Rando Värnik

Rando Värnik
Estonian University of Life Sciences | EMU · Institute of Economics and Social Sciences

Professor
Agricultural competitiveness, rural economics, bioeconomy and circular bioeconomy, cooperatives development.

About

46
Publications
16,705
Reads
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201
Citations
Citations since 2016
21 Research Items
150 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220102030

Publications

Publications (46)
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the board structures and processes adopted by agricultural cooperatives , particularly in Eastern European countries. We address this substantial knowledge gap by focusing on Estonian agricultural cooperatives. Using survey results from a sample of 23 Estonian agricultural cooperatives, we identify board structures and process...
Article
The effects of the guaranteed and purchasing price policy on agronomic crop cultivation patterns were investigated under three scenarios in the Qazvin plain of Iran. In all scenarios, the surface under cultivation of water-saving products, especially wheat, decreased and on the contrary, the surface under cultivation of water-taking products, such...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The overall aim of the project was to develop a universal approach (a model) for analysis of security of supply in the economic sectors relevant for Estonian state. Additional aim was to assess what kind of metrics and targets would be suitable of measuring security of supply in Estonia and to suggest what kind of changes would be necessary to mana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Grain production has become one of the most prominent sectors of Estonian agriculture and a significant export commodity. Part of it is a readjustment and reaction to the crises in animal husbandry, but grain production has been facilitated also by the favorable global market demand and prices. The first years of pandemic, 2020–2021 has been the pe...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A foresight exercise involves future-oriented awareness and planning in order to respond quickly and effectively to future threats and opportunities. Basically, it is a qualitative, multiple holistic case study based on foundational investigation and opinion-based data collection and practice. The two major elements of a foresight exercise are the...
Presentation
Full-text available
The current paper fills a significant knowledge gap by providing an in-depth study of the organizational design and strategic choices of Estonian agricultural cooperatives. Based on data collected through an online survey and personal interviews of 23 cooperative leaders, we answer three key research questions: Is a board of directors always necess...
Preprint
Full-text available
Data about 4 474 high-yielding Estonian Holstein dairy cows from 14 herds was analysed for the impact of the first calving interval length (CI<sub>1</sub>) on milk yield (MY) and lactation persistency. The results show that cows with CI<sub>1</sub> shorter than 12 months have on average 2 345 kg lower milk yield in the first 1 000 days of productiv...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Agricultural cooperatives have been extremely successful at producing and bringing food to billions of consumers around the world. Arguably, such success is caused by their superb ability to constantly adapt to the changing needs of their members and consumers. They do this by slightly modifying (tinkering) or completely altering (reinventing) thei...
Presentation
Full-text available
Agricultural cooperatives have been extremely successful at producing and bringing food to billions of consumers around the world. Arguably, such success is caused by their superb ability to constantly adapt to the changing needs of their members and consumers. They do this by slightly modifying (tinkering) or completely altering (reinventing) thei...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
According to a recent survey of the Estonian Ministry of Rural Affairs, 113 agricultural cooperatives are currently active in the dairy, cereals, meat, and potato industries of Estonia (Laaneväli et al., 2018). Yet, the small size of these collective entrepreneurship schemes constrains their ability to compete successfully against powerful opponent...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to provide a systematic overview of biomass production and the use of biomass for the production of key products, as well as to map businesses operating in the field of bioeconomy in Estonia. The importance of primary sector in Estonian economy has decreased over the last decade. At the same time, the competitiveness of pri...
Article
Full-text available
The European Commission expects that the development of bioeconomy across the EU will boost its rural and coastal economies. Although these areas have comparatively more spare biomass, at the same time they are associated with lower levels of entrepreneurship and R&D; activities. One can argue that more urbanized and industrialized regions with hig...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of genetic level and output quality characteristics on technical efficiency (TE) of dairy farms were studied. The average total relative breeding value (RBV) at herd level was considered a parameter of the genetic level and production potential of the main input (dairy cows), while somatic cell count (SCC) and milk composition character...
Chapter
Sustainable intensification is a theoretical approach under development that takes into account the economic, social and environmental aspects of production. So far little attention has been given to assess the variables that have an impact on sustainable intensification in the field of agriculture in Estonia. The current study is based on data fro...
Article
This paper studies firm entries and exits in Estonian urban areas, urban hinterlands, and rural peripheries following EU accession, and it analyzes the effects of changes in population density, employee income level, unemployment, and economic climate on firm entries and exits. It concludes that the firm entry rate exceeded the exit rate in all of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to ensure sustainable milk production and comparison of results, it is important to be able to calculate the unit cost of milk production (unit price). As there is no uniform methodology for calculating milk production and full unit cost, companies themselves have tried to develop suitable methodologies which unfortunately have given incom...
Article
The study investigated economic and managerial considerations for using sexed semen as a tool for accelerated herd expansion and improvement of its genetic potential. Economic value of reproduction strategies based on conventional semen and sexed semen were analysed according to partial budgeting method by Victor E Cabrera and adjusted for the Esto...
Article
Full-text available
Historically, the dairy sector has been one of the most important and competitive branches of the Estonian agriculture and food industry. Since the beginning of the transitional period 25 years ago, Estonian society and its economy have gone through significant institutional, political and societal changes, which have also affected the dairy sector...
Article
Full-text available
Various methods have been applied to utilize semi-coke – a by-product of oil shale production – harmless for environment. Use of compost, manufactured with semi-coke, as agricultural soil improvement substance, would be one of the options available. This paper is an attempt to assess the economic effect obtained by applying different compost mixtur...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper investigates the effects of dairy herd’s genetic level and milk quality on the technical efficiency (TE) of Estonian dairy farms in 2012. A two-stage approach was used that combined data envelopment analysis (DEA), for finding the TE scores, and Tobit regression, for estimating the effects of the chosen variables on farm TE. Our results...
Article
Full-text available
A considerable body of research on farmers’ behaviour is based on the surveys regarding their behavioural intentions. The theory of planned behaviour states that while the formation of intentions normally precedes behaviour, several factors affect the realisation of the intended behaviour. Therefore, the usefulness of ex-ante surveys for predicting...
Article
Full-text available
The process of structural changes in Estonian agriculture is influenced by both socioeconomic factors that are similar in other western countries and transition-related factors. This current paper aims to investigate the effects of such socioeconomic factors on the probabilities of farm growth, decline and exit relative to retaining the previous fa...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to analyze the productivity change of Estonian dairy farms before and after the accession to the European Union. The Malmquist productivity index was measured and separated into the technical and efficiency change using the data envelopment analysis for the pre-accession period (years 2001-2003) and the post-accession perio...
Article
The aim of the study is to examine if lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) cultivation on cutover peatlands is as profitable as half-highbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium x Vaccinium corumbosym) and strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) cultivation on mineral soil. In addition it is examined if, due to land use changes, the abandoned peat e...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the competitiveness of Estonian milk production during the period 2001–2006. An opportunity cost approach was used to study the competitiveness of agricultural production. The dynamics of prices of non-tradable production inputs was observed. The data of the European Union Farm Accountancy Data Network were u...
Article
The aim of this article is to illustrate how data envelopment analysis can be a useful tool in measuring the input-orientated technical efficiency of Estonian grain farms. To explore the potential for gains in efficiency, we have calculated the technical and scale efficiency of the grain farms in Estonia. The data used in the model were collected i...
Article
Full-text available
After Estonia restored independence, the number of individual farms increased rapidly during the 1990s. Since 2001, the number of farms has substantially decreased. Therefore, based on the survey data, this paper aims to explore the factors underlying the motivation to exit farming in Estonia. Cluster analysis is used to form relatively homogeneous...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an overview of the most important reforms, their background, and corresponding changes in Estonian agriculture during the transition period from 1988-2008. The past two decades have been divided into three sub-periods to outline differences in dynamics and the direction of changes in agriculture. From 1988-1995, the main refor...
Article
The experiments with strawberries were carried out in 1999-2001. There were two cultivation types in the experiment: plastic mulch and straw mulch with burning after harvesting. The present research investigated the influence of mulches and cultivars on strawberry yield and profit. Straw mulch suits for 'Jonsok' and 'Bounty' because it increases yi...
Article
Availability of advising and training opportunities for agricultural producers during the period of 2004-2006. The study identifies the availability and demand for agricultural advisory services and training opportunities in small agricultural enterprises. The substance and scope of information received by farmers during the period of 2004-2006 was...
Article
Opportunities of agricultural policy for developing rural economic co-operation. The present article reviewes political opportunities for developing rural economic co-operation in Estonia. On the basis of conducted opinion surveys and other research activities several measures have been developed and presented. In authors opinion the implementation...
Article
Full-text available
The current article deals with the application of the optional flat rate value added tax (hereinafter referred as VAT) scheme for farmers (VAT special scheme, special scheme, special flat-rate) in the member states of the European Union. In the flat rate VAT scheme, farmers are not registered as taxable persons liable for VAT; therefore it is not p...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperation is an opportunity that could provide considerable economic and social competitive advantages to Estonian agricultural producers and rural enterprises. In the last 20 years, however, this possibility has been underutilised. There has been a complex set of obstacles that have hindered the development of widespread cooperation in Estonian...
Article
Full-text available
A "dual nature" is attributed to the cooperatives as besides the economic interest they serve social and environmental objectives. The implementation of cooperative principles provides social services to the community. Those social and environmental objectives are the justification to the state's support to the cooperatives. The overall development...
Article
Full-text available
The primary objective of the present study was creation of a macroeconomic (simultaneous equation) model of Estonian livestock sector. Simultaneous equation modeling provides a new approach to the economic analysis. A macroeconomic model of Estonian livestock sector was created using the approach pioneered by FAPRI. The FAPRI GOLD is a dynamic, par...

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Projects

Projects (9)
Project
The project's goal is to train cooperative managers from Greece, Romania, Estonia, and France on issues of cooperative governance. In addition to experiential training courses, the project includes, among other actions, exchange of visits to selected agricultural cooperatives in the aforementioned countries.