Randall Engle

Randall Engle
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT · School of Psychology

Ph.D. The Ohio State University-All my papers are downloadable from my lab website

About

202
Publications
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Introduction

Publications

Publications (202)
Article
Process overlap theory provides a contemporary explanation for the positive correlations observed among cognitive ability measures, a phenomenon which intelligence researchers refer to as the positive manifold. According to process overlap theory, cognitive tasks tap domain-general executive processes as well as domain-specific processes, and corre...
Article
Working memory capacity is an important psychological construct, and many real-world phenomena are strongly associated with individual differences in working memory functioning. Although working memory and attention are intertwined, several studies have recently shown that individual differences in the general ability to control attention is more s...
Article
A hallmark of intelligent behavior is rationality – the disposition and ability to think analytically to make decisions that maximize expected utility or follow the laws of probability. However, the question remains as to whether rationality and intelligence are empirically distinct, as does the question of what cognitive mechanisms underlie indivi...
Article
Significance To understand mind and behavior we must understand the biological basis of intelligence. Despite significant progress, we lack a complete picture that integrates different levels of brain function and explains individual differences in cognitive ability. We propose that the locus coeruleus, the source of norepinephrine for the brain, p...
Article
Full-text available
Extant literature suggests that performance on visual arrays tasks reflects limited-capacity storage of visual information. However, there is also evidence to suggest that visual arrays task performance reflects individual differences in controlled processing. The purpose of this study is to empirically evaluate the degree to which visual arrays ta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Process overlap theory provides a contemporary explanation for the positive correlations observed among cognitive ability measures, a phenomenon which intelligence researchers refer to as the positive manifold. According to process overlap theory, cognitive tasks tap domain-general executive processes as well as domain-specific processes, and corre...
Preprint
Working memory capacity is an important psychological construct and many real-world phenomena are strongly associated with individual differences in working memory functioning. Although working memory and attention are intertwined, several studies have recently shown that individual differences in the general ability to control attention is more st...
Article
A critical goal for psychological science in the 21st century is to foster diversity, equity, and inclusion in occupational contexts. One arena which will continue to benefit from a focus on equity is high-stakes testing, such as the assessments used for personnel selection and classification decisions. We define an equitable test as one that minim...
Article
Full-text available
There has been some controversy as to whether baseline pupil size is related to individual differences in cognitive ability. Previously, we had shown that a larger baseline pupil size was associated with higher cognitive ability and that the correlation to fluid intelligence was larger than that to working memory capacity (Tsukahara, Harrison, & En...
Preprint
Full-text available
A hallmark of intelligent behavior is rationality—the disposition and ability to think analytically to make decisions that maximize expected utility or follow the laws of probability, and therefore align with normative principles of decision making. However, the question remains as to whether rationality and intelligence are empirically distinct, a...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive tasks that produce reliable and robust effects at the group level often fail to yield reliable and valid individual differences. An ongoing debate among attention researchers is whether conflict resolution mechanisms are task-specific or domain-general, and the lack of correlation between most attention measures seems to favor the view th...
Article
Full-text available
For years, psychologists have wondered why people who are highly skilled in one cognitive domain tend to be skilled in other cognitive domains, too. In this article, we explain how attention control provides a common thread among broad cognitive abilities, including fluid intelligence, working memory capacity, and sensory discrimination. Attention...
Chapter
This chapter outlines the executive attention theory of higher-order cognition, which argues that individual differences in the ability to maintain information in working memory and disengage from irrelevant information is inextricably linked to variation in the ability to deploy domain-free attentional resources in a goal-directed fashion. It also...
Article
Why do some individuals learn more quickly than others, or perform better in complex cognitive tasks? In this article, we describe how differential and experimental research methods can be used to study intelligence in humans and non-human animals. More than one hundred years ago, Spearman (1904) discovered a general factor underpinning performance...
Preprint
We found that individual differences in baseline pupil size correlated with fluid intelligence and working memory capacity. Larger pupil size was associated with higher cognitive ability. However, other researchers have not been able to replicate our 2016 finding – though they only measured working memory capacity and not fluid intelligence. In a r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Why do some individuals learn more quickly than others, or perform better in complex cognitive tasks? In this article, we describe how differential and experimental research methods can be used to study intelligence in humans and non-human animals. More than one hundred years ago, Spearman (1904) discovered a general factor underpinning performance...
Article
Full-text available
Recent work on working memory training has produced conflicting results regarding the degree and generality of transfer to other cognitive processes. However, few studies have investigated possible mechanisms underlying transfer. The current study was designed to test the role of proactive interference in working memory training and transfer. Eight...
Article
We evaluated the predictive value of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) at the latent level, using multitasking as a proxy for real-world job performance. We also examined whether adding measures of attention control to the ASVAB could improve its predictive validity. To answer these questions, data were collected from 171 young...
Preprint
Attentional control as an ability to regulate information processing during goal-directed behavior is critical to many theories of human cognition and thought to predict a large range of everyday behaviors. However, in recent years, failures to reliably assess individual differences in attentional control have sparked a debate concerning whether at...
Article
Full-text available
Intelligence is correlated with the ability to make fine sensory discriminations. Although this relationship has been known since the beginning of intelligence testing, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unknown. In two large-scale structural equation-modelling studies, we investigated whether individual differences in attention...
Preprint
Full-text available
We evaluated the predictive value of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) at the latent level, using multitasking as a proxy for real-world job performance. We also examined whether adding measures of attention control to the ASVAB could improve its predictive validity. To answer these questions, data were collected from 171 young...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intelligence is correlated with the ability to make fine sensory discriminations. Although this relationship has been known since the beginning of intelligence testing, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unknown. In two large-scale structural equation modelling studies, we investigated whether individual differences in attention...
Preprint
The locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system is uniquely situated to influence a wide-array of brain and cellular processes at all levels of brain functions. We review the literature on the locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine system in relation to fluid intelligence within the context of our executive attention theory. We discuss evidence suggesting the lo...
Preprint
Despite decades of scholarship devoted to its importance, the cognitive drivers of creative behaviors and products remain poorly understood. Although previous research has proposed a relationship between the convergent processes of creativity and higher order cognition, studies investigating the relationship between divergent thinking and fluid int...
Preprint
**The uploaded manuscript is still in preparation** In this study, we tested the relationship between visual arrays tasks and working memory capacity and attention control. Specifically, we tested whether task design (selection or non-selection demands) impacted the relationship between visual arrays measures and constructs of working memory capaci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cognitive tasks that produce reliable and robust effects at the group level often fail to yield reliable and valid individual differences. An ongoing debate in the attention literature is whether conflict resolution mechanisms are task-specific or domain-general, and the lack of correlation between most attention measures seems to favor the view th...
Article
This study uses a novel framework based on work by Shipstead, Harrison, and Engle (2016) that includes measures of both working memory capacity and fluid intelligence in an attempt to better understand the processes that influence successful reading comprehension at the latent level. Further, we extend this framework to a second educationally relev...
Article
Full-text available
Reaction time is believed to be a good indicator of the speed and efficiency of mental processes and is a ubiquitous variable in the behavioral sciences. Despite this popularity, there are numerous issues associated with using reaction time (RT), specifically in differential and developmental research. Here, we identify and focus on two main proble...
Article
Recent mental health initiatives have called for a shift away from purely report-based conceptualizations of psychopathology toward a biobehaviorally oriented framework. The current work illustrates a measurement-oriented approach to challenges inherent in efforts to integrate biological and behavioral indicators with psychological-report variables...
Article
In this follow-up to my 2002 article on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and executive attention in Current Directions in Psychological Science, I review even more evidence supporting the idea that the ability to control one’s attention (i.e., executive attention) is important to working memory and fluid intelligence. I now argue that w...
Article
Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Nature of Human Intelligence - edited by Robert J. Sternberg
Article
There is a debate about the ability to improve cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence through training on tasks of working memory capacity. The question addressed in the research presented here is who benefits the most from training: people with low cognitive ability or people with high cognitive ability? Subjects with high and low working...
Article
Working memory capacity is an important construct in psychology because of its relationship with many higher-order cognitive abilities and psychopathologies. Working memory capacity is often measured using a type of paradigm known as complex span. Some recent work has focused on shortening the administration time of the complex span tasks, resultin...
Poster
Full-text available
Examination of the role of maintenance and disengagement processes as explanations of the relation of Gf to reading comprehension.
Poster
Full-text available
The Abbreivated Torrance Test of Creativity is one of psychologists’ favorite paradigm to study the creative process and the mechanisms responsible for it. However, Paul Torrance was highly influenced by Joy Guilford, whose theory on the Structure of Intellect was dismantled by psychometricians.
Article
Pupil dilations of the eye are known to correspond to central cognitive processes. However, the relationship between pupil size and individual differences in cognitive ability is not as well studied. A peculiar finding that has cropped up in this research is that those high on cognitive ability have a larger pupil size, even during a passive baseli...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid in...
Article
The Complex Span paradigm is one of the most influential and widely used instruments for measuring working memory capacity (WMC). We report the results of four experiments designed to explore the feasibility of obtaining valid estimates of WMC online. We explored the relationships between the Complex Span tasks and fluid intelligence (gF) in the la...
Article
Full-text available
Millions of children across the world are exposed to multiple sources of indoor and outdoor air pollutants, including high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3). The established link between exposure to PM2.5, brain structural, volumetric and metabolic changes, severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2 SD from average IQ) in APOE...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory, attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Co...
Article
It is generally agreed upon that the mechanisms underlying task switching heavily depend on working memory, yet numerous studies have failed to show a strong relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and task-switching ability. We argue that this relationship does indeed exist but that the dependent variable used to measure task switching...
Article
Despite the widespread popularity of the Wonderlic Personnel Test, evidence of its validity as a measure of intelligence and personnel selection is limited. The present study sought to better understand the Wonderlic by investigating its relationship to multiple measures of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. Our results show that Wonde...
Article
Full-text available
Complex span and visual arrays are two common measures of working memory capacity that are respectively treated as measures of attention control and storage capacity. A recent analysis of these tasks concluded that (1) complex span performance has a relatively stronger relationship to fluid intelligence and (2) this is due to the requirement that p...
Article
Full-text available
The relations between video-game experience and cognitive abilities were examined in the current study. In two experiments, subjects performed a number of working memory, fluid intelligence, and attention-control measures and filled out a questionnaire about their video-game experience. In Experiment 1, an extreme-groups analysis indicated that exp...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the am...
Article
The extent to which individual differences in working memory capacity were related to differences in comprehension and following direction was studied in first, third, and sixth graders. Working memory was tested by a simple word span and Daneman and Carpenter’s (1980) reading span. A reading comprehension test and a following directions test, incl...
Article
Full-text available
Bleckley, Durso, Crutchfield, Engle, and Khanna (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 884-889, 2003) found that visual attention allocation differed between groups high or low in working memory capacity (WMC). High-span, but not low-span, subjects showed an invalid-cue cost during a letter localization task in which the letter appeared closer to fixa...
Article
Full-text available
One of the reasons why working memory capacity is so widely researched is its substantial relationship with fluid intelligence. Although this relationship has been found in numerous studies, researchers have been unable to provide a conclusive answer as to why the two constructs are related. In a recent study, researchers examined which attributes...
Article
Full-text available
Measures of working memory capacity (WMC), such as complex span tasks (e.g., operation span), have become some of the most frequently used tasks in cognitive psychology. However, due to the length of time it takes to complete these tasks many researchers trying to draw conclusions about WMC forgo properly administering multiple tasks. But can the c...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory is a critical element of complex cognition, particularly under conditions of distraction and interference. Measures of working memory capacity correlate positively with many measures of real-world cognition, including fluid intelligence. There have been numerous attempts to use training procedures to increase working memory capacity...
Article
Full-text available
Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperpho...
Article
Two experiments were conducted to study the modality effect with delayed free recall. The first experiment demonstrated that both auditory and vocalized-visual presentations were superior to silent visual presentation even when recall was delayed by 15 sec. The second experiment demonstrated that a slight modality effect was obtained even after a r...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous recent studies seem to provide evidence for the general intellectual benefits of working memory training. In reviews of the training literature, Shipstead, Redick, and Engle (2010, 2012) argued that the field should treat recent results with a critical eye. Many published working memory training studies suffer from design limitations (no-c...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have found that working memory capacity and perceptual speed predict variation in fluid intelligence. Within the cognitive ageing literature, perceptual speed accounts for substantial ageing variance in working memory capacity and fluid intelligence. However, within young adults, the interrelationships among these three abilities a...
Article
Cogmed working memory training is sold as a tool for improving cognitive abilities, such as attention and reasoning. At present, this program is marketed to schools as a means of improving underperforming students’ scholastic performance, and is also available at clinical practices as a treatment for ADHD. We review research conducted with Cogmed s...
Article
Highlights ► Working memory training cannot be argued to be either effective or non-effective. Rather it is a work in progress. ► As such, commercial working memory training products are deemed premature. ► We argue that the efficacy of working memory training paradigms must be judged on a case-by-case basis.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines two varieties of working memory (WM) capacity task: visual arrays (i.e., a measure of the amount of information that can be maintained in working memory) and complex span (i.e., a task that taps WM-related attentional control). Using previously collected data sets we employ confirmatory factor analysis to demonstrate that...
Article
Full-text available
One approach to understanding working memory (WM) holds that individual differences in WM capacity arise from the amount of information a person can store in WM over short periods of time. This view is especially prevalent in WM research conducted with the visual arrays task. Within this tradition, many researchers have concluded that the average p...
Article
Full-text available
Working memory (WM) is a cognitive system that strongly relates to a person's ability to reason with novel information and direct attention to goal-relevant information. Due to the central role that WM plays in general cognition, it has become the focus of a rapidly growing training literature that seeks to affect broad cognitive change through pro...