Rashid U Sumaila

Rashid U Sumaila
University of British Columbia - Vancouver | UBC · Institute for the Oceans and Fisheries

PhD (Economics)

About

252
Publications
150,333
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18,041
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1995 - present
University of British Columbia - Vancouver
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (252)
Article
Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were once a thriving species in southern British Columbia, acting as a source of food, livelihood, and recreation. Research on the survival and status of coho salmon in British Columbia has been critical since an unprecedented moratorium on Interior Fraser River stocks was put in place in 1998, leading to its desi...
Article
Full-text available
Fisheries subsidies have attracted considerable attention worldwide since the 1990s. The World Trade Organization (WTO), among others, started to strengthen its disciplines in fisheries subsidies in 2001. The academic study of fisheries subsidies can play a key role in contributing to policy-making processes such as WTO negotiations by providing mo...
Article
This paper investigates the economic impact of future global change on fishing dependent inhabitants of the Tonle Sap floodplain in Cambodia. We compare the net income from individuals’ current livelihoods to that derived from reallocating their livelihood activities under 4 different scenarios depicting future change. Respondents generally chose t...
Article
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The number of recreational fishing licenses in Brazil has been increasing exponentially since 2000, but a drop occurred in 2014, probably associated to an economic crisis. On average, only 20% of the licenses issued in 2011-2014 were for anglers fishing in marine waters. From those, 20% were type A licenses (shore-based) and the remainder were t...
Chapter
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Economically viable small-scale fisheries are likely much better prepared to face global changes in climate, technology, and markets. ‘Economic viability’ is often mistakenly equated with financial viability, with profitability as the sole goal. However, in complex and dynamic systems, such as small-scale fisheries, social, ecological, and governan...
Article
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Marine fisheries are in crisis, requiring twice the fishing effort of the 1950s to catch the same quantity of fish, and with many fleets operating beyond economic or ecological sustainability. A possible consequence of diminishing returns in this race to fish is serious labour abuses, including modern slavery, which exploit vulnerable workers to re...
Article
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This study was carried out to estimate total catches extracted from the offshore areas of northeastern Brazil by recreational fishers from offshore operations, daily activities, and fishing competitions. It also aimed at providing a first estimate of expenditure by anglers in the region. The basis for this analysis was the data supplied by the only...
Article
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Climate change increases exposure and bioaccumulation of pollutants in marine organisms, posing substantial ecophysiological and ecotoxicological risks. Here, we applied a trophodynamic ecosystem model to examine the bioaccumulation of organic mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a Northeastern Pacific marine food web under climat...
Article
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While the ecological impacts of fishing the waters beyond national jurisdiction (the “high seas”) have been widely studied, the economic rationale is more difficult to ascertain because of scarce data on the costs and revenues of the fleets that fish there. Newly compiled satellite data and machine learning now allow us to track individual fishing...
Article
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Fisheries sustainability is recognized to have four pillars: ecological, economic, social (including cultural) and institutional (or governance). Although international agreements, and legislation in many jurisdictions, call for implementation of all four pillars of sustainability, the social, economic and institutional aspects (i.e., the “human di...
Article
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An interdisciplinary team of academics and representatives of fishing fleets and government collaborated to study the emerging requirements for sustainability in Canada’s fisheries. Fisheries assessment and management has focused on biological productivity with insufficient consideration of social (including cultural), economic, and institutional (...
Article
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The United Nations’ target for global ocean protection is 10% of the ocean in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) by 2020. There has been remarkable progress in the last decade, and some organizations claim that 7% of the ocean is already protected and that we will exceed the 10% target by 2020. However, currently only 3.6% of the ocean is in implemented...
Article
Access, defined as the ability to use and benefit from available marine resources or areas of the ocean or coast, is important for the well-being and sustainability of coastal communities. In Canada, access to marine resources and ocean spaces is a significant issue for many coastal and Indigenous communities due to intensifying activity and compet...
Article
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Ex-vessel fish prices are essential for comprehensive fisheries management and socioeconomic analyses for fisheries science. In this paper, we reconstructed a global ex-vessel price database with the following areas of improvement: (1) compiling reported prices explicitly listed as “for reduction to fishmeal and fish oil” to estimate prices separat...
Article
This article presents the first bottom-up analysis of the proportion of global marine fisheries subsidies to small-scale fisheries (SSF). Using existing data, the reported national subsidy amounts are split into the fraction that goes to small- and large-scale fishing sectors. Results reveal a major imbalance in subsidy distribution, with SSF recei...
Article
The world's oceans are highly impacted by climate change and other human pressures, with significant implications for marine ecosystems and the livelihoods that they support. Adaptation for both natural and human systems is increasingly important as a coping strategy due to the rate and scale of ongoing and potential future change. Here, we conduct...
Article
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Strong decreases in greenhouse gas emissions are required to meet the reduction trajectory resolved within the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, even these decreases will not avert serious stress and damage to life on Earth, and additional steps are needed to boost the resilience of ecosystems, safeguard their wildlife, and protect their capacity to s...
Research
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In the Salish Sea, pollution represents an anthropogenic pressure which would clearly benefit from a methodical tracking of contaminant types, levels and trends in the environment and in valued biota. A surprising lack of regimented, ecosystem-based pollution monitoring efforts presently constrains the ability to track trends in priority pollutants...
Article
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There is a critical need to develop effective strategies for the long-term sustainability of Canada’s oceans. However, this is challenged by uncertainty over future impacts of global environmental and socioeconomic change on marine ecosystems, and how coastal communities will respond to these changes. Scenario analysis can address this uncertainty...
Article
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Over the past two decades, there has been a proliferation of consumer-facing, market-based initiatives for marine conservation—most notably in seafood eco-labels and sustainability certifications. Yet, despite the growing recognition of these initiatives by consumers and retailers in North America and Europe and the (subsequent) acceptance of their...
Article
With the rapid growth of aquaculture, some negative factors of extensive monoculture accumulated, causing integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) to draw increasing attention worldwide for its ecological and economic advantages. However, the development of IMTA in open water systems may not go as smoothly as anticipated—at least in Weihai, Chin...
Article
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The objective of this study is to assess the performance of fishery buybacks so as to determine the conditions under which positive socio-economic outcomes can occur during the process of fisheries adjustments. We do this by conducting a desk top review and supplementing the literature with targeted interviews with experts who have direct knowledge...
Chapter
Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing may, in some cases, be the instigating activity that eventually leads to occurrences of seafood fraud. In efforts to conceal illegally caught fish and to mislead authorities, fishers or supply chain middlemen may mislabel catches or shipments of seafood products, indicating false species identities...
Article
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We investigate how high seas closure will affect the availability of commonly consumed food fish in 46 fish reliant, and/or low income countries. Domestic consumption of straddling fish species (fish that would be affected by high seas closure) occurred in 54% of the assessed countries. The majority (70%) of countries were projected to experience n...
Data
Projected change in catch and landed value for Least Developed Countries (LDCs) under 5 scenarios of straddling taxa catch increase following high seas closure. LDCs are listed in order of their dependence on fish as a source of animal protein. Source: Sumaila et al. (2015). (DOCX)
Data
High Fish Dependent Countries (HFDCs) and projected percentage change in catch and landed value under 5 scenarios of straddling taxa catch increase following high seas closure Source: Sumaila et al. (2015). (DOCX)
Data
Average projected % change in catch relative to the status quo for countries which use and do not use straddling taxa domestically, according to country groups (Least Developed Countries (LDCs), High Fish Dependent Countries (HFDCs), and High Fish Dependent LDCs (HFDLDCs)), under 5 scenarios of catch gains following high seas closure. Data source:...
Article
Full-text available
Only 2.1% of the ocean is in actively managed marine protected areas (MPAs). Achieving the United Nations' target of 10% of the ocean protected by 2020 will require an aggressively implemented mix of large MPAs in remote areas, and small MPAs in inhabited coastal areas. Replication of small no-take MPAs (marine reserves) in coastal areas at the glo...
Article
Governance of South China Sea (SCS) fisheries remains weak despite acknowledgement of their widespread overexploitation for the past few decades. This review incorporates unreported fish catches to provide an improved baseline of the current status and societal contribution of SCS marine fisheries, so that the socio-economic and ecological conseque...
Article
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Oceanic ecosystem services support a range of human benefits, and Canada has extensive research networks producing growing data sets. We present a first effort to compile, link, and harmonize available information to provide new perspectives on the status of Canadian ocean ecosystems and corresponding research. The metadata database currently inclu...
Article
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Restricting or eliminating access to insurance for illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing vessels could alter the associated balance of costs and benefits in favor of reducing IUU fishing activity. We present a simplified conceptual economic model for IUU fishing that demonstrates how having marine insurance is financially beneficial, t...
Article
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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) states that climate change and ocean acidification are altering the oceans at a rate that is unprecedented compared with the recent past, leading to multifaceted impacts on marine ecosystems, associated goods and services, and human societies. AR5 underlined key unce...
Article
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West African recreational fisheries, previously overlooked, are often assumed to be insignificant, yet they are increasingly present on social media given anglers’ tendencies to document their experiences. It is important to catch the trend early on as recreational fisheries develop in order to support their sustainable development and to make the...
Article
The aim of this paper is to provide an updated estimate of global fisheries subsidies. It builds on earlier estimates and methodologies to re-estimate and discuss the various types of subsidies provided by governments around the world. The results suggests that total subsidies were about USD 35 billion in 2009 dollars, which is close to the earlier...
Article
This paper surveys the current state and major trends in global fisheries; the environmental and social dimensions of fisheries; and explains how the international community has tried to meet the policy challenges associated with oceans and fisheries. The ocean and the freshwater ecosystems of the world make significant contributions to people's we...
Article
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Subsidies can directly support unsustainable fishing practices that harm both ecosystems and long-term social and economic benefits. Global fishery subsidies are substantial, yet their impacts on fishing dynamics are specific to given regions or fisheries at local scales. Subsidies thus have markedly different effects when applied to artisanal vers...
Article
We trace the contributions of Colin Clark from his first book and articles published in the mid-1970s to date and link them to the six papers contained in this Special Issue and the larger fisheries economics literature. We highlight the impacts of Clark’s contributions on the theory, empirical, policy and management of fisheries, ranging from part...
Article
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Fishing takes place in the high seas and Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of maritime countries. Closing the former to fishing has recently been proposed in the literature and is currently an issue of debate in various international fora. We determine the degree of overlap between fish caught in these two areas of the ocean, examine how global catch...
Data
Winners and losers in a world where the high seas is closed to fishing
Chapter
Africa’s marine fisheries and oceans have contributed significantly to the livelihood of the continent’s coastal communities for centuries. The shell middens found off the coast of Eritrea in the Red Sea are the oldest record of human consumption of sea food (Walter et al., 2000; Mayer and Beyin, 2009). The Fantis of Ghana have been fishing along t...
Article
Climate change, ocean acidification (OA) and the subsequent changes in marine productivity may affect fisheries and eventually the whole economy in the Arctic. We analysed how changes in climate and ocean pH under scenarios of anthropogenic CO2 emissions are likely to affect the economics of marine fisheries in the Arctic. We applied a Dynamic Bioc...
Article
Full-text available
Using a recently developed database of fisheries subsidies for 148 maritime countries spanning 1989 to the present, total fisheries subsidies for the year 2003 is computed. A key feature of our estimation approach is that it explicitly deals with missing data from official sources, and includes estimates of subsidies to developing country fisheries...
Article
In 2010, the international community, under the auspices of the Convention on Biological Diversity, agreed on 20 biodiversity-related “Aichi Targets” to be achieved within a decade. We provide a comprehensive mid-term assessment of progress toward these global targets using 55 indicator data sets. We projected indicator trends to 2020 using an adap...
Article
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Within the global oil shipping sector, flag states that inadequately fulfil obligations to effectively exert jurisdiction over vessels flying their flags have been criticized for facilitating the existence of substandard ships. This paper examines the topic of flag-use and its potential association with oil spill risk. Flags most associated with ac...
Article
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Current trajectories of global change may lead to regime shifts at regional scales, driving coupled human–environment systems to highly degraded states in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human well-being. For business-as-usual socioeconomic development pathways, regime shifts are projected to occur within the next several decades, to...
Article
Individuals with high discount rates are likely not partial to conservation because they are unwilling to sacrifice short term benefits for potentially higher gains in the future. Many reef fisheries worldwide are open access, and fishers under open access systems are theorized to discount the future at an infinite rate. In contrast, fishers in a c...
Article
Tuna fisheries in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean are among the most valuable resources in the region. These fisheries, worth an estimated $4.1 billion each year, play a pivotal role in supporting incomes and development goals in the region. However, due to the twin, and potentially inter-related effects of harmful fishing practices such as t...
Article
The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to...
Article
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Sustainable provision of seafood from wild-capture fisheries and mariculture is a fundamental component of healthy marine ecosystems and a major component of the Ocean Health Index. Here we critically review the food provision model of the Ocean Health Index, and explore the implications of knowledge gaps, scale of analysis, choice of reference poi...
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The announcement of plans for exploratory oil drilling at a number of offshore sites in Belize raised concerns about the risks associated with drilling, particularly given the socio-economic importance of the marine ecosystem. The current economic value of fisheries and marine ecotourism is estimated, along with the potential revenue from offshore...
Article
We study the effects of providing subsidies to the fisheries in small island developing states (SIDS), where fisheries are important to both the food security and livelihoods of the populations. By analyzing data on current and potential catch and computing the potential catch losses from the Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of SIDS, we find that, c...
Article
Allocation schemes are one way to combat the tragedy of the commons, the situation whereby individual users of a shared resource put their own interests above the collective good. In the case of shared fisheries, developing equitable and transparent allocation schemes can help to ensure stable cooperative management agreements, which in turn will f...
Article
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Amid declining shark populations because of overfishing, a burgeoning shark watching industry, already well established in some locations, generates benefits from shark protection. We compile reported economic benefits at shark watching locations and use a meta-analytical approach to estimate benefits at sites without available data. Results sugges...