Ramesh Balasubramaniam

Ramesh Balasubramaniam
University of California, Merced | UCM · Department of Cognitive Science

Professor

About

114
Publications
18,231
Reads
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2,184
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2013 - present
University of California, Merced
Position
  • Professor
Description
  • Center for Human Adaptive Systems and Environments
July 2008 - June 2013
McMaster University
January 2008 - present
Université d'Ottawa
Education
August 1996 - August 2000
University of Connecticut
Field of study
  • Experimental Psychology

Publications

Publications (114)
Article
The bimanual advantage refers to the finding that tapping with two fingers on opposite hands exhibits reduced timing variability, as compared with tapping with only one finger. Two leading theories propose that the bimanual advantage results from the addition of either sensory (i.e., enhanced feedback) or cognitive (i.e., multiple timekeeper) proce...
Article
Studies of fingertip force production have shown that self-produced forces are perceived as weaker than externally generated ones. This is due to mechanisms of sensory reafference where the comparison between predicted and actual sensory feedback results in attenuated perceptions of self-generated forces. Without an external reference to calibrate...
Article
Full-text available
The Lombard effect describes the automatic and involuntary increase in vocal intensity that speakers exhibit in a noisy environment. Previous studies of the Lombard effect have typically focused on the relationship between speaking and hearing. Automatic and involuntary increases in motor output have also been noted in studies of finger force produ...
Article
Full-text available
A key feature of skilled object control is the ability to correct performance errors. This process is not straightforward for unstable objects (e.g., inverted pendulum or "stick" balancing) because the mechanics of the object are sensitive to small control errors, which can lead to rapid performance changes. In this study, we have characterized joi...
Article
We address the complex relationship between the stability, variability, and adaptability of psychological systems by decomposing the global variance of serial performance into two independent parts: the local variance (LV) and the serial correlation structure. For two time series with equal LV, the presence of persistent long-range correlations (or...
Article
The serial reaction time task (SRTT) is commonly used to study motor learning and memory. The task is traditionally administered in a lab setting with parti- cipants responding via button box or keyboard to targets on a screen. By comparing response times of sequential versus random trials and accuracy across sequential trials, different forms of l...
Article
Full-text available
Perception of, and synchronization to, auditory rhythms is known to be more accurate than with flashing visual rhythms. The motor system is known to play a role in the processing of timing information for auditory rhythm perception, but it is unclear if the motor system plays the same role for visual rhythm perception. One demonstrated component of...
Article
Full-text available
Neural mechanisms supporting time perception in continuously changing sensory environments may be relevant to a broader understanding of how the human brain utilizes time in cognition and action. In this review, we describe current theories of sensorimotor engagement in the support of subsecond timing. We focus on musical timing due to the extensiv...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neural mechanisms supporting time perception in continuously changing sensory environments may be relevant to a broader understanding of how the human brain utilizes time in cognition and action. In this review, we describe current theories of sensorimotor engagement in the support of subsecond timing. We focus on musical timing due to the extensiv...
Article
Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) has been used to focally regulate excitability of neural cortex over the past decade – however there is little consensus on the generalizability of effects reported in individual studies. Many studies use small sample sizes (N < 30), and there is a considerable amount of methodological heterogeneity in ap...
Article
Full-text available
Humans interact with other humans at a variety of timescales and in a variety of social contexts. We exhibit patterns of coordination that may differ depending on whether we are genuinely interacting as part of a coordinated group of individuals vs merely co-existing within the same physical space. Moreover, the local coordination dynamics of an in...
Article
Brain systems supporting body movement are active during music listening in the absence of overt movement. This covert motor activity is not well understood, but some theories propose a role in auditory timing prediction facilitated by motor simulation. One question is how music-related covert motor activity relates to motor activity during overt m...
Article
Harm to some elicits greater sympathy than harm to others. Here, we examine the role of posterior medial frontal cortex (PMFC) in regulating sympathy, and explore the potential role of PMFC in the related phenomena of mentalizing and representing others as connected with oneself. We down-regulated either PMFC or a control region (middle temporal vi...
Article
Rhythm perception depends on the ability to predict the onset of rhythmic events. Previous studies indicate beta band modulation is involved in predicting the onset of auditory rhythmic events (Snyder & Large, 2005; Fujioka et al., 2009, 2012). We sought to determine if similar processes are recruited for prediction of visual rhythms by investigati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) has been used to focally regulate excitability of neural cortex over the past decade – however there is little consensus on the generalizability of effects reported in individual studies. Many studies use small sample sizes (n < 30), and there is a considerable amount of methodological heterogeneity in ap...
Article
Full-text available
Although cognitive activity has been modeled through the lens of dynamical systems theory, the field lacks robust demonstrations in the learning of mathematical concepts. One empirical context demonstrating potential for closing this gap is embodied design, wherein students learn to enact new movement patterns that instantiate mathematical schemes....
Preprint
Harm to some elicits greater sympathy than harm to others. Here, we examine the role of posterior medial frontal cortex (PMFC) in regulating sympathy, and explore the potential role of PMFC in the related phenomena of mentalizing and representing others as connected with oneself. We down-regulated either PMFC or a control region (middle temporal vi...
Preprint
Humans interact with other humans at a variety of timescales and in a variety of social contexts. We exhibit patterns of coordination that may differ depending on whether we are genuinely interacting as part of a coordinated group of individuals vs merely co-existing within the same physical space. Moreover, the local coordination dynamics of an in...
Article
The ability to perceive and produce movements in the real world with precise timing is critical for survival in animals, including humans. However, research on sensorimotor timing has rarely considered the tight interrelation between perception, action, and cognition. In this review, we present new evidence from behavioral, computational, and neura...
Preprint
Full-text available
Rhythm perception depends on the ability to predict the onset of rhythmic events. Previous studies indicate beta band modulation is involved in predicting the onset of auditory rhythmic events (Snyder & Large, 2005; Fujioka et al., 2009, 2012). We sought to determine if similar processes are recruited for prediction of visual rhythms by investigati...
Article
Full-text available
Research indicates that the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) functions as a ‘neural alarm’ complex broadly involved in registering threats and helping to muster relevant responses. Holbrook and colleagues (2016) investigated whether pMFC similarly mediates ideological threat-responses, finding that down-regulating pMFC via transcranial magnet...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we review recent advances in research on rhythm and musical beat perception, focusing on the role of predictive processes in auditory motor interactions. We suggest that experimental evidence of the motor system's role in beat perception, including in passive listening, may be explained by the generation and maintenance of internal...
Preprint
Research indicates that the posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) functions as a ‘neural alarm’broadly involved in registering threats and helping to muster relevant responses. Holbrook andcolleagues (2016) investigated whether pMFC similarly mediates ideological threat-responses,finding that down-regulating pMFC via transcranial magnetic stimulat...
Poster
Full-text available
In a classic Fitt's reaching task, we implemented both elastic and viscous loads on one or both of the arms using a Kinarm robotic exoskeleton to understand how perturbations influence reaching behavior. Overall, we found that the Fitt's principle may not be able to account for bimanual reaches when elastic forces are imposed on the hands, but it d...
Data
Final dataset as a NIFTI file. (NII)
Data
Completed PRISMA checklist for meta-analysis. (DOC)
Article
Full-text available
Previous work on sensorimotor synchronization has investigated the dynamics of finger tapping and how individual movement trajectories contribute to timing accuracy via asymmetry in movement velocities. The present study investigated sensorimotor synchronization (in-phase) and syncopation (anti-phase) to both an auditory metronome and a visual flas...
Article
Full-text available
Several neuroimaging studies have shown that listening to music activates brain regions that reside in the motor system, even when there is no overt movement. However, many of these studies report the activation of varying motor system areas that include the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal and ventral pre-motor areas and pari...
Article
Corticospinal excitability (CSE) in humans measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is generally increased by the perception of other people’s actions. This perception can be unimodal (visual or auditory) or multimodal (visual and auditory). The increase in TMS-measured CSE is typically prominent for muscles involved in the perceived a...
Article
Previous work on sensorimotor synchronization has investigated the dynamics of finger tapping and how individual movement trajectories contribute to timing accuracy via asymmetry in movement velocities. The present study investigated sensorimotor synchronization (in-phase) and syncopation (anti-phase) to both an auditory metronome and a visual flas...
Preprint
Full-text available
It has been suggested that movement planning networks are critical for time perception. The Action Simulation for Auditory Prediction (ASAP) hypothesis proposes that the dorsal auditory stream is involved in predictive beat-based timing through bidirectional interchange between auditory perception and dorsal premotor (dPMC) prediction via parietal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Cortico-spinal excitability (CSE) in humans measured with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is generally increased by the perception of other people's actions. This perception can be unimodal (visual or auditory) or multimodal (visual and auditory). The increase in TMS-measured CSE is typically prominent for muscles involved in the perceived...
Article
It has long been known that the auditory system is better suited to guide temporally precise behaviors like sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) than the visual system. Although this phenomenon has been studied for many years, the underlying neural and computational mechanisms remain unclear. Growing consensus suggests the existence of multiple, inte...
Article
Tapping in synchrony to an isochronous rhythm involves several key functions of the sensorimotor system including timing, prediction and error correction. While auditory sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) has been well studied, much less is known about mechanisms involved in visual SMS. By comparing error correction in auditory and visual SMS, it c...
Preprint
Tapping in synchrony to an isochronous rhythm involves several key functions of the sensorimotor system including timing, prediction and error correction. While auditory sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) has been well studied, much less is known about mechanisms involved in visual SMS. By comparing error correction in auditory and visual SMS, it c...
Article
There is growing interest in how the brain’s motor systems contribute to the perception of musical rhythms. The Action Simulation for Auditory Prediction (ASAP) hypothesis proposes that the dorsal auditory stream is involved in bidirectional interchange between auditory perception and beat-based prediction in motor planning structures via parietal...
Article
Long-range correlations are often manifested in the form of 1/fβ noise in a series of repeated measurements of the same neural or behavioral variable. Recent work has demonstrated that the magnitude and nature of these long-range correlations reliably capture individual differences and variation in task performance. In sensorimotor timing experimen...
Article
Full-text available
Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure—syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchic...
Conference Paper
Many different functional roles have been ascribed to the motor system due to its prevalent recruitment in perceptual and cognitive tasks other than motor production. We discuss findings that suggest the motor system might take on multiple roles that vary with context and the brain networks involved. Using single-pulse TMS, we measured the corticos...
Article
A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We...
Article
There is growing interest and research on the idea that the motor system may play an essential role in the perception of rhythm. Although the idea of motor involvement is not new, recently there has been accumulating neural evidence that the motor system is active during the perception of rhythms with a strong beat, even in the absence of overt mov...
Article
Quantifying how patterns of behavior relate across multiple levels of measurement typically requires long time series for reliable parameter estimation. We describe a novel analysis that estimates patterns of variability across multiple scales of analysis suitable for time series of short duration. The multiscale coefficient of variation (MSCV) mea...
Article
Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white nois...
Research
Full-text available
Review in Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Article
Timescales of postural fluctuation reflect underlying neuromuscular processes in balance control that are influenced by sensory information and the performance of concurrent cognitive and motor tasks. An open question is how postural fluctuations entrain to complex environmental rhythms, such as in music, which also vary on multiple timescales. Mus...
Conference Paper
Long-range correlations are often manifested in the form of 1/f β noise in a series of repeated measurements of the same neural or behavioral variable (Torre et al, 2011a, 2011b). Recent work has shown the magnitude and nature of these long-range correlations can be influenced by a number of experimental factors. For example, in motor timing, task...
Article
The contributions of somatosensory, vestibular and visual feedback to balance control are well documented, but the influence of auditory information, especially acoustic noise, on balance is less clear. Because somatosensory noise has been shown to reduce postural sway, we hypothesized that noise from the auditory modality might have a similar effe...
Article
Synchronizing movements with a beat requires rapid compensation for timing errors. The phase-correction response (PCR) has been studied extensively in finger tapping by shifting a metronome onset and measuring the adjustment of the following tap time. How the response unfolds during the subsequent tap cycle remains unknown. Using motion capture, we...
Article
Full-text available
The human sensorimotor system can be readily entrained to environmental rhythms, through multiple sensory modalities. In this review, we provide an overview of theories of timekeeping that make this neuroentrainment possible. First, we present recent evidence that contests the assumptions made in classic timekeeper models. The role of state estimat...
Article
Full-text available
Sensory information from our eyes, skin and muscles helps guide and correct balance. Less appreciated, however, is that delays in the transmission of sensory information between our eyes, limbs and central nervous system can exceed several 10s of milliseconds. Investigating how these time-delayed sensory signals influence balance control is central...
Article
Full-text available
An important question in oculomanual control is whether motor planning and execution modulate interference between motion of the eyes and hands. Here we investigated oculomanual interference using a novel paradigm that required saccadic eye movements and unimanual finger tapping. We examined finger trajectories for spatial interference caused by co...
Article
Although the dominant focus of human motor control and learning has been on sequence production and force field adaptation, the control of unstable objects has received much less attention. In this review, we summarize a recent body of work on the control of unstable objects using the paradigmatic example of stick balancing. In a series of four stu...
Article
It has been suggested that music and language share syntax-supporting brain mechanisms. Consequently, violations of syntax in either domain may have similar effects. The present study examined the effects of syntactic incongruities on eye movements and reading time in both music and language domains. In the music notation condition, the syntactic i...
Article
Age-related decline in control mechanisms and sensory information detection adversely affect balance in older adults. This effect is particularly pronounced during the performance of a concurrent cognitive task. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of cognitive load and the temporal salience of delayed visual feedback (DVF) on t...
Article
This article serves as an introduction to the themed special issue on "Complex Systems in Neurobiology." The study of complexity in neurobiology has been sensitive to the stochastic processes that dominate the micro-level architecture of neurobiological systems and the deterministic processes that govern the macroscopic behavior of these systems. A...
Article
Full-text available
An internal clock-like process has been implicated in the control of rhythmic movements performed for short (250-2,000 ms) time scales. However, in the past decade, it has been claimed that a clock-like central timing mechanism is not required for smooth cyclical movements. The distinguishing characteristic delineating clock-like (event) from non-c...
Article
Theories of motor learning argue that the acquisition of novel motor skills requires a task-specific organization of sensory and motor subsystems. We examined task-specific coupling between motor subsystems as subjects learned a novel stick-balancing task. We focused on learning-induced changes in finger movements and body sway and investigated the...
Article
Full-text available
Recent investigations have revealed the kinematics of horizontal saccades are less variable near the end of the trajectory than during the course of execution. Converging evidence indicates that oculomotor networks use online sensorimotor feedback to correct for initial trajectory errors. It is also known that oculomotor networks express saccadic c...
Article
Full-text available
1/f β noise represents a specific form of (long-range) correlations in a time series that is pervasive across many sensorimotor variables. Recent studies have shown that the precise properties of the correlations demonstrated by a group of test participants may vary as a function of experimental conditions or factors characterizing the group. Our p...
Article
Self-control can be depleted by performing effortful tasks. However, greater self-determination (autonomy) while self-regulating effort results in less self-control depletion (Moller et al., 2006). In the present study, we examined self-control preceding and following an effortful exercise bout involving either controlled or autonomous choice. It w...
Article
Age-related decline in control mechanisms and sensory information detection adversely affect balance in older adults. This effect is particularly pronounced during the performance of a concurrent cognitive task. The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of cognitive load and the temporal salience of delayed visual feedback (DVF) o...
Article
In this experiment, we examined the extent to which postural control is influenced by visual and cognitive task performance. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a balance task in eyes-open (EO) and delayed visual feedback (DVF) conditions. DVF was presented at delays ranging from 0 to 1200ms in 300ms increments. Cognitive load was impleme...
Article
Previous research suggests that removal of visual feedback of force output in a sequential force production task results in a continuous escalation of the force magnitudes produced. Central predictive mechanisms involving reafference result in self-generated forces being perceived as weaker, thus leading to a systematic over-production of force. Wh...