Raphaël Cornette

Raphaël Cornette
Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle · Origines et Évolution

Dr. HDR

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244
Publications
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2,373
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Publications

Publications (244)
Article
Full-text available
Untangling the factors of morphological evolution has long held a central role in the study of evolutionary biology. Extant speciose clades that have only recently diverged are ideal study subjects, as they allow the examination of rapid morphological variation in a phylogenetic context, providing insights into a clade’s evolution. Here, we focus o...
Article
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The introduction of European red foxes in Australia in the late mid-nineteenth century has resulted in the spread of this invasive species across the continent. The morphological and functional divergence of this relatively recently introduced population has not been explored to date, yet it may provide unique insights into adaptability of this wid...
Article
Full-text available
The acquisition of habitual bipedal locomotion, which resulted in numerous modifications of the skeleton was a crucial step in hominid evolution. However, our understanding of the inherited skeletal modifications versus those acquired while learning to walk remains limited. We here present data derived from X-rays and CT scans of quadrupedal adult...
Article
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Dogs are among the most variable species today, but little is known about the morphological variability in the early phases of their history. The Neolithic transition to farming may have resulted in an early morphological diversification as a result of changes in the anthropic environment or intentional selection on specific morphologies. Here, we...
Article
Intentional skull deformations have been practiced by every human population, since the prehistoric times until the XXth century. In Europe, they were specifically prevalent in the region of Toulouse, France. The soft-tissue modifications due to such practices are not well characterized in the literature due to the rarity of photographic data. Most...
Article
Beaks are among the few hard parts of coleoid cephalopods and are informative for species identification. Although mandible shape has been shown to be adaptive in many vertebrate taxa, it has been suggested that the shape of coleoid beaks does not bear any ecological signal. Yet, previous studies only explored beak shape in 2D and none have provide...
Article
Full-text available
Background During reach-to-grasp movements, the human hand is preshaped depending on the properties of the object. Preshaping may result from learning, morphology, or motor control variability and can confer a selective advantage on that individual or species. This preshaping ability is known in several mammals ( i.e., primates, carnivores and rode...
Article
Weight support is a strong functional constraint modelling limb bones in heavy quadrupeds. However, the complex relations between bone shape, mass, size and body proportions have been poorly explored. Rhinocerotoidea is one of the groups showing the highest body mass reached by terrestrial mammals through time. Here, we explore the evolutionary var...
Article
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In this study, we suggest a method adapted to the retrodeformation of asymmetrical objects – such as limb bones – by quantitatively estimating the eff ectiveness of the Th in-Plate Splines (TPS) interpolation function as a retrodeformation tool. To do so, taphonomic deformations were fi rst simulated on a single horse femur. Th e original bone was...
Article
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Sauropodomorph dinosaurs include the largest terrestrial animals that ever lived on Earth. The early representatives of this clade were, however, relatively small and partially to totally bipedal, conversely to the gigantic and quadrupedal sauropods. Although the sauropod bauplan is well defined, notably by the acquisition of columnar limbs, the ev...
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Madagascar is a large island to the south-east of Africa and in many ways continental in size and ecological complexity. Here we aim to define how skull morphology of an endemic and monophyletic clade of rodents (sub-family Nesomyinae), that show considerable morphological variation, have evolved and how their disparity is characterized in context...
Preprint
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To reconstruct the paleoenvironmental and chronological context of archaeological/paleontological sites is a key step to understand the evolutionary history of past organisms. Commonly used method to infer paleoenvironments rely on varied proxies such as faunal assemblages and isotopes. However, those proxies often show some inconsistencies. Regard...
Article
In quadrupeds, limb bones are strongly affected by functional constraints linked to weight support, but few studies have addressed the complementary effects of mass, size and body proportions on limb bone shape. During their history, Rhinocerotoidea have displayed a great diversity of body masses and relative size and proportions of limb bones, fro...
Article
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Lateralization of hand use in primates has been extensively studied in a variety of contexts, and starts to be investigated in other species and organs in order to understand the evolution of the laterality according to different tasks. In elephants, the orientation of the movements of the trunk has been observed mainly in feeding and social contex...
Article
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A new species of mole, Talpa aquitania Nicolas, Martínez-Vargas & Hugot, 2017, was recently described from France. Based on the genetic identification of 270 individuals it was hypothesized that T. aquitania and T. europaea Linnaeus, 1758 are allopatric, being distributed on opposite sides of the Loire River, with the exception of a small area of s...
Article
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Environmental properties, and the behavioral habits of species impact sensory cues available for foraging, predator avoidance and inter/intraspecific communication. Consequently, relationships have been discovered between the sensory ecology and brain morphology in many groups of vertebrates. However, these types of studies have remained scare on s...
Article
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Estimating the motion between two bones is crucial for understanding their biomechanical function. The vertebral column is particularly challenging because the vertebrae articulate at more than one surface. This paper proposes a method to estimate 3D motion between two avian vertebrae, by bones surface reconstruction and contact modeling. The neck...
Presentation
Full-text available
In quadrupeds, the convergent evolutionary trend towards an increase of body mass through time involves changes in constraints linked to weight support. Limb bones are assumed to be particularly modified in heavy quadrupeds, but few studies tried to untangle the complementary effects of mass, size and body proportions on their shape. The superfamil...
Article
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Acoustic communication is well-known in insects since the Mesozoic, but earlier evidence of this behavior is rare. Titanoptera, an ‘orthopteroid’ Permian-Triassic order, is one of the few candidates for Paleozoic intersex calling interactions: some specimens had highly specialized broadened zones on the forewings, which are currently considered—des...
Article
The vertebrate skeleton is composed of articulated bones. Most of the articulations are classically described using mechanical joints, except the intervertebral joint. The aim of this study was to identify a joint model with the same mechanical features as the cervical joints. On the neck vertebrae, six articular surfaces participate in the joint:...
Article
Human-induced environmental changes have increased rapidly during the Holocene and have reached alarming levels today. Consequently, it is crucial to better understand the impact of humans and climate on the faunas and floras through time. Understanding the direct and underlying effect of past human activity not only contributes to improving our kn...
Article
Performance traits implicated in feeding interact directly with the environment and are consequently relevant ecological indicators. However, they have rarely been used to better understand palaeoenvironmental variation. Here, we evaluate the usefulness of a performance (i.e. functional) trait, estimated bite force, in reconstructing the palaeoecol...
Article
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• Technical advances in 3D imaging have contributed to quantifying and understanding biological variability and complexity. However, small, dry‐sensitive objects are not easy to reconstruct using common and easily available techniques such as photogrammetry, surface scanning, or micro‐CT scanning. Here, we use cephalopod beaks as an example as thei...
Article
Biomimetics is an opportunity for the development of energy efficient building systems. Several biomimetic building skins (Bio-BS) have been built over the past decade, however few addressed multi-regulation although the biological systems they are inspired by have multi-functional properties. Recent studies have suggested that despite numerous too...
Article
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The process of animal domestication is a key evolutionary transition in human history, within which the control of wild populations is considered a crucial first step. Yet, phenotypic changes associated with animal captivity remain challenging to document. Here, we investigated the craniofacial changes in wild boar (Sus scrofa) associated with a li...
Article
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In the course of evolution, pecorans (i.e. higher ruminants) developed a remarkable diversity of osseous cranial appendages, collectively referred to as 'headgear', which likely share the same origin and genetic basis. However, the nature and function of the genetic determinants underlying their number and position remain elusive. Jacob and other r...
Article
The jaw system in canids is essential for defence and prey acquisition. However, how it varies in wild species in comparison with domestic species remains poorly understood, yet is of interest in terms of understanding the impact of artificial selection. Here, we explored the variability and interrelationships between the upper and lower jaws, musc...
Article
Objectives: In many primates, the greater proportion of climbing and suspensory behaviors in the juvenile repertoire likely necessitates good grasping capacities. Here, we tested whether very young individuals show near‐maximal levels of grasping strength, and whether such an early onset of grasping performance could be explained by ontogenetic var...
Article
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The aardvark is the last living Tubulidentata, an order of afrotherian mammals. Afrotheria is supported strongly by molecular analyses, yet sparingly by morphological characters. Moreover, the biology of the aardvark remains incompletely known. The inner ear, and its ontogeny in particular, has not been studied in details yet, though it bears key e...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have attested to the consequences of the recent and intense artificial selection on the morphological variability of the cranium and mandible in domestic animals. However, the functional relations of the cranium with other constituents of the masticatory apparatus (the mandibles and the adductor muscles) have rarely been explored. Prev...
Article
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Much research has debated the technological abilities of Neanderthals relative to those of early modern humans, with a particular focus on subtle differences in thumb morphology and how this may reflect differences in manipulative behaviors in these two species. Here, we provide a novel perspective on this debate through a 3D geometric morphometric...
Article
Limb long bones are essential to an animal's locomotion, and are thus expected to be heavily influenced by factors such as mass or habitat. Because they are often the only organs preserved in the fossil record, understanding their adaptive trends is key to reconstructing the paleobiology of fossil taxa. In this regard, the Bovidae has always been a...
Conference Paper
Domestication effects on animal phenotype combine inherited genetic changes and individual plastic responses to environmental changes in the course of its development. The genetic and developmental background of the domestication syndromes defined by Darwin have been thoroughly explored. However, the plastic responses to the environmental factors o...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the course of evolution, pecorans (i.e. higher ruminants) developed a remarkable diversity of osseous cranial appendages, collectively referred to as ‘headgear’, which likely share the same origin and genetic basis. However, the nature and function of the genetic determinants underlying their number and position remain elusive. Jacob and other r...
Article
Full-text available
The Proboscideans, an order of mammals including elephants, are the largest of the Earth lands animals. One probable consequence of the rapid increase of their body size is the development of the trunk, a multitask highly sensitive organ used in a large repertoire of behaviours. The absence of bones in the trunk allows a substantial degree of freed...
Article
Syndromic craniosynostoses are defined by the premature fusion of one or more cranial and facial sutures, leading to skull vault deformation, and midfacial retrusion. More recently, mandibular shape modifications have been described in FGFR-related craniosynostoses, which represent almost 75 % of the syndromic craniosynostoses. Here, further charac...
Article
Full-text available
Sauropodomorph dinosaurs constitute a well-studied clade of dinosaurs, notably because of the acquisition of gigantism within this group. The genus Plateosaurus is one of the best-known sauropodomorphs, with numerous remains from various localities. Its tumultuous taxonomic history suggests the relevance of addressing its intrageneric shape variabi...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic diversity, or disparity, can be explained by simple genetic drift or, if functional constraints are strong, by selection for ecologically relevant phenotypes. We here studied phenotypic disparity in head shape in aquatic snakes. We investigated whether conflicting selective pressures related to different functions have driven shape diver...
Article
Previous studies based on two-dimensional methods have suggested that the great morphological variability of cranial shape in domestic dogs has impacted bite performance. Here we use a three-dimensional biomechanical model based on dissection data to estimate the bite force of 47 dogs of various breeds at several bite points and gape angles. In viv...
Article
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The neck connects the head and the trunk and is the key structure allowing all movements of the head. The neck morphology of birds is the most variable among living tetrapods, including significant differences in the number and shape of the cervical vertebrae. Despite these differences, according to the literature, three morphofunctional regions (i...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the considerable scientific interest in the variability and patterns of integration in the dog skull, how these patterns impact or are driven by function remains largely unexplored. Since the mandible is directly involved in mastication, it can be expected to be directly related to the development of the adductor and abductor muscles. Here,...
Article
Full-text available
The appendicular skeleton of tetrapods is a particularly integrated structure due to the shared developmental origin or similar functional constraints exerted on its elements. Among these constraints, body mass is considered strongly to influence its integration but its effect on shape covariation has rarely been addressed in mammals, especially in...
Article
Currently, approximately 90% of the human population is right-handed. This handedness is due to the later-alization of the cerebral hemispheres and is controlled by brain areas involved in complex motor tasks such as making stone tools or in language. In addition to describing the evolution of laterality in humans, identifying hand preference in fo...
Article
Full-text available
Birds, and especially raptors, are believed to forage mainly using visual cues. Indeed, raptors (scavengers and predators) have the highest visual acuity known to date. However, scavengers and predators differ in their visual systems such as in their foveal configuration. While the function of the foveal shape remains unknown, individual variation...
Article
Full-text available
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented with the effect of mobility reduction on the ske...
Article
Full-text available
Deciphering the plastic (non-heritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archaeological record is challenging. We hypothesized that changes in locomotor behaviour in a wild ungulate due to mobility control could be quantified in the bone anatomy. To test this, we experimented with the effect of mobility reduction on the ske...
Article
Many tetrapod lineages show extreme increases in body mass in their evolutionary history, associated with important osteological changes. The ankle joint, essential for foot movement, is assumed to be particularly affected in this regard. We investigated the morphological adaptations of the astragalus and the calcaneus in Rhinocerotidae, and analys...
Article
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity has been repeatedly suggested to facilitate adaptation to new environmental conditions, as in invasions. Here, we investigate this possibility by focusing on the worldwide invasion of Drosophila suzukii: an invasive species that has rapidly colonized all continents over the last decade. This species is characterized by a highl...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic diversity, or disparity, can be explained by simple genetic drift or, if functional constraints are strong, by selection for ecologically relevant phenotypes. We here studied phenotypic disparity in head shape in aquatic snakes. We investigated whether conflicting selective pressures related to different functions have driven shape diver...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Hybridization has been widely practiced in plant and animal breeding as a means to enhance the quality and fitness of the organisms. In domestic equids, this hybrid vigor takes the form of improved physical and physiological characteristics, notably for strength or endurance. Because the offspring of horse and donkey is generally steri...
Preprint
Full-text available
Phenotypic plasticity has been repeatedly suggested to facilitate adaptation to new environmental conditions, as in invasions. Here we investigate this possibility by focusing on the worldwide invasion of Drosophila suzukii: an invasive species that has rapidly colonized all continents over the last decade. This species is characterized by a highly...
Article
Full-text available
Crested vertebrates are known from a wide variety of modern and fossil taxa, however, the actual formation and function of the crest is still debatable. Among modern birds, the globally distributed guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) is characterized by having a cranial bony crest (overlain by keratin), but surprisingly little is known about its develop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La présente étude porte sur l’assemblage en quartzite du premier Acheuléen marocain (industrie lithique) du site de la carrière Thomas I, unité L, à Casablanca (~ 1,0 Ma). Cet assemblage est riche en percuteurs portant des marques de coups localisées à leurs extrémités qui font suite à leur utilisation active pour la taille de roches dures. Notre h...
Article
Felids show remarkable phenotypic similarities and are conservative in behavioral and ecological traits. In contrast, they display a large range in body mass from around 1kg to more than 300kg. Body size and locomotory specializations correlate to skull, limb and vertebral skeleton morphology. With an increase in body mass, felids prey selection sw...
Article
Full-text available
Among amniotes, numerous lineages are subject to an evolutionary trend toward body mass and size increases. Large terrestrial species may face important constraints linked to weight bearing, and the limb segments are particularly affected by such constraints due to their role in body support and locomotion. Such groups showing important limb modifi...
Article
Full-text available
Flying insects frequently experience wing damage during their life. Such irreversible alterations of wing shape affect flight performance and ultimately fitness. Insects have been shown to compensate for wing damage through various behavioural adjustments, but the importance of damage location over the wings has been scarcely studied. Using natural...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many amniote lineages display convergent evolution towards high body mass through time, which strongly impact (among others) the appendicular skeleton. Species displaying adaptations to sustain a high body mass are said to be graviportal, a term defined alternately by the relative length of limb segments, osteological features, body mass, posture o...
Article
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Despite a diversity of about 10 000 extant species, the sophisticated avian ‘body plan’ has not much changed once it was achieved around 160 Ma after the origin of powered flight. All birds are bipedal having wings, a rigid trunk, a short and ossified tail, a three-segmented leg and digitigrade feet. The avian neck, however, has always been regarde...