Ramakrishnan Nair

Ramakrishnan Nair
World Vegetable Center | AVRDC · South Asia/ Central Asia

PhD

About

191
Publications
136,599
Reads
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3,280
Citations
Introduction
Ramakrishnan (Ram) M. Nair was appointed Regional Director for WorldVeg South and Central Asia in March 2020. He also leads the WorldVeg global legume breeding program and the International Mungbean Improvement Network (IMIN).
Additional affiliations
March 2020 - present
World Vegetable Center
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2018 - present
World Vegetable Center
Position
  • Global Plant Breeder - Legumes
July 2010 - July 2018
World Vegetable Center
Position
  • Vegetable Breeder - Legumes
Education
July 2019 - January 2020
Makerere University and Cornell University
Field of study
  • Gender responsive plant breeding
July 2009 - June 2010
University of Adelaide
Field of study
  • School of Business
August 1988 - January 1992
Kerala Agricultural University
Field of study
  • Plant Breeding

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
Full-text available
Microgreens have been used for raw consumption and are generally viewed as healthy food. This study aimed to optimize the yield parameters, shelf life, sensory evaluation and characterization of total aerobic bacteria (TAB), yeast and mold (Y&M), Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria spp. incidence in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)...
Preprint
While the domestication process has been investigated in many crops, the detailed route of cultivar range expansion and factors governing this process received relatively little attention. Here using mungbean ( Vigna radiata var. radiata ) as a test case, we investigated the genomes of more than one thousand accessions to illustrate climatic adapta...
Article
Macrophomina phaseolina, a fungus that causes dry root rot, is a relatively new threat to blackgram in South Asia. Since this pathogen is a polyphagic necrotroph, it remains viable in the soil for several years, making disease management challenging. One of the most economical methods for managing dry root rot in blackgram is through an integrated...
Article
Full-text available
Vigna stipulacea (Lam.) Kuntz., commonly known as Minni payaru is an underutilized legume species and has a great potential to be utilized as food crop. To evaluate and select the best germplasm to be harnessed in the breeding programme, we assessed the genetic diversity of V . stipulacea (94 accessions) conserved in the Indian National Genebank, b...
Article
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Micronutrient malnutrition or hidden hunger is a serious challenge toward societal well-being. Vigna stipulacea (Lam.) Kuntz (known locally as Minni payaru), is an underutilized legume that has the potential to be a global food legume due to its rich nutrient profile. In the present study, 99 accessions of V. stipulacea were tested for iron (Fe), z...
Article
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Phosphorus (P) is one of the major constraints for crop growth and development, owing to low availability and least mobility in many tropical soil conditions. Categorization of existing germplasm under P deficient conditions is a prerequisite for the selection and development of P efficient genotypes in the mungbean. In the present investigation, 3...
Chapter
Pests and diseases amount to an estimated 1/sixth of farm produce losses globally each year, and overall losses in attainable yield due to pest and diseases are far greater in Asia and Africa impacting smallholder farmers’ ability to feed their families. In legumes, the production is severely affected by different species of soil-borne and foliar p...
Article
Full-text available
Mungbean (Vignaradiata L. Wilczek) is an early maturing legume grown predominantly in Asia for its protein-rich seeds. P deficiency can lead to several physiological disorders which ultimately result in a low grain yield in mungbean. The genetic dissection of PUpE (Puptake efficiency) and PUtE (P utilization efficiency) traits are essential for bre...
Article
Full-text available
Mungbeans and lentils are relatively easily grown and cheaper sources of microgreens, but their phytonutrient diversity is not yet deeply explored. In this study, 20 diverse genotypes each of mungbean and lentil were grown as microgreens under plain-altitude (Delhi) and high-altitude (Leh) conditions, which showed significant genotypic variations f...
Article
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In the human diet, particularly for most of the vegetarian population, mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly source of protein. Being a short-duration crop, mungbean fits well into different cropping systems dominated by staple food crops such as rice and wheat. Hence, knowing the growth and production p...
Article
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Citation: Mmbando, F.; Mbeyagala, E.; Binagwa, P.; Karimi, R.; Opie, H.; Ochieng, J.; Mutuoki, T.; Nair, R.M. Abstract: This study analyzes the factors that influence the probability and extent of the adoption of mungbean production technologies in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda, using multivariate probit and Poisson regression models. The results show...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural mechanization has spread across much of Asia since the 1960s. It has increased agricultural productivity and reduced arduous farm work. However, differing impacts for smallholders and hired laborers, and for men and women, require careful consideration. This study analyzed, ex-ante, the likely social and economic tradeoffs of mechanizi...
Article
Full-text available
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is an important food grain legume, but its production capacity is threatened by global warming, which can intensify plant stress and limit future production. Identifying new variation of key root traits in mungbean will provide the basis for breeding lines with effective root characteristics for improved water uptake to...
Article
Full-text available
Anthracnose is a prevalent disease of mungbean in Asian countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by multiple Colletotrichum species. The high levels of anthracnose resistance in mungbean have not been studied in depth in India, but genetic resistance is desired. In this study, we identified the causal agent of mungbean anthracnose in two regi...
Poster
Among the legumes, black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] plays an important role in the vegetarian diet owing to its good quality protein (~26%) and availability of several other essential minerals and vitamins. The black gram yield has been limited by several biotic and abiotic constraints, anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum is one...
Poster
The mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] cultivation in Asia is challenged by several fungal, bacterial and viral diseases, of which dry root rot (DRR) caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid is considered as one of the important emerging fungal diseases across growing agro-ecologies. It is a polyphagous necrotrophic pathogen that survives...
Poster
Pulses are known to be deficient in sulfur-containing amino acids viz. methionine and cysteine, while rich in other essential amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] also known as urdbean, is one of the important nutritionally dense pulse crops popularly grown in India and in other countries like Bangladesh and Mya...
Article
Full-text available
Dry root rot (DRR), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, is a prevalent disease of mungbean in Myanmar, and an emerging problem in South Asia. The pathogen is a polyphagous necrotroph, survives in the soil for many years that results disease mitigation difficult. Managing DRR in mungbean through an integrated approach has been suggested, and the use...
Article
Powdery mildew is a significant threat to mungbean (Vigna radiata) and black gram (V. mungo) production across Australia and overseas. Despite being present in Australia for at least six decades, and being easily recognized in the field, the precise identification of the pathogens causing this disease has remained unclear. Our goal was to identify...
Article
Full-text available
Background Improving the productivity of grain legumes is important to address global challenges of food security and soil degradation. This study’s objective was to quantify the adoption of improved mungbean ( Vigna radiata L.) varieties and agricultural practices and to identify production constraints for six countries in Southeast Asia and three...
Article
Full-text available
Soil microbes play a vital role in improving plant growth, soil health, ameliorate biotic/abiotic stress and enhance crop productivity. The present study was aimed to investigate a coordinated effect of compatible consortium [salt tolerating Rhizobium and rhizobacterium with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase] in enhancing plant grow...
Article
Full-text available
Yellow Mosaic Disease (YMD) in mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] is one of the most damaging diseases in Asia. In the northern part of India, the YMD is caused by Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV), while in southern India this is caused by Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMV). The molecular mechanism of YMD resistance in mungbean re...
Article
Full-text available
In the rice-fallow system, dry root rot (DRR) is an emerging disease of mungbean ( Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata ) caused by the necrotrophic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina . The pathogen causes extensive production losses. In this study, the bioactivity of four Trichoderma harzianum isolates, namely Th-Dharwad, Th-Raichur, Th-Niphm, a...
Article
Full-text available
Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) is an annual grain legume crop affected by low availability of phosphorus. Phosphorus deficiency mainly affects the growth and development of plants along with changes in root morphology and increase in root to-shoot ratio. Deciphering the genetic basis of phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) traits can benefit our un...
Article
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Background Mungbean ( Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek, or green gram) is important tropical and sub-tropical legume and a rich source of dietary protein and micronutrients. In this study we employ GWAS to examine the genetic basis of variation in several important traits in mungbean, using the mini-core collection established by the World Vegetable C...
Article
Full-text available
Farm mechanization can promote the economic sustainability of small farms and in the context of cereal-legume systems strengthen plant protein-based diets, which support human health and environmental sustainability. However, mechanization inevitably displaces hired laborers who depend on manual farm work for their income. Few studies have systemat...
Article
Full-text available
Background There is a need for better evidence for the impact of plant breeding research on nutrient-rich crops such as pulses to guide policy-making and investment. Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) is one of the major pulses of South and Southeast Asia and makes an important contribution to food security and agricultural sustainability. The o...
Article
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Disruption to food systems and impacts on livelihoods and diets have been brought into sharp focus by the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to investigate effects of this multi-layered shock on production, sales, prices, incomes and diets for vegetable farmers in India as both producers and consumers of nutrient-dense foods. We undertook a rapid telephon...
Article
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Roots enable the plant to survive in the natural environment by providing anchorage and acquisition of water and nutrients. In this study, root architectural traits of 153 mungbean genotypes were compared under optimum and low phosphorus (P) conditions. Significant variations and medium to high heritability were observed for the root traits. Total...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, yellow mosaic disease (YMD) remains a major constraint of mungbean production, and management of this deadly disease is still the biggest challenge. Thus, finding ways to manage YMD including development of varieties possessing resistance against mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) is a resea...
Article
Full-text available
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important legume crop for South East Asia. Smallholder farmers rely on this crop to diversify income streams and enrich soils through N-fixation. To produce new varieties that stabilize mungbean productivity under biotic and abiotic stresses, breeders need to take advantage of genomic tool...
Chapter
Mungbean is a good source of protein, carbohydrates and important minerals like iron and zinc. However, there is a good scope for improving the nutritional quality of currently available mungbean varieties. Variation for protein, carbohydrates, iron, zinc and in anti-nutritional factors like phytic acid have been reported. Even though some efforts...
Chapter
Legume crops play a key role for producing proteins for human and animal nutrition. Sustainable increase of plant protein production is essential to satisfy the rising demand of a growing world population. Breeding varieties with high and stable yields and with optimized nutritional value, which at the same time require less input in terms of energ...
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the economic importance of mungbean globally and the status of mungbean improvement research. The global mungbean area is about 7.3 million ha, and the average yield is 721 kg/ha. India and Myanmar each account for 30% of global output of 5.3 million t. Other large producers are China, Indonesia, Thailand, Kenya...
Chapter
Mungbean is a highly self-pollinating diploid species, with chromosome number of 2n = 22. Varietal improvement in mungbean has benefited greatly from exemplary work done in the past on determination of genetics of key traits. Varietal introductions, pure line selection, recombination breeding and mutagenesis have been employed successfully in devel...
Article
Full-text available
This study provides insights in patterns of distribution of abiotic and biotic stress resilience across Vigna gene pools to enhance the use and conservation of these genetic resources for legume breeding. Vigna is a pantropical genus with more than 88 taxa including important crops such as V. radiata (mung bean) and V. unguiculata (cowpea). Our res...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is an important nutrient-rich crop with an increasing significance as food in Asia and other parts of the world. The conditions under which mungbean grows on the field might vary significantly and therefore understanding the behavior of plants on different soil types is crucial for obtaining optimal nutr...
Book
This book reports on the current global status of mungbean and its economic importance. Mungbean (Vigna radiata)—also called green gram—is an important food and cash crop in the rice-based farming systems of South and Southeast Asia, but is also grown in other parts of the world. Its short duration, low input requirement and high global demand make...
Poster
Mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata) is an important legume crop grown predominantly in South and Southeast Asia. Several biotic and abiotic factors hinder the production of mungbean. Among the biotic stress, anthracnose disease is an important fungal disease of mungbean, and losses are common particularly in humid regions. In our...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster describes the project purpose and achievements made so far
Article
Full-text available
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important food and cash legume crop in Asia. Development of short duration varieties has paved the way for the expansion of mungbean into other regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Mungbean productivity is constrained by biotic and abiotic factors. Bruchids, whitefly, thri...
Article
Full-text available
Dry root rot (DRR) is an important emerging disease of mungbean caused by fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. The disease is seed and soil-borne and hence management is difficult. Exploitation of host resistance could be a good option to manage the disease. The objectives of this study were to characterize the isolates of M. phaseolina from three legum...
Article
Full-text available
Green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R Wilczek var. radiata) is an important pulse in the climatically marginal areas of Eastern Kenya. The pulse is cultivated primarily for food grain and income generation. Its productivity in Eastern Kenya has declined, because of drought and use of late maturing varieties. The objectives of the experiment were to (i)...
Article
Full-text available
Key message We describe here the recent developments about the involvement of diverse stress-related proteins in sensing, signaling, and defending the cells in plants in response to drought or/and heat stress. Abstract In the current era of global climate drift, plant growth and productivity are often limited by various environmental stresses, esp...
Article
Full-text available
The adoption of improved varieties is an important indicator of the effectiveness of agricultural research. This study quantified the adoption of improved mungbean (Vigna radiata (L). Wilczek) varieties and agricultural practices in Bangladesh, India, Myanmar and Pakistan using an expert elicitation approach. Data were collected from 19 expert pane...
Article
Full-text available
Rising global temperatures are proving to be detrimental for the agriculture. Hence, strategies are needed to induce thermotolerance in food crops to sustain the food production. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, can partially protect plants from high-temperature stress. This study hypothesises that declining GABA concentrations...
Article
Full-text available
Twenty six lines each of two legume crop species: mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] and vegetable soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merr.)] were evaluated for grain yield and fodder traits during 2013 in Hyderabad, India. Mungbean line, ML 818 was the best for nitrogen content and was also among the better performers for in vitro organic matter dig...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), also knownas Black Matpe or Urdbean is grown over 3 million ha in South and Southeast Asia.The average productivity of the crop is still below 500 kg/ha. Major constraints in improving the productivity of black gram are susceptibility of commonly grown varieties to Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Disease (MYMD), dry roo...
Article
Escalating temperatures are adversely impacting the production potential of various cool- and warm-season crops, such as Mungbean, therefore effective strategies are required to improve heat tolerance of various crops. Mungbean, a summer season food legume, is seriously affected at temperatures more than 35/25 °C, especially at its reproductive sta...
Preprint
Full-text available
Although new varieties are urgently needed for climate-smart legume production, legume breeding lags behind with cereals and underutilizes wild relatives. This paper provides insights in patterns of abiotic and biotic stress resilience of legume crops and wild relatives to enhance the use and conservation of these genetic resources for climate-smar...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural scientists face the dual challenge of breeding input-responsive, widely adoptable and climate-resilient varieties of crop plants and developing such varieties at a faster pace. Integrating the gains of genomics with modern-day phenomics will lead to increased breeding efficiency which in turn offers great promise to develop such variet...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on approaches to sustainable vegetable production systems for food and nutrition security under climate change in sub‐Saharan Africa and Asia. Peri‐urban and urban agriculture offer high employment and income possibilities for the urban population, but where these cities are left unmanaged, urbanization goes hand in hand with p...
Article
Heat stress is a significant threat that limits crop yield and fecundity all over the world. Prevalent strategies for heat adaptation that alter technical and management systems are inadequate to sustain yield. As such, the identification of heat-tolerant genotypes with improved yield potential is crucial. Raising tolerant and stable cultivars can...