Rashmi Banga

Rashmi Banga
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development | UNCTAD · Economic Cooperation and Integration among Developing Countries

Doctor of Philosophy in Economics

About

79
Publications
47,855
Reads
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1,121
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2015 - August 2017
Commonwealth Secretariat, London
Position
  • Consultant
Description
  • Head & Adviser Trade Competitiveness Commonwealth Secretariat Marlborough House, Pall Mall, London SW1Y 5HX, UK T +44 (0)20 7747 6122 F +44 (0)20 7968 2623 E r.banga@commonwealth.int

Publications

Publications (79)
Article
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The paper presents a detailed critique of estimating economic impact of moratorium on custom duties on electronic transmissions using CGE modelling, which has been undertaken by the European Centre for International Political Economy (ECIPE). Electronic transmissions are ‘on-line’ deliveries of digitizable products like music CDs, films, e-books, s...
Chapter
The digital revolution is rapidly transforming global manufacturing and trade, thereby altering export competitiveness of developing countries. This paper examines the impact of growing digitalization on India’s exports, using both sector- and firm-level analyses. At the sectoral level, the paper estimates the value added by digital services in Ind...
Article
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The outbreak of COVID-19 and the subsequent prolonged lockdowns have been accompanied by an exponential rise in imports of electronic transmissions, mainly of luxury items like movies, music, video games and printed matter. While the profits and revenues of digital players are rising steadily, the ability of the governments to check these conspicuo...
Article
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The main objective of this paper is to assess the costs and benefits of signing ITA-1 and ITA-2. The paper highlights that while ITA-1 includes physical ICT products, ITA-2 covers many more products which are not defined as ICT products. Many of these products are consumer goods; electronic transmissions; digital content and digitizable products. T...
Article
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Covid-19 pandemic has exposed the existing global digital divide and the urgent need to build digital infrastructure in the South. While many developing countries are in the process of designing national digital policies, a group of countries have initiated negotiations on digital rules under the Joint Statement Initiative (JSI) on E-Commerce. This...
Article
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Climate change is of the most critical crises facing the world today. While comprehensive climate mitigation and adaptation policies are being implemented by developed countries both at the national and regional levels, developing countries are lagging in terms of developing an integrated, south-south cooperation agenda for climate adaptation and s...
Book
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Over the past four decades, China has achieved remarkable economic growth, transforming itself from a global assembly hub to a global digital leader. What is the policy story behind China’s “economic miracle”? What strategies lie behind its successful integration into the global economy? What kind of reference point can it offer to other developing...
Article
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This research paper highlights the adverse impacts of the continuing WTO moratorium on customs duties on electronic transmissions in the developing and least developed countries. The rapidly progressing digitalization along with the ongoing pandemic and the food crisis are creating multiple demands on the government revenues. However, because of th...
Article
This article examines the impact on developing countries of some of the initiatives under the Trade and Environment Agenda, namely agreement on environmental goods and services, carbon border adjustment mechanisms and the circular economy. It highlights the need for a positive international Trade and Environment Agenda which could facilitate green...
Article
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For many observers, the best strategy to build back better after the Covid-19 crisis is to double down on pre-pandemic policies: at the domestic level through market disciplines to contain production costs, especially of labour and taxes; internationally, by reforming the WTO to further trade liberalization, secure intellectual property and contain...
Article
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Free trade agreements (FTAs) are often signed by the developing countries in the hope of increasing their market access, improving their balance of trade (BOT) and reviving their economic growth by generating additional output and employment in their countries. However, if FTAs worsen the BOT or net exports, they can adversely impact Gross Domestic...
Chapter
Sri Lanka has signed and is in the process of signing many bilateral and regional free trade agreements (FTAs) with a primary focus on maximising the economic benefits and welfare of its people. As of December 2016, Sri Lanka has eight FTAs of which four FTAs are into effect (Asia-Pacific FTAs, India-Sri Lanka FTAs, Pakistan-Sri Lanka FTAs and Sout...
Book
This book offers a collection of distinguished contributions that identify current growth accelerators in India, and suggest policies and strategies to make India’s growth more sustainable and inclusive. The papers are divided into three sections, the first of which focuses on issues related to industrial growth in India. The discussions include In...
Book
Global value chains (GVCs) have spread rapidly, accounting for more than 70 per cent of the international trade. But have developing countries benefitted from the rise of GVCs? To answer this question, the book estimates domestic value-added in exports of different developing countries and finds that this has been declining overtime. It highlights...
Preprint
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A mega regional Free Trade Agreement like the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) has the potential to impact countries which are inside as well as those which are outside the agreement. This paper provides empirical estimates of potential changes in Malaysia's merchandise balance of trade if it joins the C...
Article
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Growing trade in digitizable products is posing new challenges for the South. Digitizable products are those products which are traded both in the physical form as well as 'online' i.e., downloaded from the internet, e.g., music, e-books, software etc. The online trade of digitizable products is termed as electronic transmissions. Digital technolog...
Article
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India’s digital infrastructure and the value added by digital services to its exports are analysed in order to assess its digital preparedness in the context of international trade. The results show that India lags behind many developing and developed countries in this area. In order to boost India’s trade competitiveness in the digital era, a Digi...
Article
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This paper discusses the various components of digital infrastructure to de-mystify digital economy and examines the reasons for growth of big-tech firms and the source of their rent-seeking powers. The extent of digitization of manufacturing is estimated for identified developed and developing countries using world input-output database. The estim...
Article
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A recent study undertaken by Kawasaki (2017) uses a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to estimate the impact of removal tariffs and non-tariff measures on trade flows and the overall gross domestic product (GDP) of the remaining 11 countries in the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP11) partner countries. This note attempts to provide insights...
Article
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The growing digitalisation of manufacturing products is creating new challenges for the developing and the least developed countries (LDCs). This paper estimates the size of the digital economy to be around $22.5 trillion, which is an underestimate, as it does not include the size of the fast growing remote additive manufacturing market (RAM) or 3-...
Article
Full-text available
The growing digitalisation of manufacturing products is creating new challenges for the developing and the least developed countries (LDCs). This paper estimates the size of the digital economy to be around $22.5 trillion, which is an underestimate, as it does not include the size of the fast growing remote additive manufacturing market (RAM) or 3-...
Article
Full-text available
India has always had much less trade and investment with the United Kingdom (UK) than with the European Union (EU). Nevertheless, trade and investments between India and UK have been rising steadily since 2005.This paper estimates that a free trade agreement (FTA) between India and the UK will increase India–UK trade by 26% per annum. The UK’s expo...
Technical Report
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India’s Foreign Trade Policy of 2015–20 has the broad objective of promoting the ‘Make in India’ initiative. This policy aims at raising India’s participation in world trade, as well as increasing the domestic value-added content in India’s exports and promoting ‘brand India’. One of the ways in which these three objectives can be simultaneously ac...
Article
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The declaration of the World Trade Organization's 10th ministerial conference in Nairobi provides a leeway for "new issues" to enter the multilateral trade agreements Some of these issues have appeared in mega Free Trade Agreements like the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement WTO debated bringing some of these under its ambit in its Singapore minis...
Research
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This paper provides a quantitative assessment of gains and losses to India of joining and not joining TPPA. A detailed analysis is undertaken to estimate the extent of trade diversion that may take place for the member countries which may adversely affect India's exports to these countries. Further, if India becomes a member of TPPA, quantitative a...
Article
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Concerns have been raised in WTO negotiations over the possible distortion of international trade on account of India’s grain stocks and use of India’s stocks for dumping in African markets. The present study attempts to examine this issue by analyzing India’s production, stocking and export patterns over the last decade. The study also analyzes th...
Research
Full-text available
Concerns have been raised in WTO negotiations over the possible distortion of international trade on account of India’s grain stocks and use of India’s stocks for dumping in African markets. The present study attempts to examine this issue by analyzing India’s production, stocking and export patterns over the last decade. The study also analyzes th...
Research
Concerns have been raised in WTO negotiations over the possible distortion of international trade on account of India’s grain stocks and use of India’s stocks for dumping in African markets. The study attempts to examine this issue by analyzing India’s production, stocking and export patterns over the last decade. The study also analyzes the likely...
Article
Full-text available
Regional integration through regional value chains (RVCs) can help sub-Saharan Africa to trigger structural transformation in its economies. The leather and leather products (LLP) industry provides a tremendous opportunity for the region to form RVCs and, in the process, create more value-addition in exports and generate higher employment. In this...
Conference Paper
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The paper critically examines the existing literature on evaluating the 'gains' and 'losses' of entering any trade agreements, especially for developing countries. Most of the studies use Computable General Equilibrium Analysis (CGE) for undertaking such an analysis. Highlighting the limitations of CGE analysis, which mainly emerge from its inconsi...
Article
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Since the early 2000s, India’s manufacturing sector has been showing signs of “hollowing-out” – domestic value addition in total output has been steadily declining, both in the aggregate manufacturing as well as disaggregated manufacturing industries. This has also been accompanied by falling domestic value addition in exports, even in traditional...
Article
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India and China are two Asian emerging economies with the unprecedented growth. In the context of slowdown in North since 2008, many have argued that the emerging economies can be drivers of growth of South. However, not much empirical evidence is available to support this argument. This article estimates the growth linkages between the South Asia...
Article
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This study undertakes impact analysis of remittances on poverty in developing countries at two levels. Firstly, it estimates the impact of remittances on poverty in 77 developing countries; Secondly, separate analyses are undertaken for 29 developing countries and 21 Asian developing counties, which have 5 per cent or more share of remittances in G...
Technical Report
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The main body of the report is organized as follows. Chapter 1 examines trends, patterns and other characteristics of investment in Africa, paying particular attention to similarities and differences across countries. It also provides some facts on the nature of recent growth and the link to economic transformation in Africa. Chapter 2 provides an...
Article
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This paper compares alternative ways of measuring participation of a country in Global Value Chains (GVCs) and estimates distribution of gains among countries in terms of countries’ shares in total value-added created by trade under GVCs. Using the OECDWTO database on Trade in Value Added, this paper shows that 67% of total global value created und...
Article
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Abstract: The paper provides empirical evidence on production and trade distorting effects of Green Box subsidies of the developed countries. It reviews the theoretical and empirical literature which argues that the impacts of Green Box subsidies on production and trade operate via increases in risk taking capacities, land prices, availability of c...
Chapter
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The declining share of the Indian manufacturing sector in GDP and total exports; declining employment elasticities, and rising imports provide sufficient evidence of the hollowing-out of the Indian manufacturing sector. Building strong domestic value chains within the economy is necessary to be able to ‘gainfully’ link into global value chains. Inc...
Article
India and China are two Asian emerging economies, the unprecedented growth of which have led many to argue that in the face of slowdown in growth of the North these emerging economies will act as the new growth drivers for the South. However, not much empirical evidence is available to support this argument. This article estimates the growth linkag...
Patent
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Participation in GVCs for developing and least developed countries can improve their gains if disbursement under AfT focuses on providing training programmes and developing skills of the workforce in the recipient countries. Strengthening services sector in terms of R&D services, banking and financial services, branding, packaging and marketing ser...
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares alternative ways of measuring participation of a country in Global Value Chains (GVCs) and estimates distribution of gains between countries in terms of countries' shares in total value-added created by trade under GVCs. It further shows that conclusions and implications of linking into GVCs can change drastically, especially fo...
Chapter
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Remittances have been an important source of external funding for India. The span of Indian diaspora stretches across the globe in all continents. The Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs has registered the presence of non-resident Indians (NRIs) in 180 of the 183 countries of the world. The numbers have varied from just two in Lebanon to almost a m...
Article
This chapter analyses the impact of trade on employment in the informal sector of India's manufacturing sectors. The analysis is based on data for the year 2005-6, for as large a number as 81,000 enterprises at the 3-digit level of industrial classification, covering 66 industries across 25 states. One of the main findings of the chapter is that fo...
Article
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Services sector in India showed a remarkable resilience to global economic crisis and grew at a rate of 9.3 per cent explaining around 88 per cent of the growth rate in real GDP of India in 2008–09. Exportsof software services helped considerably in providing the necessary resilience. The main objective of the paper is to examine the role of extern...
Article
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Studies have found the impact of foreign direct investments (FDI) on productivity growth to be firm-industry-host economy specific. However, the impact of FDI may differ with the existing market conditions in the economy and also with respect to the source of the FDI. The paper examines the impact of FDI on productivity growth of the Indian industr...
Article
The Indian economy has shown considerable resilience to the global economic crisis by maintaining one of the highest growth rates in the world. The services sector accounted for around 88% of the growth rate in real gross domestic product in 2008–09. To demystify the relatively resilient growth of the services sector in India, this study examines b...
Article
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Indian manufacturing sector witnessed an unprecedented growth in the decade of 2000. Not only did the average annual growth touch 8%, there was a stupendous rise in growth of real exports and real imports of manufactures in this decade. This is also the decade when the average annual growth of real per capita income was the highest (5.6%). In this...
Article
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Trade in services has played a pivotal role in boosting economic growth of India. However, very few studies exist that trace its gender differential impacts. This study makes a pioneering attempt to estimate the impact of exports of services on gender employment in 46 sectors, which include 15 services sectors. Social Accounting Matrix has been use...
Article
The paper empirically estimates the impact of trade on labour productivity and wage inequality between skilled (white collar) and unskilled (blue collar) labour in Indian manufacturing. Analysis is undertaken using dynamic panel data estimations (GMM) for 58 manufacturing industries for the period 1998-99 to 2004-05. The results show that export in...
Article
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The paper undertakes analyses at three levels and the results arrived at different levels indicate that trade liberalization has had a favourable effect on FDI flows in India. It is also found that the regions having greater extent of international trade are able to attract greater amount of FDI. Some evidence is found that point to differential ef...
Article
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This paper is a pioneering attempt in estimating the impact of three major components of liberalisation on labour productivity and wage inequality in the Indian manufacturing sector, namely FDI, trade and technological progress. The study has shown that these components have led to an improvement in labour productivity in the post- reforms period....
Article
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The impact of liberalisation on labour markets is examined by the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI), trade and technology on wages and employment in Indian organised manufacturing industries in the post reforms period [WP No. 153]
Article
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Services sector has emerged as the largest and fastest-growing sector in the world economy in the last two decades, providing more than 60 per cent of global output and, in many countries, an even larger share of employment. Not only has the services sector grown in terms of its share in global output and employment, its share in total trade has al...
Article
As an input into the production process, services are playing an increasingly important role in manufacturing industries the world over. Yet, this has received very little attention in the empirical economic literature on producer behaviour and productivity. This paper estimates the contribution of services to output growth and productivity in Indi...
Article
Full-text available
The study estimates the impact of bilateral investment agreements (BITs) on FDI inflows into fifteen Asian developing countries for the period 1980-81 to 1999- 2000 and examines whether signing an investment agreement with a developed country or a developing country matters. It also examines the impact of regional investment agreements, namely betw...
Article
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The paper highlights the export-diversifying impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) in a developing country. FDI may lead to export diversification in the host country if it positively affects the export intensity of industries that have a low share in world exports. Indirectly, FDI may encourage export diversification through spillover effects:...
Article
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The paper identifies some of the critical issues in India's service-led growth and provides policy insights with respect to them. The critical issues identified are: what explains growth of service sector in India; what are the reasons for lack of corresponding growth in employment in the service sector; can service sector sustain its growth; and w...
Article
The objective of this paper is to analyse the wage-productivity relationship in organised manufacturing industry in India. This is done in terms of two investigations. First, how far gains in labour productivity get translated into higher wages is assessed. Secondly, how state-specific and industry-specific factors influence wage determination is i...
Chapter
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India assumed critical importance in the context of the economic reforms process initiated in the 1990s. India’s FDI policy, as formulated under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (1973) had been one of the most restrictive in the world; however, an important measure undertaken in the reform process was a major r...
Article
Full-text available
As an input into the production process, services are playing an increasingly important role in manufacturing industries the world over. Yet, this has received very little attention in the empirical economic literature on producer behaviour and productivity. This paper estimates the contribution of services to output growth and productivity in Indi...
Article
This paper examines the impact of Japanese and US foreign direct investments (FDI) on total factor productivity growth of firms in the Indian automobile, electrical and chemical industries in the post-reforms period. The results show that Japanese affiliation has a significant positive impact on productivity growth in a firm while the impact of US...
Article
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The last two decades have witnessed an extensive growth in foreign direct investment (FDI) flows to developing countries. This has been accompanied by an increase in competition amongst the developing countries to attract FDI, resulting in higher investment incentives offered by the host governments and removal of restrictions on operations of fore...
Article
Full-text available
The paper analyzes the effect of ownership on efficiency of engineering firms in India in the 1990s, a decade of major economic reforms. Technical efficiency of firms, estimated with help of a stochastic frontier production function, is considered for the analysis. A comparison of technical efficiency is made among three groups of firms in Indian e...
Article
Full-text available
The paper highlights the export-diversifying impact of FDI in a developing country. FDI from a particular source may lead to export diversification of developing countries if it positively affects the export-intensity of the non-traditional export sector. Indirectly, FDI may encourage export diversification by spillover effects on the exportintensi...
Article
Full-text available
The paper examines the impact of total debts, short-term debts and long-term debts on the output, gross investments and technology-upgrading strategies of the firms in certain oligopolistic industries in India. We first develop a simple theoretical model to motivate the analysis. The empirical analysis shows that debt as a whole may have a negative...
Article
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FDI comes from different sources, with different levels of technology, different modes of transferring it and into different industries. The spillover effects of FDI may therefore differ. The paper attempts to study empirically the spillover effects of Japanese and U.S. FDI on the total factor productivity growth of the Indian firms, both at the fi...
Article
Book Review of Supapol, Atipol Bhanich (ed.), Transnational Corporations and Backward Linkages in Asian Electronics Industries, Monograph No.5, United Nations, New York, 1995, pp. 282
Article
Book Review of Williams, John C, Competitive Business Strategies of Asian Transnational Corporations, Monograph NO.7, United Nations, New York, 1997, pp. vi +88, price not stated

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