Ramiro O. Bustamante

Ramiro O. Bustamante
University of Chile · Ecological Sciences

35.66
 · 
Doctor in Biological Sciences

About

159
Publications
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2,523
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Publications

Publications (159)
Article
Full-text available
Background and aim – Invasive plants should only colonize habitats meeting the environmental conditions included in their native niches. However, if they invade habitats with novel environmental conditions, this can induce shifts in their niches. This may occur in plants with long invasion histories because they interacted with the environmental co...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change affects the dynamics of vector-borne diseases. Culex pipiens Linnaeus is the main vector of West Nile fever; a widely distributed arbovirus, it is continuously increasing its distribution. Using a species distribution model, maps of suitable habitats of Cx. pipiens were generated for Chile in the current climate and three climate cha...
Article
Full-text available
Preferential temperature as a physiological feature is crucial for spiders, since it determines the selection of key habitats for their survival and reproduction. In this work, we study the daily and geographical variation of the preferential temperature of the spider Sicarius thomisoides subjected to different degrees of daily thermal oscillation...
Article
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Background: Mepraia gajardoi and Mepraia spinolai are endemic triatomine vector species of Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite that causes Chagas disease. These vectors inhabit arid, semiarid and Mediterranean areas of Chile. Mepraia gajardoi occurs from 18° to 25°S, and M. spinolai from 26° to 34°S. Even though both species are involved in T. cruzi tra...
Article
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Background and Aims Global climate change is a major threat to biodiversity worldwide. Several arid areas might expand in the future, but it is not clear if this change would be positive or negative for arid-adapted lineages. Here, we explore whether climatic niche properties are involved in the configuration of climate refugia and thus in future s...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Tree invasions are a threat to biodiversity conservation, and although it is hard to predict the future spread of invasive tree species, there are tools available which could allow some estimations. The magnitude of spatial spread (a proxy of invasiveness) can be predicted from species climatic requirement (climatic niche) and can be represen...
Article
Full-text available
Pine invasion is a global threat that is occurring in native forests of diverse regions of the world. This process is arising in a scenario of rapid forest deforestation and degradation. Therefore, elucidate which forests attributes explain invasibility is a central issue in forest ecology. The Coastal Maulino forest is an endemic forest of central...
Preprint
Full-text available
Coastal Maulino forest is an endemic forest of central Chile, which has suffered a large history of disturbance, being replaced by large extensions of Pinus radiata plantations. This land transformation conveys high rates of pines invasion into native remnants. In this study we examined to what extent structural features of forest patches explains...
Article
Introducción Es necesario conocer mejor la estructura y composición del bos-que nativo a una escala fina y media y en extensas superficies, para poder ejercer sobre estos ecosistemas un mejor manejo. Se han efectuado clasificaciones de bosques con imágenes satelitales, con la limitante que se han selec-cionado píxeles que son poco re-presentativos...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
La palma chilena o Jubaea chilensis (Molina Baillón), es una especie monotípica, endémica, relicta y amenazada de Chile central. El roedor Octodon degus (Molina) es considerado un dispersor efectivo responsable de dispersar semillas a sitios seguros de modo de asegurar el reclutamiento de plántulas. En este estudio se evaluó la intensidad de la int...
Poster
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La regeneración natural de algunas especies leñosas pertenecientes al clima mediterráneo está limitada en las etapas iniciales del reclutamiento. El grado de exposición de las semillas post-dispersión enterrada en suelo, bajo hojarasca, puede afectar su desempeño frente a factores abióticos y bióticos como es la deshidratación o la depredación. El...
Conference Paper
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La Hipótesis Centro Periferia (HCP en adelante) supone que las especies son más abundantes en el centro de su rango geográfico (óptimos) y disminuyen hacia los bordes del mismo (sub-óptimos). Sin embargo, existen muchas excepciones. Proponemos que la HCP se cumple solo en el espacio del nicho ecológico (hipervolumen N-dimensional). Poblaciones ópti...
Presentation
Las bajas temperaturas son uno de los filtros ambientales más importante para la distribución y establecimiento de plantas en altas elevaciones, actuando como una presión selectiva. Especies que logran establecerse deben poseer rasgos adaptativos que les ayuden a persistir bajo estas condiciones (i.e. resistencia al congelamiento). La llegada creci...
Article
Temperature is one of the most important environmental variables for organisms, especially for ectothermic animals. In fact, ectotherms must move within a relatively narrow range of temperatures where they are able to maximize their performance. We assessed the thermal ecology of female sand spiders (Sicarius thomisoides) in Chile from separate pop...
Article
The global distribution of Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae) was analysed by comparing global and regional niche models. Temperature was important in both models: the highest contributor to the global model was ‘annual mean temperature’ (Bio1, 68.1%), whereas the most important variable in the regional models (including the native area) wa...
Article
Background: Reductions of genetic diversity and phenotypic changes in invasive plants are often observed to occur at high elevations. Genetic/phenotypic changes of invasive plants along elevation help to understand mechanisms of the presumed resistance of mountain ecosystems to invasion. Aims: To assess genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity...
Article
Full-text available
Pouteria splendens (A.DC.) Kuntze, the Chilean lúcumo, is an endemic tree and the only member of the Sapotaceae family in Chile. It is considered an endangered species as a consequence of its restricted distribution and small population size. Currently, individuals of P. splendens are immersed in a heterogeneous landscape with rocky mounds and plai...
Article
Full-text available
In spiders, temperature is considered an important environmental variable for microhabitat selection. In this study, we evaluated the effect of temperature and rock size on the presence of the sand recluse spider Sicarius thomisoides and the degree of selectivity in different locations. This species is a large spider that lives under rocks in deser...
Article
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Background: Seed mass is a life history trait that is related to invasiveness. Under limiting conditions, a trade-off is observed whereby an increase in seed mass occurs at the expense of seed numbers; if the above trade-off holds across climatic gradients it can provide an opportunity to assess the fitness/invasive potential of exotic plants. Aims...
Article
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An appropriate germination response to environmental conditions is the first requirement for the establishment of a plant in a determined geographic area; therefore changes in the germination niche may be critical in configuring the current pattern of species distributions. Furthermore, the spread of many Neotropical groups to higher latitudes are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Identificando poblaciones desde el espacio: El uso de las tecnologías digitales para clasificar poblaciones de Jubaea chilensis (Molina) Baill en el sector palmas de Ocoa, Valparaíso, Chile.
Presentation
Full-text available
Las especies invasoras pueden constituir una amenaza para la biodiversidad. Los modelos de distribución de especies han sido una herramienta muy útil para predecir las invasiones. Aquí, utilizamos las probabilidades de ocurrencia generadas a partir de los SDMs globales y regionales de 65 especies exóticas presentes en Australia, identificando las d...
Article
The brown widow spider, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, 1841, is a large spider of the family Theridiidae that belongs to a genus of medical interest owing to its potent neurotoxic venom, which causes severe pain in humans. In America, this alien spider has been found in virtually all countries in the region, mainly associated with human dwelli...
Article
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In Chile, all necrotic arachnidism is attributed to the Chilean recluse spider Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae). It is predated by the spitting spider Scytodes globula (Nicolet) (Araneae: Scytodidae). The biology of each of these species is not well known and it is important to clarify their distributions. The aims of this study are...
Article
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Jubaea chilensis is an endemic tree of Central Chile (31º15’-35º22’ S). The current main conservation threats for this species should be associated with different factors which limit its natural regeneration, in particular the intense seeds crop. The analysis of spatial distribution patterns can be an important tool to understand the forest dynamic...
Article
Full-text available
Jubaea chilensis is an endemic tree of Central Chile (31º15’- 35º22’ S). The current main conservation threats for this species should be associated with different factors which limit its natural regeneration, in particular the intense seeds crop. The analysis of spatial distribution patterns can be an important tool to understand the forest dynami...
Article
Full-text available
Climatic niche models for invasive plants are usually constructed with occurrence records taken from literature and collections. Because these data neither discriminate among life-cycle stages of plants (adult or juvenile) nor the origin of individuals (naturally established or man-planted), the resulting models may mispredict the distribution rang...
Data
Occurrence records of Peruvian peppertrees in Mexico. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Despite several reports point out a rhizosphere effect shaping soil microbial communities and others an effect of altitude on plant phenotypic features, currently little is known about the impact of elevational patterns on the diversity of soil microbial communities. In this study, diversity of soil microbial communities was assessed in samples der...
Article
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We used fossil and phylogenetic evidence to reconstruct climatic niche evolution in Nothofagus, a Gondwana genus distributed in tropical and temperate latitudes. To assess whether the modern distribution of the genus can be explained by the tropical conservatism hypothesis, we tested three predictions: (1) species from all Nothofagus subgenera coex...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Alien plant invasions in inland freshwaters can alter community structure, ecosystem functions and services with significant negative impacts on biodiversity and human activities. National inventories of aquatic alien plants are a fundamental basis for prioritization, risk analysis and management and provide substantial insights to our understandin...
Article
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Shrubs can have a net positive effect on the recruitment of other species, especially relict species in dry-stressful conditions. We tested the effects of nurse shrubs and herbivory defoliation on performance (survival and growth) of nursery-grown seedlings of the largest living palm, the relict wine palm Jubaea chilensis. During an 18-month period...
Article
The biotic resistance hypothesis states that species diversity is a barrier for plant biological invasions because alien species are more likely to find strong competitors as diversity of native plants increases. In stressful environments, however, these negative relationships could be diluted because increased physical harshness might reduce the i...
Article
The component Allee effect has been defined as “a positive relationship between any measure of individual fitness and the number or density of conspecifics.” Larger plant populations or large patches have shown a higher pollinator visitation rate, which may give rise to an Allee effect in reproduction of the plants. We experimentally tested the eff...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: The explosive growth of urbanisation in Mediterranean ecosystems in Chile has favoured the rapid expansion of exotic plant species, yet factors driving these invasion patterns in adjacent natural areas remain poorly assessed. Aims: To assess how distance to a suburban/wildland border, habitat type, site-scale disturbance and wo...
Article
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Aquatic invasive species are a major threat to native freshwater ecosystems and cause enormous ecological and economic damage worldwide. Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt is an emerging invasive aquatic species that is spreading aggressively in Southern South America. Using niche analysis and species distribution models (SDMs), we examine...
Article
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Lantana camara, a native plant from tropical America, is considered one of the most harmful invasive species worldwide. Several studies have identified potentially invasible areas under scenarios of global change, on the assumption that niche is conserved during the invasion process. Recent studies, however, suggest that many invasive plants do not...
Article
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Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation struct...
Data
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Species climate requirements are useful for predicting their geographic distribution. It is often assumed that the niche requirements for invasive plants are conserved during invasion, especially when the invaded regions share similar climate conditions. California and central Chile have a remarkable degree of convergence in their vegetation struct...
Article
Full-text available
Negative photoblastism is defined as the inhibitory effect of light on seed germination. This effect can be modulated by abiotic variables, such as temperature, light condition and water potential. This conditions change notoriously at higher altitudes, could promote differentiations in the photoblastic response among populations. Also, this physio...
Chapter
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Protected areas are generally considered ‘remnant islands’ of relatively natural ecosystems and are thus less susceptible to plant invasions than the anthropogenic matrix. However, there is increasing evidence that some invasive species are capable of invading more isolated natural landscapes, higher elevations and relatively undisturbed ecosystems...
Poster
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Pinus contorta, is regarded one of the most invasive conifers worldwide. This species has been planted in different countries of the southern hemisphere. In most cases, it has become invasive, thus colonizing and establishing in native ecosystems. P. contorta is comprised by a complex of varieties which differ morphologically and ecologically: P. c...
Article
Full-text available
Pouteria splendens (Chilean lucumo, red wood) is an endemic and endangered tree from Central Chile. It is the only member of the Sapotaceae family in the country and little is known about his life cycle. In this work we described the spatial distribution of seedlings in the biggest remained population of the species, and we investigated the effect...
Article
Pouteria splendens (Chilean lúcumo, red wood) is an endemic and endangered tree from Central Chile. It is the only member of the Sapotaceae family in the country and little is known about his life cycle. In this work we described the spatial distribution of seedlings in the biggest remained population of the species, and we investigated the effect...
Article
Full-text available
Natural protected areas (ASP) located in the south-central Chile (Región Metropolitana - Región de la Araucanía) are a conservation relict embedded in agricultural and silvicultural matrices. We compared the taxonomic diversity of native and introduced species in nine sites on ASP and their adjacent matrices, in roadsides and interior habitats. We...
Article
Full-text available
El fotoblastismo negativo es definido como el efecto inhibitorio de la luz sobre la germinación de las semillas. Este efecto puede ser modulado por variables abióticas, tales como temperatura, condición lumínica y potencial hídrico. Estas condiciones cambian notoriamente a mayores altitudes, pudiendo promover diferenciación en la respuesta fotoblás...
Article
Full-text available
Natural protected areas (ASP) located in the south-central Chile (Region Metropolitana - Region de la Araucania) are a conservation relict embedded in agricultural and silvicultural matrices. We compared the taxonomic diversity of native and introduced species in nine sites on ASP and their adjacent matrices, in roadsides and interior habitats. We...
Article
The history of conifers introduced earlier elsewhere in the southern hemisphere suggests that recent invasions in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay are likely to increase in number and size. In South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, early ornamental introductions and small forestry plantations did not lead to large-scale invasions, while subse...
Article
Land use changes may alter seed consumption patterns by vertebrates in forest landscapes. However, while some studies reported increased seed removal rates from the interior of forest patches towards the surrounding matrix habitat, other studies showed the opposite pattern. These inconsistencies perhaps occur because most of these experiments were...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we compared demographic responses of Eschscholzia californica populations located at different altitude, under the basic assumption that altitudinal gradients impose environmental limitation to the spread at the upper edge of the gradient. We detected significant differences among populations either in terms of life history attribute...
Article
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The indirect impact of flower herbivory on plant reproduction depends on the pollination environment, particularly on the presence or absence of pollinator species with the ability to discriminate damaged from undamaged flowers. The change in pollinator assemblages, due to habitat modification, may modify the impact of flower herbivory on plant rep...
Poster
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Modelos de análisis de viabilidad poblacional (PVA), logran identificar los riesgos de extinción en las poblaciones y han jugado un rol fundamental en Biología de la Conservación para identificar especies vulnerables o en peligro. Una mirada alternativa podría servir para evaluar la invasibilidad de las especies exóticas. Así, especies con menor ri...
Article
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Premise of the study: We isolated and characterized microsatellite markers for the California poppy, Eschscholzia californica, which is an invasive species in central Chile. Methods and results: A total of eight polymorphic and six monomorphic loci were developed for the species. Between one and 12 alleles were observed per locus. Polymorphic lo...
Article
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While many developed countries have invested heavily in research on plant invasions over the last 50 years, the immense region of Latin America has made little progress. Recognising this, a group of scientists working on plant invasions in Latin America met in Chile in late 2010 to develop a research agenda for the region based on lessons learned e...