiretroviral therapy (ART), we assessed the rate of HBV virological response in patients on HBV-active ART in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and analysed factors associated with persistent HBV viraemia. One hundred and fifty eligib...
Article
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Background The SARS-CoV-2 omicron variant of concern was identified in South Africa in November, 2021, and was associated with an increase in COVID-19 cases. We aimed to assess the clinical severity of infections with the omicron variant using S gene target failure (SGTF) on the Thermo Fisher Scientific TaqPath COVID-19 PCR test as a proxy. Method...
Preprint
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Background The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant of concern (VOC) almost completely replaced other variants in South Africa during November 2021, and was associated with a rapid increase in COVID-19 cases. We aimed to assess clinical severity of individuals infected with Omicron, using S Gene Target Failure (SGTF) on the Thermo Fisher Scientific TaqPath C...
Article
Cytomegalovirus pneumonia has repeatedly been described in the context of HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-infected infants. Despite its significant role in the etiology of childhood pneumonia, there is still a paucity of literature generally, and specifically in Africa, suggesting that it might be a neglected disease. Emerging evidence highlights th...
Article
Background In low- and middle-income countries, increasing levels of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) on second-line protease inhibitor (PI)-based regimens are a cause for concern, given limited drug options for third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Objectives We conducted a retrospective analysis of routine HIV-1 genotyping laboratory data from Kwa...
Article
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Background: The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of Moringa oleifera-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. HeLa cells over-express cyclin E and cyclin B1, abrogate G0-G1 and G2-M cell cycle arrest, promoting tumorigenesis. Cyclin E, cyclin B1, E2F1 and telomerase expression, and caspase-3 and -7 activation were assessed after 24-treatment...
Article
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a significant health burden in many countries around the world. Current HIV treatment through a combination of different antiretroviral drugs (cART) effectively suppresses viral replication, but drug resistance and cross-resistance are significant challenges. This has prompted the search...
Article
Background The aim of the study was to determine the mechanism of Moringa oleifera-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. HeLa cells over-express cyclin E and cyclin B1, abrogate G0-G1 and G2-M cell cycle arrest, promoting tumorigenesis. Cyclin E, cyclin B1, E2F1 and telomerase expression, and caspase-3 and -7 activation were assessed after 24-treatment...
Article
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Globally, viral diseases continue to pose a significant threat to public health. Recent outbreaks, such as influenza, coronavirus, Ebola, and dengue, have emphasized the urgent need for new antiviral therapeutics. Considerable efforts have focused on developing metal nanoparticles for the treatment of several pathogenic viruses. As a result of thes...
Article
There are no available antivirals for many viruses or strains, while current antivirals are limited by toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, alternative strategies, such as RNA interference (RNAi) are required. RNAi suppresses gene expression of any mRNA, making it an attractive candidate for antiviral therapeutics. Studies have evaluated siRNAs...
Preprint
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Background: Research shows a high prevalence of sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among sexually active women throughout the world. Patient self-testing and self-sampling strategies are pivotal to facilitate rapid diagnosis of disease among key populations. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on self-sampling methods utilised to...
Article
Background Occult Hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver with or without detectable HBV DNA in the serum of individuals testing HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) negative by currently available assays. The prevalence of OBI among patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) treatment remains poorly characterized in...
Article
The present study is aimed at the employment of novel fatty acid derived lipids for the preparation of pH-responsive nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for vancomycin (VCM) intravenous delivery against resistant and sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Two branched lipids [stearic ‏acid derived solid lipid and oleic acid derived liquid lipid...
Article
Full-text available
The HIV integrase enzyme represents an important target for HIV inhibition because it is essential for viral replication and there is no cellular counterpart. Blocking HIV replication at this early stage of the viral life cycle can also prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs in the form of latently infected cells. Complications such as drug...
Article
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Background Parvovirus B19 (PVB19) is transmitted via transfusion of blood and blood products. PVB19 is resistant to viral inactivation methods, which poses a threat to blood safety. We investigated the prevalence of PVB19 antibodies and DNA in healthy blood donors from the South African National Blood Bank Service (SANBS) to evaluate the necessity...
Article
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) are included on the WHO high priority list of pathogens that require urgent intervention. Hence emphasis needs to be placed on developing novel class of molecules to tackle these pathogens. Teixobactin is a new class of antibiotic that has demonstrated an...
Article
The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) is a cytokine that attracts CCR7-positive cells to the T cell (paracortical) zone of lymph nodes by directional migration of these cells along the CCL21 gradient. In this article, we sought to mimic this chemotactic mechanism, by identifying a novel aptamer that binds CCL21 with high affinity. In vitro se...
Article
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The use of RNA macromolecules as therapeutic agents for HIV and other infectious diseases is promising but limited by suboptimal delivery to the target site. With HIV infection, this is particularly challenging since lymphocytes are particularly difficult to transfect. This paper describes an innovative strategy for the intracellular delivery of a...
Article
Background: The pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children with pneumonia is not clear. Objectives and design: We describe the outcome of children on mechanical ventilation with 'probable' CMV-related pneumonitis (CMV DNA polymerase chain reaction [PCR] positive as well as clinical and imaging features of CMV on ganciclovir) and chi...
Article
Infectious diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with viruses in particular making global impact on healthcare and socioeconomic development. In addition, the rapid development of drug resistance to currently available therapies and adverse side effects due to prolonged use is a serious public health concern. The development of nov...
Article
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Background Encapsidation, the process during which the genomic RNA of HIV is packaged into viral particles, is an attractive target for antiviral therapy. This study explores a novel nanotechnology-based strategy to inhibit HIV encapsidation by an RNA decoy mechanism. The design of the 16-mer oligoribonucleotide (RNA) decoy is based on the sequence...
Article
Full-text available
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality of children in Africa. The current practice for diagnosing CMV pneumonitis in this setting is based on interpretation of clinical, laboratory and radiological findings. There is a need for a sensitive and specific laboratory test to objectively distinguish between p...
Article
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The clinical utility of important therapeutic agents is often limited by the poor permeability of biological membranes. Cell penetrating peptides are usually employed to circumvent this challenge. This approach, coupled with gold nanoparticles, are a promising vehicle for drug delivery due to its good biocompatibility profile, negligable toxicity a...
Article
Corona discharges are commonly utilized for numerous practical applications, including bio-technological ones. The corona induced transfer of normally impermeant molecules into the interior of biological cells has recently been successfully demonstrated. The exact nature of the interaction of the corona discharge with a cell membrane is still unkno...
Article
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Antiretroviral drug resistance following pMTCT strategies remains a significant problem. With rapid advancements in next generation sequencing technologies there is more focus on HIV drug resistant variants of low frequency, or the so called 'minority variants'. In South Africa, AZT monotherapy for pMTCT, similar to WHO option A, has been used sinc...
Article
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Assessment of toxicity is an important component of the drug discovery process. Cell-based assays are a popular choice for assessing cytotoxicity. However, these assays are complex because of the wide variety of formats and methods that are available, lack of standardization, confusing terminology and the inherent variability of biological systems...
Article
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Background: Poor quality dried blood spot (DBS) specimens are usually rejected by virology laboratories, affecting early infant diagnosis of HIV. The practice of combining two incompletely-filled DBS in one specimen preparation tube during pre-analytical specimen processing (i.e., the two-spot method) has been implemented to reduce the number of s...
Article
Aims: This study aimed at investigating the use of metal chelators as potential metallo-β-lactamase inhibitors (MBL). Methods and results: The minimum-inhibitory concentration (MIC) of meropenem was ascertained alone and in combination with various concentrations of macrocyclic (1,4,7- triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-diacetic acid = NODAGA...
Article
Full-text available
Background: There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in children, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. A major obstacle in resource-limited settings for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing is the necessity for specimen transportation and storage at low temperatures. There are numerous recent studies of using real-...
Article
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Background: The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) amongst South African infants and children has been reported in the pre-HIV era. Despite the reported high prevalence of HIV in the general population of South Africa, the rate of HIV/HBV co-infection amongst infants and children remains poorly reported. Objectives: We describe the prevalence...
Article
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Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study co...
Article
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Noninvasive imaging is a powerful tool for early diagnosis and monitoring of various disease processes, such as infections. An alarming shortage of infection-selective radiopharmaceuticals exists for overcoming the diagnostic limitations with unspecific tracers such as (67/68)Ga-citrate or (18)F-FDG. We report here TBIA101, an antimicrobial peptide...
Article
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The detection and clinical significance of HIV-1 minority drug-resistant variants is a major topic of current HIV research. Whereas much attention has been placed on the clinical impact of minority drug-resistant variants in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, their possible influence on the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy following...
Article
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Background: Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. HBV/HIV co-infection in women of reproductive age is of clinical and public health importance because these women constitute a significant reservoir for horizontal and perinatal HBV transmission. Childhood HBV vaccination from 6...
Article
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Human immunodeficiency virus 2 (HIV-2) is found predominantly in West Africa. It is not unlikely, however, that HIV-2 may also be found in South Africa, due to the influx of immigrants into this country. It is important to distinguish between HIV-1 and HIV-2 since the clinical courses and treatment responses of these viruses are different. Routine...
Article
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Objective: To describe a trend in perinatal HIV transmission associated with the implementation of rapidly changing prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions from 2004 to 2012. Method: Retrospective analysis of infant HIV polymerase chain reaction results of infants from 2004 to 2012 archived from a Laboratory Information Sys...
Article
Importance: Gestational influenza has been associated previously with schizophrenia in offspring, but the relationship between this exposure and bipolar disorder (BD) is unclear. The identification of gestational influenza as a risk factor for BD may have potential for preventive approaches. Objective: To test the hypothesis that maternal influe...
Article
Objective: To describe a trend in perinatal HIV transmission associated with the implementation of rapidly changing prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) interventions from 2004 to 2012. Method: Retrospective analysis of infant HIV polymerase chain reaction results of infants from 2004 to 2012 archived from a Laboratory Information...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with HBV/HIV co-infection rates ranging from 5 to 10%. HBV/HIV co-infected pregnant women are a reservoir for on-going HBV transmission however HBV screening is not routinely offered to pregnant women. This may be due to presumed low HBV i...
Article
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Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South...
Article
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African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view supported by Traditio...
Article
Herein, we present the first pentacycloundecane (PCU) diol peptoid derived HIV protease inhibitors with IC(50) values ranging from 6.5 to 0.075 μM. Five derivatives were synthesized in an attempt to understand the structure activity relationship of this class of compounds for HIV protease inhibition. NMR spectroscopy (new Efficient Adiabatic Symmet...
Article
Novel glycopeptides containing amino acids such as valine and alanine were designed, synthesized and tested for inhibition of the wild type C-SA HIV-1 protease enzyme. The incorporation of dipeptide sequences Val-Ala/Ala-Val to the sugar B-amino acid at two side chain positions resulted in a series of nine novel compounds. Compounds 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d,...
Article
Full-text available
Suboptimal adherence, toxicity, drug resistance and viral reservoirs make the lifelong treatment of HIV infection challenging. The emerging field of nanotechnology may play an important role in addressing these challenges by creating drugs that possess pharmacological advantages arising out of unique phenomena that occur at the "nano" scale. At the...
Article
In 2004, KwaZulu-Natal initiated one of the world's largest HIV/AIDS treatment programs. Studies in South Africa have shown that patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop rapidly and transmit drug resistant mutations. Since resistance testing is not widely available in Kwazulu-Natal, the Department of Health conducted the first HIV drug resi...
Article
Full-text available
Pentacycloundecane (PCU) lactam-peptide based HIV protease inhibitors were synthesized and nanomolar activity against the resistance-prone wild type C-South African HIV protease is reported. NMR investigations indicated that the activity is related to the chirality of the PCU moiety and its ability to induce conformations of the coupled peptide sid...
Article
Objective. To describe the effect of HIV serostatus on serum proteins, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) patterns and monoclonal bands. Setting. Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban. Design. Retrospective, anonymous analysis of routine laboratory results. Results. Monoclonal bands were not increased in HIV-positive patients, who were y...
Article
Objective. To describe the effect of HIV serostatus on serum proteins, serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) patterns and monoclonal bands. Setting. Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, Durban. Design. Retrospective, anonymous analysis of routine laboratory results. Results. Monoclonal bands were not increased in HIV-positive patients, who were y...