Randall Martin

Randall Martin
Washington University in St. Louis | WUSTL , Wash U · Department of Energy, Environmental, and Chemical Engineering

PhD

About

614
Publications
163,794
Reads
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62,897
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2003 - present
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Position
  • Research Associate
July 2002 - June 2003
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
Position
  • PostDoc Position
Education
September 1998 - June 2002
Harvard University
Field of study
  • Engineering Sciences
September 1997 - August 1998
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Environmental Change and Management
September 1992 - May 1996
Cornell University
Field of study
  • Engineering

Publications

Publications (614)
Article
Background: The tremendous global health burden related to COVID-19 means that identifying determinants of COVID-19 severity is important for prevention and intervention. We aimed to explore long-term exposure to ambient air pollution as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity, given its known impact on the respiratory system. Methods: We u...
Article
Background Few studies have evaluated long-term cardiovascular effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents in countries with high air pollution levels. We aimed to investigate the associations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and constituents with cardiovascular mortality in China. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study...
Article
Objectives. To compare fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations in American Indian (AI)-populated with those in non–AI-populated counties over time (2000–2018) in the contiguous United States. Methods. We used a multicriteria approach to classify counties as AI- or non--AI-populated. We ran linear mixed effects models to estimate the differ...
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Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with disease aggravation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this study, we characterized long-term exposure to six major PM2.5 components and their individual association with disease aggravation in ALS. Methods: We leveraged 15 years of data from the New York Depar...
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Growing evidence has linked fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) exposure to elevated blood pressure, but the effects of PM 2.5 components are unclear, particularly in children and adolescents. Based on a cross-sectional investigation in China, we analyzed the associations between long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and its major components with elevated bloo...
Preprint
We describe a new generation of the high-performance GEOS-Chem (GCHP) global model of atmospheric composition developed as part of the GEOS-Chem version 13 series. GEOS-Chem is an open-source grid-independent model that can be used online within a meteorological simulation or off-line using archived meteorological data. GCHP is an offline implement...
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Background: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure has been reported to adversely affect birth outcomes, but the evidence is limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We assessed the associations between maternal PM2.5 exposure and low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in Africa. Methods: We used standard Demo...
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Nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) is an important contributor to air pollution and can adversely affect human health 1–9 . A decrease in NO 2 concentrations has been reported as a result of lockdown measures to reduce the spread of COVID-19 10–20 . Questions remain, however, regarding the relationship of satellite-derived atmospheric column NO 2 data with h...
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Growing evidence has linked long-term PM2.5 exposure to neurological disorders. Less is known about the individual effects of PM2.5 components. A population-based cohort study investigated the association between long-term (1-year average) exposure to PM2.5 components and dementia incidence among the elderly population (age ≥65 years) in the United...
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Background Evidence from developed countries suggests that fine particulate matter (≤2.5 µm [PM2.5]) contributes to childhood respiratory morbidity and mortality. However, few analyses have focused on resource-limited settings, where much of this burden occurs. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional associations between annual average exposure...
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Background With much of the world's population residing in urban areas, an understanding of air pollution exposures at the city level can inform mitigation approaches. Previous studies of global urban air pollution have not considered trends in air pollutant concentrations nor corresponding attributable mortality burdens. We aimed to estimate trend...
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Full-text available
Background Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass has been associated with adverse health effects. However, the health effects of PM2.5 components have been less studied. There is a pressing need to better understand the relative contribution of components of PM2.5, which can lay the scientific basis for designing effective poli...
Article
Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a risk factor for pulmonary and systemic autoimmune diseases, however evidence on which PM 2.5 chemical components are more harmful is still scant. Our goal is to investigate potential associations between PM 2.5 components and interstitial lung disease (ILD) onset in rheumatoid arthritis (RA...
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Geostationary satellite measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia from the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) and Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) instruments can augment surface monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality, but this requires better understanding of the AOD–PM2.5 relationship. Here we use the GEOS-C...
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The COVID-19 global pandemic and associated government lockdowns dramatically altered human activity, providing a window into how changes in individual behavior, enacted en masse, impact atmospheric composition. The resulting reductions in anthropogenic activity represent an unprecedented event that yields a glimpse into a future where emissions to...
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Abstract: Air pollution levels are uneven within cities, contributing to persistent health disparities between neighborhoods and population sub-groups. Highly spatially resolved information on pollution levels and disease rates is necessary to characterize inequities in air pollution exposure and related health risks. We leverage recent advances in...
Article
Background Potential hazards of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) constituents on preterm birth (PTB) have rarely been explored in China. Objective To quantify the associations of PM2.5 constituents with PTB. Methods This study was based on a nationwide cohort of 3,723,169 live singleton births delivered between January 2010 and December 2015 in Ch...
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Full-text available
Annual global satellite-based estimates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are widely relied upon for air-quality assessment. Here, we develop and apply a methodology for monthly estimates and uncertainties during the period 1998–2019, which combines satellite retrievals of aerosol optical depth, chemical transport modeling, and ground-based measur...
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Atmospheric transport of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), the leading environmental risk factor for public health, is estimated to exert substantial transboundary effects at present. During the past several decades, human-produced pollutant emissions have undergone drastic and regionally distinctive changes, yet it remains unclear about the resulti...
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Background: Maternal prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, previous studies focused on a priori time intervals such as trimesters reported inconsistent associations. Objectives: We investigated time-varying vulnerability of birth weight to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide...
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Objective: To investigate the association between changes in long term residential exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and premature mortality in Canada. Design: Population based quasi-experimental study. Setting: Canada. Participants: 663 100 respondents to the 1996, 2001, and 2006 Canadian censuses aged 25-89 years who had...
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Modeling atmospheric chemistry at fine resolution globally is computationally expensive; the capability to focus on specific geographic regions using a multiscale grid is desirable. Here, we develop, validate, and demonstrate stretched grids in the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model in its high-performance implementation (GCHP). These multiscale...
Article
We used a large national cohort in Canada to assess the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke hospitalizations in association with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3). The study population comprised 2.7 million respondents from the 2006 Canadian Census Health and Environm...
Preprint
Full-text available
Geostationary satellite sensors over East Asia (GOCI and AHI) are now providing continuous mapping of aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm to improve monitoring of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality. Here we evaluate our understanding of the physical relationships between AOD and PM2.5 over East Asia by using the GEOS-Chem atmospheric che...
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The nonlinear dependence of the dust saltation process on wind speed poses a challenge for models of varying resolutions. This challenge is of particular relevance for the next generation of chemical transport models with nimble capability for multiple resolutions. We develop and apply a method to harmonize dust emissions across simulations of diff...
Article
Full-text available
Background Several studies have found positive associations between outdoor fine particulate air pollution (≤2.5 μm, PM2.5) and childhood asthma incidence. However, the impact of PM2.5 composition on children’s respiratory health remains uncertain. Objective We examined whether joint exposure to PM2.5 mass concentrations and its major chemical com...
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Background: Few studies have investigated the association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and infant mortality in developing countries, especially for the health effects of specific PM2.5 constituents. Objective: We aimed to examine the association of long-term exposure to specific PM2.5 constituents with infant mortality in...
Article
The associations of long-term exposure to various constituents of fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) air pollution with lung function were not clearly elucidated in developing countries. The aim was to evaluate the associations of long-term exposure to main constituents of PM2.5 with lung function in China. This is a n...
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Ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is the world’s leading environmental health risk factor. Reducing the PM2.5 disease burden requires specific strategies that target dominant sources across multiple spatial scales. We provide a contemporary and comprehensive evaluation of sector- and fuel-specific contributions to this disease burden across 2...
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Lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic provide an unprecedented opportunity to examine the effects of human activity on air quality. The effects on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) are of particular interest, as PM 2.5 is the leading environmental risk factor for mortality globally. We map global PM 2.5 concentrations for January to April 2020 wit...
Article
Background: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases, including disease aggravation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but associations with specific PM2.5 components have not been evaluated. Objective: To characterize the association between specific PM2.5 components and PD first hospit...
Preprint
p>Fine particle air pollution (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) is the largest global environmental risk factor for ill-health and is implicated in >7% of all human deaths. Improved air quality is a key policy goal for cities, yet in-situ PM<sub>2.5</sub> measurements are missing for >50% of the world’s urban population. Here, we apply satellite remote sensing to...
Article
Few cohort studies explored the associations of long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and its chemical constituents with mortality risk in rural China. We conducted a 12-year prospective study of 28,793 adults in rural Deqing, China from 2006 to 2018. Annual mean PM2.5 and its c...
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Full-text available
Owing to their greater outdoor activity and ongoing lung development, children are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, the effects of PM2.5 components are poorly understood. This study aimed to use a longitudinal birth cohort of children with physician-diagnosed incident asthma to...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Studies have reported that prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) might be associated with adverse birth outcomes in offspring. However, evidence with regard to the effects of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 and, especially, its main chemical constituents on offspring's weight in childhood is limited and inconsistent. Objecti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract: Air pollution levels are uneven within cities, contributing to persistent health disparities between neighborhoods and population sub-groups. Highly spatially resolved information on pollution levels and disease rates is necessary to characterize inequities in air pollution exposure and related health risks. We leverage recent advances in...
Article
Background: Air pollution has been associated with increased mortality. However, updated evidence from cohort studies with detailed information on various risk factors is needed, especially in regions with low air pollution levels. We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and mortality in a prospective cohort....
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Full-text available
Background: Experimental evidence and studies of children and adolescents suggest that ambient fine particulate matter [particulate matter ≤2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)] air pollution may be obesogenic, but the relationship between PM2.5 and the risk of body weight gain and obesity in adults is uncertain. Objectives: Our goal was to cha...
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Background: Ecologic analyses suggest that living in areas with higher levels of ambient fine particulate matter air pollution (PM2.5) is associated with higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Studies accounting for individual-level health characteristics are lacking. Methods: We leveraged the breadth and depth of the US Department of Veterans A...
Article
Metal components in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from nontailpipe emissions may play an important role in underlying the adverse respiratory effects of PM2.5. We investigated the associations between long-term exposure to iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) in PM2.5 and their combined impact on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human lungs, and...
Article
Background: Air pollution-attributable disease burdens reported at global, country, state, or county levels mask potential smaller-scale geographic heterogeneity driven by variation in pollution levels and disease rates. Capturing within-city variation in air pollution health impacts is now possible with high-resolution pollutant concentrations....
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Aerosols over Earth's remote and spatially extensive ocean surfaces have important influences on planetary climate. However, these aerosols and their effects remain poorly understood, in part due to the remoteness and limited observations over these regions. In this study, we seek to understand factors that shape marine aerosol size distributions a...
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Background: Adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases affect millions and negatively impact health care systems worldwide. Evidence suggests that air pollution may contribute to aggravation of neurodegeneration, but studies have been limited. Objective: We examined the potential association between long-term exposure to particulate matter ≤2.5μm in...
Article
Background Exposure to fine particulate (PM2.5) air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known about its specific components, such as metals originating from non-tailpipe emissions. We investigated the associations of long-term exposure to metal components [iron (Fe) and copper (Cu)] in PM2.5 with CVD inc...
Preprint
Full-text available
Modeling atmospheric chemistry at fine resolution globally is computationally expensive; the capability to focus on specific geographic regions using a multiscale grid is desirable. Here, we develop, validate, and demonstrate stretched-grids in the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model in its high performance implementation (GCHP). These multiscale...
Article
Full-text available
Global anthropogenic emission inventories remain vital for understanding the sources of atmospheric pollution and the associated impacts on the environment, human health, and society. Rapid changes in today's society require that these inventories provide contemporary estimates of multiple atmospheric pollutants with both source sector and fuel typ...
Preprint
The nonlinear dependence of the dust saltation process on wind speed poses a challenge for models of varying resolutions. This challenge is of particular relevance for the next generation of chemical transport models with nimble capability for multiple resolutions. We develop and apply a method to harmonize dust emissions across simulations of diff...
Article
Full-text available
Globally consistent measurements of airborne metal concentrations in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are important for understanding potential health impacts, prioritizing air pollution mitigation strategies, and enabling global chemical transport model development. PM2.5 filter samples (N ~ 800 from 19 locations) collected from a globally distribu...