Randall Swaim

Randall Swaim
Colorado State University | CSU · Department of Psychology

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84
Publications
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (84)
Article
Full-text available
Reservation-dwelling American Indian adolescents are at exceedingly high risk for cannabis use. Prevention initiatives to delay onset and escalation of use are needed. School engagement and student’s positive experiences at school have been identified as key promotive factors against cannabis use in the general population of adolescents, but little...
Preprint
This study evaluated the psychometric properties and validity of the Parental Monitoring Short Scale (PMSS) across reservation-based American Indian and White youth. The PMSS is a shortened and revised version of previous measures of Parental Knowledge, Parental Control, Child Disclosure, and Parental Solicitation. EFA and CFA supported three facto...
Article
Background Solitary substance use, or using substances while alone, is common among adolescents but understudied. This is the first study to examine solitary substance use among American Indian (AI) adolescents. The objective was to examine correlates of solitary alcohol use and solitary cannabis use that occur within the individual, family, school...
Article
Be Under Your Own Influence (BUYOI) is a previously validated school-based intervention designed to delay adolescent substance use (SU) initiation. This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted version of BUYOI in delaying SU initiation among reservation-dwelling American Indian (AI) youth. Five reservation-based middle schools part...
Article
American Indian (AI) youth residing on reservations report higher rates of marijuana use compared to national youth. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify unique types of marijuana use among 2,884 AI high school students surveyed from 26 schools across six indigenous geographic regions. Predictors of class membership were then assessed u...
Article
Opioid use among youth, particularly among American Indian (AI) youth, is rising, resulting in a large number of accidental overdoses and deaths. In order to develop effective prevention strategies, we need to use exploratory data analysis to identify previously unknown predictors of opioid use among youth living on or near reservations. The presen...
Article
Objectives. To present data for opioid misuse among US reservation-based American Indian (AI) adolescents and to compare these data with national rates from Monitoring the Future (MTF). Methods. Data were from a national sample of 33 schools participating in a substance use epidemiological survey of reservation-based AI adolescents during 2018 and...
Article
Background Prescription drug misuse (PDM) is a growing issue within the American Indian (AI) population, especially in younger populations. Objectives This study estimates relationships between PDM and early initiation (prior to 14 yrs) of cannabis use and alcohol intoxication for a national sample of AI and non-AI adolescents attending schools on...
Article
Objective There is limited research on the motives for engaging in cannabis use for American Indian (AI) youth. The purpose of this study was to explore the differences in cannabis use motives between White and AI youth. Method This study used data from youth living on or near reservations who currently use cannabis and identify as White (n = 156)...
Article
Substance use (SU) rates among American Indian (AI) adolescents have been greater than national rates for decades, with little progress made on reducing them. Reasons for this may include lack of evidence on which to base effective interventions, the uniqueness of this population, and the overall lack of attention that this population has received...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Determine potential mediating and moderating effects of self-esteem on the relationship between cultural identification and substance use among American Indian (AI) youth. Methods: Anonymous surveys were administered to middle and high school AI students assessing levels of last month alcohol and marijuana use, cultural identificatio...
Presentation
Full-text available
Session 1: Introduction: Appropriate and useful measures for reservation-dwelling American Indian (AI) youth are essential to fully understand both the risks and strengths of this vulnerable group, especially as they relate to substance use. Key variables that require more thorough investigation are cultural identity, ethnic pride, and perceived d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Limited research exists on motives for cannabis use for American Indian (AI) youth. This study explored differences in cannabis use motives between White and AI youth. Data were from youth living on or near reservations who currently use cannabis and identify as White (n = 156) or AI (n = 922). Students completed a survey measuring cannabis use mot...
Article
Research exploring American Indian (AI) youth drinking motives and their relation to negative outcomes is critical due to higher rates of alcohol use and early exposure to intoxication in the population. The purpose of this study is to explore classes of drinking motives as they relate to heavy episodic drinking, perceived discrimination, religious...
Article
Objective: Some American Indians legally use hallucinogenic substances as part of religious and spiritual ceremonies. Research to date has either failed to differentiate spiritual versus recreational use or has categorized hallucinogen use in an "other drug" or "illegal drug" category. This approach could contribute to ineffectual models of preven...
Article
Background and Objectives Identical latent classes of substance use for 7 to 8 grade and 9 to 12 grade American Indian (AI) youth living on or near reservations suggest that patterns of substance use are established early among these youth. This study examines relationships of substance‐related factors to latent class membership and whether these r...
Article
American Indian (AI) adolescents living on reservations report much higher substance use rates compared to other youth yet there are few effective prevention interventions developed for them. This paper presents findings from formative research undertaken to guide adaptation for AI youth of a prevention intervention, Be Under Your Own Influence (BU...
Article
Full-text available
Importance American Indian adolescents attending schools on or near reservations are historically at high risk for substance use. Objective To compare rates of substance use among reservation-based American Indian adolescents vs rates among national US youths. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based survey study of 8th-, 10th-, and 12t...
Article
Objectives: American Indian adolescents who reside on or near reservations report higher levels of substance use than adolescents in other racial/ethnic groups. Little research has addressed patterns of use, which have important implications for prevention and treatment planning. The objective of our study was to describe substance use among a lar...
Article
Objective: Identification of etiologic mechanisms underlying alcohol use among American Indian adolescents is essential because of higher rates of use and earlier initiation. One path links positive outcome expectancies to increased use for reduction of negative affect. This study estimates relationships between two aspects of distress among Ameri...
Article
Full-text available
Health disparities exact a devastating toll upon Indigenous people in the USA. However, there has been scant research investment to develop strategies to address these inequities in Indigenous health. We present a case for increased health promotion, prevention, and treatment research with Indigenous populations, providing context to the recent NIH...
Article
Background: American Indian (AI) youth are at increased risk for marijuana use with marijuana use rates on or near reservations 1.6-4.8 times higher compared to non-AI youth in the same regions (Stanley et al., 2014). One outcome of the changing social and legal acceptance of marijuana is a decrease in perceived risk among adolescents. It is unkno...
Article
American Indian adolescents residing on reservations report high levels of marijuana use. Understanding the relationships between normative mechanisms and marijuana use in this group can be especially important in designing effective strategies to prevent use. Participants were 3446 students identifying as American Indian in grades 7–12 across four...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the longitudinal relation between internalizing problem behaviors (measured with the anxious/depressed and somatic complaints subscales of the Achenbach Teacher's Report Form™) and self-reported cigarette smoking behavior and intentions during early adolescence. In addition, a possible...
Article
Background: Rates of marijuana use are consistently high among reservation-based American Indian adolescents. The roles of family are unique in this ethnic group and can serve as sources of both risk and protection for substance use. Purpose: To assess the relationships between distal and proximal family factors and lifetime and current marijuan...
Article
Although studies have examined ethnic differences in psychosocial factors and adolescent alcohol use, most have not examined these relationships for rural adolescents. The Community Drug and Alcohol Survey (CDAS) was completed by 23,163 rural adolescents attending African American secondary schools. Multilevel analysis tested the hypothesis of stro...
Article
This study examined whether perceived social benefits moderated the relationship between social influence variables (school attachment, peer inhalant use, perceived family caring, and parental monitoring) and stage of inhalant initiation (Study 1) and lifetime inhalant use (Study 2). Participants were 7th to12th grade students attending schools on...
Article
Background: Early initiation of drinking, intoxication, marijuana, and inhalant use is associated with negative outcomes and substance use trajectories. Using national datasets, American Indian (AI) youth have been found to initiate substance use earlier than other youth. This study uses a population-based sample of youth living on or near reserva...
Article
Inhalant use co-occurs with emotional distress. Inhalant use may be a means of self-medicating distress, but more recent study focuses on the cognitive appraisal of personal benefits of using substances. Objectives were to determine whether emotional distress variables predict early versus later initiation of inhalant use, whether such relationship...
Conference Paper
Past studies comparing initiation of marijuana and alcohol use or intoxication have found large differences between reservation-based Indian youth and youth nationally. However, little research has looked at differences by ethnicity for youth who attend the same schools. Study participants were AI and white students from schools on or near reserv...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the similarities and differences between substance use rates for American Indian (AI) young people and young people nationally can better inform prevention and treatment efforts. We compared substance use rates for a large sample of AI students living on or near reservations for the years 2009-2012 with national prevalence rates from...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relationships between adolescent alcohol use and outcome expectancies and descriptive norms for a sample of American Indian and white youth living on or near reservations. Three outcome expectancies proposed by the theory of normative social behavior (perceived benefits to self, perceived benefits to others, and anticipatory...
Conference Paper
Over fifteen years ago, the Community Readiness Model (CRM) was developed to help foster community change (Oetting et al., 1995). The rationale for developing CRM was that by measuring the readiness of the community to take action on an issue, the community could better match their actions to their level of readiness. Since that time, the model’s a...
Article
The current study examined the influence of descriptive norms, injunctive norms, perceived outcome expectancies, and ethnicity on marijuana and inhalant use among 2334 American Indian (AI) and White high school students who lived on or near reservations in the United States. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with survey data...
Article
Full-text available
American Indian and White students who attended the same schools located on or near reservations were surveyed to determine the comparative normative environment for substance use. Descriptive norms increased and student injunctive norms decreased across grade in school. Female students reported higher levels of descriptive norms compared to male s...
Article
Full-text available
According to data from the 1997 NICHD Study of Child Care, center-based child care can have deleterious effects on children's social-emotional development. We hypothesized that training child care professionals to develop positive relationships with children in their care would improve the quality of center-based child care. Thirty-three profession...
Article
Full-text available
As the most widely used substance among adolescents in the United States, alcohol remains a critical public health issue. The majority of research in this area has focused on individual-level variables. This study examined the contextual effects of rurality, geographic region, and community ethnicity in the prediction of alcohol use among adolescen...
Article
This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly Mexican-Ameri...
Article
This study investigated the role of parental diagnosis of alcohol abuse/dependence and perceived family norms for adolescent drinking on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among urban American Indian youth. A total of 251 urban, American Indian youth and their parents/caregivers were followed from ages 13 to 18. Perceived family norms against...
Article
Reviews general studies of drug use epidemiology and considers studies specifically devoted to Hispanic substance abuse. The Hispanic substance abuse literature contains several contradictory findings. Key factors that lead to significant variations in substance abuse epidemiology findings for Hispanics include gender, Hispanic subgroups, socioecon...
Article
We examined smoking correlates among Hispanic and white students in 6-12th grades in small communities in three states in the southwestern United States. Data were collected in 2002 from 8,479 participants, who completed surveys measuring a wide range of potential smoking correlates from individual, family, and peer domains. Logistic regression ana...
Article
This study examines the moderating effects of negative affect on the relationship between early drinking onset and binge-drinking behavior. Six hundred and thirty-five eleventh- and twelfth-grade students completed the American Drug and Alcohol Survey and reported on a variety of measures, including items assessing anxiety, anger, depression, age f...
Article
Full-text available
The Latina Breast Cancer Screening (LBCS) was developed to measure Latinas' culturally-shared health beliefs about breast cancer and breast cancer screening. A 60-item LBCS scale was tested with 288 participants and reduced to 35 items using principal components analyses. The 35-item LBCS scale and other measures were administered to a second sampl...
Article
In a community randomized controlled trial, intervention middle school students from small towns were exposed to a community and school-based anti-violence intervention ("Resolve It, Solve It"). The primary intervention was a media campaign in which local high school students served as models in print, radio, and television PSAs and spearheaded loc...
Article
The purposes of the present study were to test differences in parental monitoring and marijuana use rates and relationships among constructs across three ethnicities, and to use Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Van de Vijver and Leung's Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique to test for cultural equivalence and item bias in the measurement of...
Article
The theory of reasoned action (TRA), theory of planned behavior (TPB), and a revised TPB were evaluated using manifest variable structural equation modeling among 4th- through 6th-grade students for effectiveness in predicting lifetime cigarette use. TRA was an adequate model for female students, but not male students. TPB resulted in improved mode...
Article
The purpose of the current study was to test whether perceived peer influence is related to image of a typical smoker, and whether image of a typical smoker is associated with beliefs about the effects of smoking among preadolescent nonsmokers. Two hundred and ninety-two preadolescents completed a survey indicating their perceptions of the prevalen...
Article
This study determined multivariate sets of predictors for verbal and physical aggression among rural middle school youth. Surveys were obtained from 1,440 7th and 8th grade youth from six middle schools in five geographically dispersed states. Multivariate logistic regression identified final predictive models. Similar, but varying sets of predicto...
Article
The study examines the dynamic relationship between school bonding, beliefs about the deleterious effects of substance use on future aspirations, and subsequent substance use among a sample of 1065 male and female middle school students. First, a mediation model was assessed. Adolescents' perceptions about the harmful effects of substance use on th...
Article
Full-text available
We hypothesize that the relationship between teen use of violent media and aggressiveness is contingent on personality and situational variables. Concurrent effects are modeled in four waves of data collection using multilevel analyses. Results indicate that the effect of violent media on aggression is more robust among students who report feelings...
Article
This study assessed rates of lifetime and current alcohol use among 7th- through 12th-grade Mexican American and non-Hispanic White students. Students from 55 middle and high schools from the southwestern U.S. completed a survey of alcohol use. Odds ratios were calculated for grade by gender by ethnicity comparisons for Mexican American boys (n = 2...
Article
Self-esteem was evaluated among Mexican American and White non-Latino adolescents. Three dimensions of self-esteem-(a) self-confidence, (b) competence, and (c) social acceptance-were assessed for concurrent and longitudinal relationships to alcohol use. Various concurrent relationships were found between dimensions of self-esteem and alcohol use. O...
Article
This study examined the relationship between alcohol, anger, and aggression in high school students. Anger and three types of aggressive expression (verbal, physical toward people, and physical toward objects) were evaluated cross-sectionally and prospectively, via structural equation modeling for relationships to alcohol use in Mexican American an...
Article
This study examined the relationship between risk-taking, general acceptance of aggression (GAA), verbal harassment (VH), and aggressive behavior (AB) in the last 30 days among 1440 seventh- and eighth-grade rural middle school youth. Higher levels of risk-taking predicted higher GAA and VH. Significant interactions for AB indicated that, excepting...
Article
Full-text available
Theory and research on media violence provides evidence that aggressive youth seek out media violence and that media violence prospectively predicts aggression in youth. The authors argue that both relationships, when modeled over time, should be mutually reinforcing, in what they call a downward spiral model. This study uses multilevel modeling to...
Article
Five forms of driving-related angry cognitions were identified—Judgmental/Disbelieving Thinking (α = .94), Pejorative Labeling/Verbally Aggressive Thinking (α = .92), Revenge/Retaliatory Thinking (α = .93), Physically Aggressive Thinking (α = .93), and Coping Self-instruction (α = .83). Pejorative labeling/verbally aggressive, physically aggressive...
Article
A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and the...
Article
Four ways people express their anger when driving were identified. Verbal Aggressive Expression (alpha=0.88) assesses verbally aggressive expression of anger (e.g., yelling or cursing at another driver); Personal Physical Aggressive Expression (alpha=0.81), the ways the person uses him/herself to express anger (e.g., trying to get out and tell off...
Article
The general and specific effects of negative affect on adolescent alcohol use were examined among 742 male and 1005 female non-Hispanic White and 862 male and 1232 female Mexican American 9–12th grade students. Standard models indicated that negative affect was significantly related to alcohol use among female, but not male, groups. With the effect...
Article
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relative influence of, and interaction between, three exogenous latent factors (student skills, family climate, educational opportunities) and two endogenous factors (student self-determination, student action taking). Data were collected from 237 middle school and high school students with disab...
Article
This study explored aggressive anger expression in adolescents. A 3-factor model proved best (i.e., Expression through Verbal Assault, Physical Assault Toward People, and Physical Assault Toward Objects). These factors correlated positively with each other and with anger, anxiety, and depression. Correlations of aggressive anger expression styles w...
Article
To test a socialization model of polydrug use among Mexican-American and white non-Hispanic school dropouts. A sample of 910 Mexican-American and white non-Hispanic school dropouts were surveyed regarding their use of alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs, and socialization characteristics that have previously been shown to be predictive of adolescen...
Article
Some theories and measures of cultural identification are based on a unidimensional continuum, requiring that, as identification with one culture increases, identification with another decreases. Others, such as multicultural theories, allow high identification with different cultures but rarely incorporate low identification. Orthogonal cultural i...
Article
Increase in smoking/tobacco-related diseases among the Hispanic population calls for an examination of its use among this population. This study examined the relationship between gender, level of cultural identification, migrant status, and grade level and tobacco use and perception of its harm among Mexican American youth. Results showed males mor...
Article
This study examined, across three racial/ethnic groups, how the inclusion of data on drug use of dropouts can alter estimates of adolescent drug use rates. Self-report rates of lifetime prevalence and use in the previous 30 days were obtained from Mexican American, White non-Hispanic, and Native American student (n = 738) and dropouts (n = 774). Ra...
Article
The authors report a study designed to determine whether antidrug campaigns that have been localized can affect variables associated with adolescent drug use. An experiment was conducted with sets of matched communities with populations between 5000 and 30,000 distributed throughout the United States. Seventh- through twelfth-grade students in expe...
Article
A self-report survey of cigarette use among 10th- and 12th-grade Mexican American students found no differences in rates of use by migrant status. Male students reported higher levels of lifetime, experimental, and daily smoking than female students, and 12th-grade students reported higher levels of daily smoking than 10th-grade students. A sociali...
Article
Anonymous surveys of alcohol use and associated socialization characteristics of family caring, family sanctions against alcohol use, school adjustment, and peer alcohol associations were administered to Hungarian 8th- and 11th-grade adolescents. Results indicated higher levels of alcohol involvement among older students compared to younger student...
Article
There is very little empirical data on drug and alcohol use among Hungarian adolescents. The purpose of this pilot project was to develop instrumentation and methods that could be used to assess legal and illegal substance use among Hungarian adolescents. A Hungarian translation of The American Drug and Alcohol Survey was developed and adapted to t...
Article
The socialization variables of family strength, religious identification, school adjustment, family sanctions against drug use and peer associations correlate with youth drug abuse. A path model testing the relationships between these variables among Anglo youths has shown that peer drug associations mediate the influence of the other factors and t...
Article
Surveys of drug and alcohol use were conducted with a national probability sample of 8th- and 12th-grade Mexican-American and White non-Hispanic youth. The drug and alcohol epidemiology is representative of US Mexican-American youth residing in communities with populations of 2500 or more, at least 10% of whom are Mexican Americans. Mexican-America...
Article
Childhood risk factors for adolescent drug and alcohol abuse are reviewed. Childhood personality manifesting the difficult child syndrome and psychopathological features of hyperactivity and antisocial traits are predictive of later substance abuse, especially when these traits persist into adolescence. Key interpersonal risk factors include family...
Article
Full-text available
Administered anonymous surveys asking about drug use, emotional distress, and peer drug associations to 11th and 12th grade high school students (N = 563). Emotional distress variables accounted for only 4.8% of the variance in drug use. The addition of peer drug associations as a predictor variable increased the variance accounted for to 43.4%. A...
Article
Anonymous surveys of alcohol use and emotional distress of 11th and 12th grade students were administered to 327 reservation Indian adolescents and 524 Anglo adolescents. Path models based on peer cluster theory were developed and tested. Results argue against a self-medication theory of adolescent alcohol use. Emotional distress variables had litt...
Article
Typescript (photocopy) Dissertation (Ph.D.)--Colorado State University, 1987. Includes bibliographies.
Article
Anonymous surveys of drug use were administered to eigth- and twelfth-grade students in three small rural communities and one mid-size community in the Rocky Mountain region. Differences were found between the three small towns in both lifetime prevalence and the frequency of occurrence of different types of drug users, indicating that small rural...

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Projects

Projects (3)
Project
1. Identifying and develop both psychometrically sound and culturally congruent measures of AI cultural identity to better understand the relationship of identity to substance use outcomes among reservation-dwelling AI youth. Clarifying how different facets of AI identity (i.e., social, personal, relational) contributes to behavioral resilience or risk is crucial for developing interventions that successfully leverage identity-relevant factors to prevent or mitigate substance use among AI youth. 2. Understand the role of identity-based needs and characteristics in promoting healthy behaviors among AI youth, particularly focusing on factors such as identity enactment and concealment, autonomy needs, connectedness and self-determination.
Project
Intervention Research to Improve Native American Health (IRINAH), a network of principal investigators and their partners, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), was launched in 2011 through a program titled “Interventions for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Native American (NA; includes Native Hawaiians) Populations.” Native American populations are exposed to considerable risk factors that significantly increase their likelihood of chronic disease, substance abuse, mental illness, oral disease, and HIV infection. The IRINAH program was created to develop, adapt, and test the effectiveness of health-promotion and disease-prevention interventions in NA populations. The long-term goal of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) is to reduce mortality and morbidity in NA communities. IRINAH also provides a forum for discussions on the challenges and opportunities to improve health in NA populations across the United States.