Rani A Hoff

Rani A Hoff
Overton Brooks VA Medical Center | OVERTONBROOKSMC

About

144
Publications
14,031
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2,418
Citations
Citations since 2017
89 Research Items
2014 Citations
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Publications

Publications (144)
Article
Background and Objectives Post-9/11 veterans frequently experience diminished mental health following military service. Life meaning is related to better mental health in veterans, yet its mechanism of action is unknown. A meaning-making model suggests that life meaning can reduce perceived stress, thus enhancing mental health. The present study te...
Article
Problematic use of the internet (PUI) and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) associate in adolescents and both relate to impulsivity. However, studies have not examined whether difficulties in impulse control are shared in adolescents with PUI and SIB, and how PUI relates to SIB frequency and impairment. Here, exploratory factor analysis was performed...
Article
Full-text available
Recreational and problem gambling have been linked with adverse health and functioning outcomes among adolescents. Youth may gamble and engage in other risk-taking behaviors in casinos. There are limited data available regarding casino gambling in high-school students, and factors linked to adolescent gambling in casinos have yet to be systematical...
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Problematic video gaming (PVG) and problematic shopping (PS) are addictive behaviors prevalent in adolescents, characterized by positive and negative reinforcement, and associated with psychosocial impairment. This study examined how PS and PVG relate in adolescents. It also examined how PS interacts with PVG in relation to health/functioning measu...
Article
We report on studies conducted to develop outcome-based performance measures (PROM-PMs) based on generic patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) that could support strategies for quality improvement applicable to all patients in a mental health system. Data were from the Veterans Outcome Assessment Survey at baseline and three months for the Ment...
Article
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The desire to escape from pressures/anxiety represents an important motivation for problematic engagement with short-term rewarding behaviors that could contribute to the development of recognized and candidate behavioral addictions, including problematic shopping, a prevalent condition among youth in the U.S.A. characterized by excessive shopping...
Article
Previous research has examined risk factors associated with poorer treatment outcomes for military Veterans with PTSD. However, work has not examined risk for symptom worsening among Veterans with subthreshold PTSD. The aim of this study was to examine demographic, psychiatric, physical health, and pre-treatment PTSD symptom clusters associated wit...
Article
Gambling and anxiety are major public health concerns in adolescents and have been linked to emotion dysregulation and mood-modulating behaviors. While previous studies have shown links between positively reinforcing excitement-motivated gambling, health and functioning measures, and gambling perception and behavioral correlates in adolescents, few...
Article
This study addressed ongoing questions about the meaning of patients’ perceptions of change during treatment. The study used data from the Veterans Outcome Assessment survey for patients with a depressive disorder, without mental health comorbidities, treated in Department of Veterans Affairs general mental health clinics (n=694). Perceived changes...
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Gambling on the lottery is a prevalent behavior, and lottery products are increasingly available in online and electronic formats. As lottery-purchasing is prevalent in adolescents, this study systematically examined relationships between lottery-purchasing and problem-gambling severity and gambling perceptions and attitudes, as well as differences...
Article
Research consistently links U.S. military veterans’ meaning in life to better mental health and well-being. Yet, because meaning in life is usually studied as a precursor of other aspects of wellbeing, much remains to be learned about veterans’ meaning in life itself. Two key questions are (1) how well do veterans maintain a sense of meaning in lif...
Article
Reports an error in "Observations from the national implementation of Measurement Based Care in Mental Health in the Department of Veterans Affairs" by Sandra G. Resnick and Rani A. Hoff (Psychological Services, 2020[Aug], Vol 17[3], 238-246). In the original article, the data reported in Figure 1 are incorrect. The baseline data point (FY16Q3) is...
Article
Objective: Racial disparities across various domains of health care are a long-standing public health issue that affect a variety of clinical services and health outcomes. Mental health research has shown that prevalence rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are high for Black veterans compared with White veterans, and some studies suggest...
Article
Objective: Justice-involved veteran research remains largely limited to men and those using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Research inclusive of women and those not using VHA care is critical to understanding mental health and suicide risk among justice-involved veterans. This study examined whether lifetime justice involvement was...
Article
Background: Suicide rates are higher among veterans than non-veterans; this difference is particularly salient for females. Knowledge is sparse regarding correlates of suicidal ideation (SI) among female veterans, particularly in non-VHA samples. As such, and given that SI confers a strong risk for subsequent suicidal behavior, this study aimed to...
Article
Background: The items of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) represent the criterion symptoms for DSM-IV major depression. This study evaluated the extent to which the PHQ-9 functions as a patient reported outcome measure (PROM) specific to patients with major depressive disorder. Method: Data were from the Veterans Outcome Assessment survey...
Article
Objective: Post-9/11 military deployment is commonly reported as stressful and is often followed by psychological distress after returning home. Yet veterans also frequently report experiencing meaningful military engagement (MME) that may buffer detrimental effects of military stressors. Focusing on the under-investigated topic of association of...
Article
Gaming is popular among youth and gaming disorders have been introduced recently into psychiatric nomenclature systems. Motivations underlying gaming may include involvement to reduce negative emotional states and thus may link to psychiatric and overall health. Thus, the extent to which adolescents engage in gaming to relieve anxiety warrants addi...
Article
Background Patient-centeredness is a cornerstone of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Patient-experience measures are potential tools for the routine assessment of patient-centered SUD care and may be valuable measures to inform quality monitoring improvement efforts. Little research exists on the predictive validity of patient-experience mea...
Article
Objectives US military veterans face many challenges in transitioning to civilian life; little information is available regarding veterans' reintegration experiences over time. The current study characterized veterans' postdeployment stressful life events and concurrent psychosocial wellbeing over one year and determined how stressors and wellbeing...
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Studies have examined relationships between suicidality and problem gambling and suicidality and Axis I psychiatric disorders. However, questions remain regarding how suicidality may influence relationships between problem-gambling severity and Axis I disorders. Using a sample of 13,543 participants with mood symptomatology from Wave 1 of the Natio...
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Motivational characteristics such as excitement-seeking are key components of models of addiction, including problem gambling. Previous studies have established associations between excitement-seeking and problem gambling in youth. However, these studies have employed dimensional psychological assessments which are unlikely to be routinely administ...
Article
Background Religiousness/spirituality (R/S) has been associated with greater mental wellbeing in US military veterans, but this work has been conducted primarily with older veterans, cross-sectionally, using a constrained set of R/S and mental health constructs, and lacking consideration of the influence of sex and race/ethnicity. Further, few stud...
Article
More than 50% of individuals who enter treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are prescribed a psychotropic medication. To date, however, data are limited regarding the prevalence and determinants of discontinuation of psychotropic medication in this population. To address this gap, we analyzed data from 154,953 veterans newly diagnosed...
Article
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Background and aims: Self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) and problematic shopping (PS) are both prevalent in adolescents. These behaviors have been proposed as behavioral addictions and linked to impulsivity (Imp) and sensation-seeking (SS). They are also associated with negative mental health and psychosocial measures. This study examined relationshi...
Article
For mental health, evidence linking the patients’ experiences of care with treatment outcomes is limited. We report findings from the Veterans Outcome Assessment (VOA) survey of Veterans beginning treatment in Veterans Health Administration (VHA) mental health programs with follow-up after approximately 3 months. In addition to assessments of sympt...
Article
This special issue highlights new research in psychological assessment and measurement-based care. Psychological assessment has historically been central to the field of psychology. Measurement-based care, considered an evidence-based practice, is a special type of applied psychological assessment in which patient-reported outcome measures are used...
Article
Few studies have focused on homelessness among Operations Iraqi Freedom, Enduring Freedom and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) veterans, especially female veterans. An explanatory model of homelessness was constructed and tested for each gender. Data collected in the United States from 833 OEF/OIF/OND veterans (41.5% female; Mage = 35.22, SD = 8.86) who comp...
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Background and aims: To address current gaps around screening for problematic pornography use (PPU), we initially developed and tested a six-item Brief Pornography Screen (BPS) that asked about PPU in the past six months. Methods and participants: We recruited five independent samples from the U.S. and Poland to evaluate the psychometric propert...
Article
Individuals with schizophrenia are over three times more likely to have problem and pathological gambling (PPG) than the general population (Cunningham-Williams et al., 1998; Desai and Potenza, 2009), but little is known about this co-occurrence and how PPG relates to specific symptom dimensions of psychotic disorders. Although cognitive distortion...
Article
The Veterans Outcomes Assessment (VOA) program surveys Veteran Health Administration (VHA) patients when they begin mental health treatment and at follow-up at three months to obtain patient-reported outcomes measures (PROM). It complements VA's evolving program in measurement-based care by providing additional data that can be useful for program e...
Article
Background Rates of smoking and related health consequences are higher for women veterans as compared with their civilian counterparts, and trauma is a known risk factor associated with smoking. Military sexual trauma is prevalent among women veterans and associated with deleterious health outcomes, including tobacco use. However, research has not...
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Background: Suicidal thoughts are common among veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of four courses of suicidal (SI) among veterans receiving residential PTSD treatment. Methods: A total of 1,807 veterans receiving residential PTSD treatment at Department of Vetera...
Article
Introduction: Previous research has demonstrated an association between military sexual trauma and risk for suicide; however, risk for self-directed violence such as suicide attempt or nonsuicidal self-injury following military sexual trauma is understudied. This study examines the relationship between military sexual trauma and serious self-direc...
Article
Gambling is prevalent among adolescents and adolescents are vulnerable to experiencing gambling-related problems. Although problem gambling and suicidal behavior have been linked in adults and self-injurious behaviors may predict future suicidality, prior studies have not investigated relationships between problem-gambling severity and self-injurio...
Article
Background: Rates of tobacco use, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression are higher for veterans compared to their civilian counterparts. Female veterans have high rates of tobacco use and mental health (MH) conditions; however, little is known about sex differences in the association of depression and PTSD symptoms with postdeploymen...
Article
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has implemented initiatives to promote veterans' recovery from the health sequelae of military sexual trauma (MST), including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). MST can impact emotion regulation, interpersonal functioning, and perceptions of trust and safety, as well as increase risk for psychiatric comorb...
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Introduction: Sending sexually explicit text messages ("sexting") is prevalent among US adults; however, the mental health correlates of this behavior among adults have not been studied adequately. Furthermore, there are few studies examining the related but distinct behavior of posting sexually explicit photos or videos of oneself online (posting...
Article
Seemingly mixed findings have been reported on possible relationships between video-gaming and violent or aggressive behaviors. Given the prevalence of gaming in adolescents and potential harms associated with violent behaviors, relationships between problematic gaming, gaming engagement, and risk behaviors involving weapons and physical violence r...
Article
Background: Posttraumatic stress symptoms are common after discharge from military service in male and female Post-9/11 veterans, many of whom experienced combat. Objective: This is a study of the impacts of childhood and adult assaults are studied both separately and together on the level of posttraumatic stress symptoms in male and female Post...
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Nationally representative data on mental health disorder prevalence are critical to set informed mental health priorities and policies. Data indicating mental health diagnoses within our nation’s veteran population treated at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) are available, but have yet to be examined for changing trends to inform both VHA a...
Article
Emotion dysregulation, a risk factor for suicide ideation and attempts, has not been studied in U.S. veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). Data were collected through standardized telephone interviews and computer-based surveys from 278 OEF/OIF/OND veterans (70.6% male, 29.4% female). Bivariate analyses indic...
Article
In analyses conducted for program planning, the Veterans Health Administration evaluated associations between self-reports of suicidal ideation and behavior using the Columbia Scale obtained on two occasions separated by three months and clinical or administrative records of suicide attempts over the subsequent three months., Combining information...
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Background and aims: A recent call to action highlighted the need to understand the relationship between problem gambling, violence, and health/functioning. As weapon-carrying and gambling behaviors are prevalent in adolescents, this study systematically examined relationships between weapon-carrying status and measures of problem gambling severit...
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The present study explored relationships between personality domains and gambling forms in individuals with and without probable pathological gambling (PPG). Associations among personality domain scores obtained from the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised, endorsements of gambling activities on the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), and PPG as deter...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the associations of self-reports of suicidal ideation and behavior using the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) in a survey of patients receiving mental health services in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) with reports of attempts documented in medical records and administrative data. Method: The C-SSRS...
Article
Background and objectives: Little research has examined the clinical characteristics of U.S. post-9/11 military veterans coping with alcohol problems. Specifically, we examined psychopathology and hypersexuality among male and female post-9/11 veterans with and without a lifetime history of alcohol-use disorders (AUDs). Methods: Using data from...
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Elucidating whether PTSD symptoms predict poorer social connectedness over time (i.e., social erosion) and/or that poor social connectedness contributes to maintenance of PTSD (i.e., social causation) has implications for PTSD treatment and relapse prevention. Most extant research has been cross-sectional and examined overall PTSD symptoms. Evidenc...
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Cannabis use and related disorders are common in adults and frequently co-occur with subsyndromal and pathological gambling. However, understanding how cannabis use may moderate relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. Data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Co...
Article
In 2016, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) began the Measurement-Based Care in Mental Health Initiative to implement measurement-based care (MBC) across all mental health programs with the goal of making MBC the national standard of care. Phase 1 of this initiative, beginning in fall 2016 through fall 2017, was carefully designed to meet the...
Article
Suicide is a significant public health problem associated with numerous health factors such as insomnia. Suicidal ideation is common among veterans, who often present with multiple comorbidities. The present study examined direct and indirect relationships among suicidal ideation, insomnia, depression, and alcohol use. U.S. veterans (n = 850) recen...
Article
Deployment sexual trauma (DST; i.e., sexual harassment or assault during deployment in the military) is associated with physical and mental health consequences, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and suicidal ideation (SI). Less attention has been placed on factors that may offer protection from deleterious mental health ou...
Article
Objective: This observational study examined the association between patient outcomes at 39 U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs residential treatment programs for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the degree of adoption of two evidence-based psychotherapies, prolonged exposure and cognitive processing therapy. The hypothesis w...
Article
Introduction: From 2005 to 2016, the Veteran suicide rate increased 25.9%. Reducing this rate is a top priority for the Department of Veterans Affairs. In 2017, a policy change expanded emergent mental health services to include previously ineligible Veterans discharged under other than honorable conditions. To date, research examining the relatio...
Article
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Background: Successful psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) necessitates initial and sustained engagement. However, treatment dropout is common, with rates of 50–70% depending on the setting, type of treatment and how dropout is calculated. Dropout from residential treatment is less understood and could be impacted by participatio...
Article
Objective: Although several treatments for PTSD have demonstrated efficacy, a substantial portion of patients do not experience clinically significant improvement. Predictors of treatment response are poorly understood. The current study was designed to investigate predictors of PTSD symptom change in a large national sample of treatment-seeking V...
Article
Introduction: Measurement-based care using patient reported outcome measures has been shown to improve treatment outcomes for patients with mental illness. Despite wide availability of validated measures, measurement-based care is seldom used in clinical practice. Design: The authors conducted a survey of 230 mental health providers across 47 Depar...
Article
Although most veterans in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health system are treated for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the outpatient setting, the VA has approximately 40 residential PTSD treatment facilities across the country for those requiring more intensive care. The symptom profiles of these veterans are poorly understood. Th...
Article
Deployment sexual trauma is associated with post-deployment suicidal ideation. No studies have examined the role of social support in this association. The present study examined if perceived unit support and post-deployment support influenced the association between deployment sexual trauma and suicidal ideation. 824 post-9/11 veterans (480 men, 3...
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Full-text available
High rates of both problem and pathological gambling (PPG) and substance-use disorders (SUDs) have been reported in schizophrenia, and yet PPG frequently goes undetected in clinical practice and unexamined in research. Here, we aimed to examine the relationship between PPG and SUDs in a large sample of patients across several factors related to bot...
Article
Background While data suggest a strong relationship between trauma exposure and psychopathology, less research has investigated relationships between psychopathology and stressful life events more broadly, and how these relationships may differ by gender. Aim To examine strengths of associations between stressful life events and psychiatric disord...
Article
Objective: While poor social connectedness is often a consequence of living with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, little is known about whether PTSD symptom clusters may be uniquely related to different aspects of social connectedness. This information can inform case conceptualization and treatment planning to potentially facilitate...
Article
Objective: Pain and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are strongly correlated in veteran populations. Arguments for which one condition predicts or worsens the other condition have gone in both directions. However, research addressing this issue has been primarily limited to cross-sectional studies rather than examinations of a potent...
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Background and aims Published research on the relationship between disordered gambling and schizophrenia is limited. However, existing data suggest that individuals with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder may have a high prevalence of co-occurring disordered gambling. As such, effective strategies for screening and assessing gambling-related pr...
Conference Paper
Background and aims: The current study evaluated the clinical characteristics of pornography users who screened positive on the Brief Pornography Screener (BPS), a 5-item questionnaire developed to detect compulsive use of pornography among non-clinical and clinical populations. Methods: Two-hundred-and-twenty-three US military veterans were admini...
Conference Paper
Background and aims: The topic of sexting was recently publicized in the US given its widely reported behavior among active duty soldiers. To date, no studies have examined the prevalence of sexting and associated risks among military veterans. Methods: We evaluated the prevalence of sexting (sending sexually explicit text messages, images or video...
Article
Although the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and aggression has been repeatedly demonstrated, to our knowledge no research has examined whether PTSD symptom reductions are linked to less aggression after treatment. The current study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining the association between reductions in PTSD...
Article
Background: Despite the strong associations between personality disorders and problem/pathological gambling, few studies have investigated the relationships between personality disorders, problem-gambling severity and suicidal thoughts/behaviors. Objectives: We examined the relationships between problem-gambling severity and personality disorder...
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders diagnosed in U.S. veterans. PTSD is associated with high smoking prevalences and difficulty quitting in the general U.S. population. The current study reviewed research on smoking and PTSD in U.S. veteran samples to summarize past research and identify areas in nee...
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U.S. combat veterans frequently encounter challenges after returning from deployment, and these challenges may lead to difficulties in psychological and social functioning. Currently, research is limited on gender-related differences within this population, despite female veterans comprising a growing portion of the U.S. military with roles and exp...
Article
Objectives: The aim of the present study is to examine religious coping and depression as predictors of suicide risk in a large US veteran sample from recent conflicts. Methods: Demographic, military history, depressive symptomatology, positive and negative religious coping variables and self-reported suicidal behavior were analyzed in a sample...
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The study systematically examined the relative relationships between perceived family and peer gambling and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking. It also determined the likelihood of at-risk/problem gambling and binge-drinking as a function of the number of different social groups with perceived gambling. A multi-site high-school...
Article
Objectives Veterans from the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan are being diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at high rates. This study examined characteristics associated with mental health service utilization, specifically psychotherapy, through the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), in a large cohort of Iraq and Afghanist...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which stress moderated the relationships between problem-gambling severity and psychopathologies. We analyzed Wave-1 data from 41,869 participants of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Logistic regression showed that as compared to a non-gambling (NG)...
Article
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Transition-in-Place (TIP) is a housing model being piloted in the veterans affairs transitional housing program, Grant & Per Diem (GPD). This observational 20-site study compares characteristics and outcomes of 488 clients in TIP and 10,388 clients in traditional GPD programs. TIP participants were younger, better educated, healthier, and reported...
Article
The cross-sectional retrospective study examined whether ethnicity moderates relationships between pain interference and both psychopathology and general medical conditions among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults. Participants comprised 32,574 (14% Hispanic; 86% white) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions respondents...
Article
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is committed to preventing and ending homelessness among U.S. veterans, but there have been few estimates of the incidence of veteran homelessness and prospective studies to identify predictors of homelessness. This study examines the 1-year incidence of homelessness among veterans seen in VA specialty mental...
Article
Full-text available
Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is defined as difficulties in controlling inappropriate or excessive sexual fantasies, urges, or behaviors that cause subjective distress or impairment in important areas of daily functioning. Using data from a baseline telephone interview, we examined the prevalence of CSB in a convenience sample of 820 post-deploy...
Article
Introduction: Digital social media platforms represent outlets through which individuals may find partners for sexual encounters. Using a sample of US post-deployment military veterans, the current study evaluated the prevalence of digital sex seeking with clinical correlates of psychopathology, suicidal ideation, and sexually transmitted infection...
Article
Objective: This study examines the demographic, diagnostic, and military variables associated with psychotherapy utilization and retention in a national Veteran sample. Method: A large administrative VA dataset (142,620 Veterans) was utilized. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of psychotherapy utilization and retention. Resul...
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Objectives: To assess how race might moderate relationships between pain interference and psychopathology, and general medical conditions among a nationally representative sample of black and white adults. Methods: Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alc...