Raphael R. Bruno

Raphael R. Bruno
Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf | UKD · Klinik für Kardiologie, Pneumologie und Angiologie

MD

About

76
Publications
7,719
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399
Citations
Introduction
Raphael R. Bruno currently works at the Klinik für Kardiologie, Pneumologie und Angiologie, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf. Raphael does research in Cardiology, Intensive Care Medicine, and Emergency Medicine. His main research topics are the microcirculation in critically ill patients, intensive care medicine in older patients and the value of virtual reality in acute cardiovascular care.
Additional affiliations
July 2018 - April 2019
Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf
Position
  • Medical Doctor
August 2011 - April 2013
University of Wuerzburg
Position
  • Researcher

Publications

Publications (76)
Article
Background Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) frequently suffer from anemia, but its role in patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is unclear. This analysis evaluates the prognostic relevance of different degrees of anemia and their specific impact on disease severity and the outcome in critically ill ACS patients. Methods The...
Article
Cardiogenic shock is a clinical syndrome of impaired tissue perfusion caused by primary cardiac dysfunction and inadequate cardiac output. It represents one of the most lethal clinical conditions in intensive care medicine with mortality >40%. Management of different clinical presentations of cardiogenic shock includes guidance of cardiac preload,...
Article
Background: Heart transplant (HTx) recipients are at increased risk of developing infections or malignancies due to immunosuppressive medication. Thus, regular aftercare in those patients is of utmost importance. The extent of collateral damage due to the COVID-19 pandemic (delayed or canceled clinical visits and diagnostics) on high-risk patients...
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Aim: The quality of the donor heart is known to have a crucial effect on outcome after heart transplantation (HTx). Although leading to brain death in the end, the initial cause of death of the donor and its potential influences on organ quality are heterogeneous. However, it is still controversial to which extent the donor cause of death is assoc...
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Background: Previous studies reported regional differences in end-of-life care (EoLC) for critically ill patients in Europe. Objectives: The purpose of this post-hoc analysis of the prospective multi-centre COVIP study was to investigate variations in EoLC practices among older patients in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019...
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Aims: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major risk factor for mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This prospective international multicentre study investigates the role of pre-existing CHF on clinical outcomes of critically ill old (≥70 years) intensive care patients with COVID-19. Methods and results: Patients with pre-existing CHF...
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Purpose: Critically ill old intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffering from Sars-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. This post hoc analysis investigates the association of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) with the outcome in this vulnerable patient group. Methods: The COVIP study is a prospective internatio...
Article
Background: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-centred outcome in patients surviving ICU admission for COVID-19. It is currently not clear which domains of the HRQoL are most affected. Objective: to quantify HRQoL in order to identify areas of interventions. Design: prospective observation study. Setting: admissio...
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Background: health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important patient-centred outcome in patients surviving ICU admission for COVID-19. It is currently not clear which domains of the HRQoL are most affected. Objective: to quantify HRQoL in order to identify areas of interventions. Design: prospective observation study. Setting: admissions to E...
Article
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate machine-learning based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID...
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions re...
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Background Intensive care unit (ICU) patients age 90 years or older represent a growing subgroup and place a huge financial burden on health care resources despite the benefit being unclear. This leads to ethical problems. The present investigation assessed the differences in outcome between nonagenarian and octogenarian ICU patients. Methods We i...
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Background Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and...
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Objectives: Heart transplantation after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation remains challenging. It is still unclear whether its support duration impacts the outcome after transplantation. Methods: All patients undergoing heart transplantation between 2010 and 2021 at a single department after previous left ventricular assistance...
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Adequate immune response to vaccination remains a challenge in patients after solid organ transplantation. We report a case of a 61-year-old male patient who received a left ventricular assist device as a bridge to transplant therapy. Three months before transplantation, he suffered mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and was successfully discharged thereaft...
Article
Applications of virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) assist both health care providers and patients in cardiovascular education, complementing traditional learning methods. Interventionalists have successfully used VR to plan difficult procedures and AR to facilitate complex interventions. VR/AR has already been used to treat patients, d...
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Full-text available
Background: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe. Methods: This was a prospective European observational study (the COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to Decem...
Article
PURPOSECritically ill elderly patients who suffer from Sars-CoV-2 disease are at high risk for organ failure. The modified MELD-XI score has not been evaluated for outcome prediction in these most vulnerable patients.METHODS The Corona Virus disease (COVID19) in Very Elderly Intensive Care Patients study (COVIP, NCT04321265) prospectively recruited...
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Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP st...
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Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Preprint
BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate machine learning–based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID-19 pat...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Article
Purpose: Old (>64 years) and very old (>79 years) intensive care patients with sepsis have a high mortality. In the very old, the value of critical care has been questioned. We aimed to compare the mortality, rates of organ support, and the length of stay in old vs. very old patients with sepsis and septic shock in intensive care. Methods: This ana...
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Introduction and objectives Patients awaiting heart transplantation (HTx) are at increased risk developing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients supported by a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) face additional risks due to coagulopathies during COVID-19. Following HTx, elevated risk factors for severe COVID-19 persist due to chro...
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Background: The Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is frequently used to measure frailty in critically ill adults. There is wide variation in the approach to analysing the relationship between the CFS score and mortality after admission to the ICU. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of modelling approach on the association between the CFS score...
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Objectives In Europe, there is a distinction between two different healthcare organisation systems, the tax-based healthcare system (THS) and the social health insurance system (SHI). Our aim was to investigate whether the characteristics, treatment and mortality of older, critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) differed between TH...
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Background Mechanical Ventilation (MV) is a complex and central treatment process in the care of critically ill patients. It influences acid–base balance and can also cause prognostically relevant biotrauma by generating forces and liberating reactive oxygen species, negatively affecting outcomes. In this work we evaluate the use of a Recurrent Neu...
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Antibody‐mediated graft rejection caused by donor‐specific antibodies (DSA‐MR) remains a serious problem after heart transplantation (HTx). IgM‐enriched human intravenous immunoglobulin (IGM‐IVIG) consists of 76% IgG, 12% IgM, and 12% IgA and provides a new multifactorial approach for DSA‐MR. Between 2017 and 2020, four (P1–4) of 102 patients devel...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions r...
Article
Purpose Heart transplantation (HTx) represents the preferred therapy for end-stage heart failure patients. In an aging society, a rising number of older patients suffers from heart failure today. Simultaneously, the number of performed HTx is limited by the lack of suitable donor organs. Therefore, the questions arise whether older patients should...
Article
Purpose Representing a rare complication, antibody-mediated graft rejection (AMR), particularly caused by donor-specific antibodies (DSA), remains a serious problem after heart transplantation (HTx). Plasmapheresis, application of rituximab as well as intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) are widely established, however often insufficient treatments f...
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Full-text available
Background Sepsis is one of the most frequent reasons for acute intensive care unit (ICU) admission of very old patients and mortality rates are high. However, the impact of pre-existing physical and cognitive function on long-term outcome of ICU patients ≥ 80 years old (very old intensive care patients (VIPs)) with sepsis is unclear. Objective To...
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Global warming leads to increased exposure of humankind to meteorological variation, including short-term weather changes. Weather conditions involve changes in temperature, heat and cold, in air pressure and in air humidity. Every single condition influences the incidence and mortality of different diseases such as myocardial infarction and stroke...
Article
Background: The growing proportion of elderly intensive care patients constitutes a public health challenge. The benefit of critical care in these patients remains unclear. We compared outcomes in elderly versus very elderly subjects receiving mechanical ventilation. Methods: In total, 5,557 mechanically ventilated subjects were included in our...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions re...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. Methods: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study...
Article
Purpose: Early lactate clearance is an important parameter for prognosis assessment and therapy control in sepsis. Patients with a lactate clearance >0% might differ from patients with an inferior clearance in terms of intensive care management and outcomes. This study analyzes a large collective with regards to baseline risk distribution and outc...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Etwa 14% der COVID-19-Patienten weisen einen schwereren und ca. 5% einen kritischen Krankheitsverlauf auf. Besonders gefährdet sind ältere Personen, männliches Geschlecht, Raucher und stark adipöse Menschen. Wird der Patient invasiv oder nichtinvasiv beatmet, so steigt die Mortalität auf 53% respektive 50% an. In der Regel beträgt d...
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Although acute hypoxia is of utmost pathophysiologic relevance in health and disease, studies on its effects on both the macro- and microcirculation are scarce. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the effects of acute normobaric hypoxia on human macro- and microcirculation. 20 healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Hypoxia was...
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Female and male very elderly intensive patients (VIPs) might differ in characteristics and outcomes. We aimed to compare female versus male VIPs in a large, multinational collective of VIPs with regards to outcome and predictors of mortality. In total, 7555 patients were included in this analysis, 3973 (53%) male and 3582 (47%) female patients. The...
Article
Background: The percentage of patients in intensive care who are 80 years old or older is continually increasing. Such patients already made up more than 20% of all patients in intensive care in Germany in the years 2007-2011. Meanwhile, effective treatments that support the organs of the body and keep severely ill patients alive are also being co...
Article
Objective: Diagnostic and risk stratification in intensive and emergency medicine must be fast, accurate, and reliable. The assessment of sublingual microcirculation is a promising tool for this purpose. However, its value is limited because the measurement is time-consuming in unstable patients. This proof-of-concept validation study examines the...
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Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Für die Aufrechterhaltung der Organdurchblutung ist eine intakte Makro- und Mikrozirkulation essentiell. Sowohl das wachsende Verständnis um die Bedeutung der Mikrozirkulation im Organversagen als auch die Möglichkeit, diese zu visualisieren, lenken die Aufmerksamkeit der Intensivmedizin auf die mikrovaskuläre Endstrombahn. Als Surr...
Article
Purpose The approach to limit therapy in very old intensive care unit patients (VIPs) significantly differs between regions. The focus of this multicenter analysis is to illuminate, whether the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) is a suitable tool for risk stratification in VIPs admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in Germany. Furthermore, this invest...
Article
Aims: Virtual Reality (VR) has been used successfully in different clinical settings to treat anxiety. This prospective, randomized pilot study investigates the feasibility and safety of VR in patients undergoing conscious sedation during transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods and results: Thirty-two patients were i...
Article
Background: Dehydration occurs frequently in older patients and constitutes a significant clinical problem. Objective: This proof-of-concept study examines whether 1) sublingual measurement in dehydrated old patients is feasible, 2) frailty and incompliance in old, awake patients affects video-quality, 3) dehydration impacts microcirculationMETH...
Article
Rationale and objectives Acidosis and hyperlactatemia predict outcome in critically ill patients. We assessed BE and pH for risk prediction capabilities in a sub-group of septic patients in the MIMIC-III database. Methods Associations with mortality were assessed by logistic regression analysis in 5586 septic patients. Baseline parameters, lactate...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Diagnostic and risk stratification are limited in emergencies. The measurement of microcirculation might identify patients with poor perfusion but compensated macrocirculation such as in beginning shock. This proof-of-concept study examines whether sublingual prehospital sidestream dark field microscopy is feasible. Methods: This pros...
Article
Full-text available
Für die Aufrechterhaltung der Organdurchblutung ist eine intakte Makro- und Mikrozirkulation essentiell. Sowohl das wachsende Verständnis um die Bedeutung der Mikrozirkulation im Organversagen als auch die Möglichkeit, diese zu visualisieren, lenken die Aufmerksamkeit der Intensivmedizin auf die mikrovaskuläre Endstrombahn. Als Surrogat-Parameter s...
Article
Full-text available
Syndecan-1 (sdc1) is a surface protein part of the endothelial glycocalyx (eGC). Soluble sdc1 is derived from shedding and indicates damaged eGC. We assessed the predictive value of plasma sdc1 concentrations for future cardiovascular events in acute reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. A total of 206 patients adm...
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Full-text available
Mortality for myocardial infarction is at its lowest historical level for 20 years, but comorbidities such as anemia, renal failure and hyperglycemia seem the next frontier to investigate their impact as risk modifiers mortality in acute myocardial infarction. Stress hyperglycemia is a very frequent problem in STEMI, but continuous insulin infusion...
Article
Background: We aimed to evaluate differences in outcome between patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after elective versus acute surgery in a multinational cohort of very old patients (≥80 years; VIP). Predictors of mortality, with special emphasis on frailty, were assessed. Methods: In total, 5063 VIPs were included in this analysis,...