Ralf Jäger

Ralf Jäger
Increnovo

Dr. rer. nat, MBA, FISSN

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106
Publications
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Publications

Publications (106)
Article
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Position statement The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows: 1) An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein i...
Article
Full-text available
Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: Probiotics are live microorgan...
Article
Full-text available
Background Large (48-g), isonitrogenous doses of rice and whey protein have previously been shown to stimulate similar adaptations to resistance training, but the impact of consuming smaller doses has yet to be compared. We evaluated the ability of 24-g doses of rice or whey protein concentrate to augment adaptations following 8 weeks of resistance...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effects of acute paraxanthine (PXN) ingestion on markers of cognition, executive function, and psychomotor vigilance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 13 healthy male and female participants were randomly assigned to consume a placebo (PLA) or 200 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™,...
Article
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Leucine is regarded as an anabolic trigger for the mTORC1 pathway and the stimulation muscle protein synthesis rates. More recently, there has been an interest in underpinning the relevance of BCAA-containing dipeptides and their intact absorption into circulation to regulate muscle anabolic responses. We investigated the effects of dileucine and l...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been reported to decrease perceptions of stress, enhance mood, and improve cognitive function. However, it is currently unknown whether acute ashwagandha supplementation affects memory and cognitive function. This study evaluated the effects of acute ashwagandha extract ingestion on executive functio...
Article
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Intense physical activity is often associated with undesirable physiological changes, including increased inflammation, transient immunodepression, increased susceptibility to infections, altered intestinal barrier integrity, and increased oxidative stress. Several trials suggested that probiotics supplementation may have beneficial effects on spor...
Article
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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two acute doses of Capsiate (CAP; 6 vs. 12 mg) on upper body resistance exercise performance in trained men. Methods: Using a randomized, crossover and double-blind design, 20 resistance-trained males were supplemented with low-dose CAP (6 mg), high-dose CAP (12 mg) or placebo 4...
Article
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Background: This study’s aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 14-days oral supplementation of a standardized hops extract containing 30% alpha acids, Humulus lupulus L. on individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: Thirty-three subjects (26 female, 7 male, 57.0 ± 6.9 years) participated in this randomized, double-blind, multi-...
Article
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In 2011, we published a paper providing an overview about the bioavailability, efficacy, and regulatory status of creatine monohydrate (CrM), as well as other “novel forms” of creatine that were being marketed at the time. This paper concluded that no other purported form of creatine had been shown to be a more effective source of creatine than CrM...
Article
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Paraxanthine is a natural dietary ingredient and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. Compared to caffeine, paraxanthine exhibits lower toxicity, lesser anxiogenic properties, stronger locomotor activating effects, greater wake promoting properties, and stronger dopaminergic effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential ben...
Article
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Paraxanthine (PXN) is a metabolite of caffeine that has recently been reported to enhance cognition at a dose of 200 mg. Objective: To determine the acute and short-term (7-day) effects of varying doses of PXN on cognitive function and side effects. Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 12 health...
Article
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Background Acute capsaicinoid and capsinoid supplementation has endurance and resistance exercise benefits; however, if these short-term performance benefits translate into chronic benefits when combined with resistance training is currently unknown. This study investigated changes of chronic Capsiate supplementation on muscular adaptations, inflam...
Article
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Background: Chronic oral ATP supplementation benefits cardiovascular health, muscular performance, body composition, and recovery while attenuating muscle breakdown and fatigue. A single 400 mg dose of oral ATP supplementation improved lower body resistance training performance and energy expenditure in recreational resistance trained males, howeve...
Article
Paraxanthine or 1,7-dimethylxanthine is a natural dietary component and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with international guidelines to investigate mutagenicity, genotoxicity and acute and repeated-dose oral toxicity in rats of synthetic paraxanthine (ENFINITY™, Ingenious In...
Article
Full-text available
Glucosamine (GLU) is a natural compound found in cartilage, and supplementation with glucosamine has been shown to improve joint heath and has been linked to reduced mortality rates. GLU is poorly absorbed and may exhibit functional properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of glucosamine on gastrointestinal functio...
Article
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Adequate dietary protein is important for many aspects of health with current evidence suggesting that exercising individuals need greater amounts of protein. When assessing protein quality, animal sources of protein routinely rank amongst the highest in quality, largely due to the higher levels of essential amino acids they possess in addition to...
Article
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the primary compound that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, including muscle contraction, neurotransmission, and cardiac function. Initial research used enteric-coated ATP that displayed no apparent efficacy. However, ATP disodium supplementation has demonstrated improved bioavailability and ac...
Experiment Findings
❶ 8-weeks of non-linear resistance training in combination with high doses (48g) of rice protein • decreases fat-mass • increases lean body mass • increases skeletal muscle hypertrophy • increases power • increases strength comparable to 48g of whey protein. J.M. Joy, R.P. Lowery, R. Jäger, M. Purpura, E.O. De Souza, J.E. Dudeck, J.M. Wilson: Rice...
Article
Full-text available
The fate of dietary protein in the gut is determined by microbial and host digestion and utilization. Fermentation of proteins generates bioactive molecules that have wide-ranging health effects on the host. The type of protein can affect amino acid absorption, with animal proteins generally being more efficiently absorbed compared with plant prote...
Article
Full-text available
Background Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has been shown to increase protein digestion in an in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine. Once active in the small intestine after germination, BC30 aids the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. The extent to which BC30 administration may impact protein digestion and amino...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Chronic supplementation with ashwagandha (Withania somnifera root) reduces feelings of stress, improves mood and cognitive function. The potential benefits of acute ashwagandha supplementation on sustained attention, cognitive flexibility, and/or working memory are currently unknown. The purpose of this double-blind, placebo-controlled,...
Article
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Purpose of review: This is a review of the most up-to-date research on the effectiveness of probiotic supplementation for outcomes related to athletes and physical activity. The focus is on clinical research incorporating exercise and/or physically active participants on the nutritional effectiveness of single and multistrain preparations. Recent...
Article
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Adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) is the primary source of energy for cells and oral supplementation with ATP offers numerous different health benefits, including the regulation of blood flow and muscle contraction. In this study, ATP, disodium salt, was administered by gavage to rats for 90 consecutive days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 20...
Article
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The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract play a significant role in nutrient uptake, vitamin synthesis, energy harvest, inflammatory modulation, and host immune response, collectively contributing to human health. Important factors such as age, birth method, antibiotic use, and diet have been established as formative factors that shape the...
Article
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Aerobic exercise and thermal stress instigate robust challenges to the immune system. Various attempts to modify or supplement the diet have been proposed to bolster the immune system responses. The purpose of this study was to identify the impact of yeast beta-glucan (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage and...
Article
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Context: Capsaicinoids and capsinoids (CAP) are natural substances found primarily in chili peppers and other spicy foods that agonize the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 in the mouth, stomach, and small intestine. Several studies have shown CAP to be a potential antiobesity agent and to exhibit an analgesic effect in both rodents and hum...
Article
Full-text available
Background: It is known that unaccustomed exercise-especially when it has an eccentric component-causes muscle damage and subsequent performance decrements. Attenuating muscle damage may improve performance and recovery, allowing for improved training quality and adaptations. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the effect of two doses o...
Article
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Probiotics offer numerous health benefits, including digestive and immune health. Improved digestive health is linked to a more efficient absorption of important nutrients from our diet. This review focused on the rationale of using the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 to aid protein absorption and utilization. B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 ca...
Article
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Background: Sports nutrition is a constantly evolving field with hundreds of research papers published annually. In the year 2017 alone, 2082 articles were published under the key words 'sport nutrition'. Consequently, staying current with the relevant literature is often difficult. Methods: This paper is an ongoing update of the sports nutritio...
Article
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Background: Capsaicinoids (CAPs) found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for enhanced metabolism. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of CAPs on body fat and fat mass while considering interactions with body habitus, diet and metabolic propensity. Methods: Seventy-five (N = 75) volunteer (male and female, age:...
Article
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Introduction Krill oil supplementation has been shown to improve postexercise immune function; however, its effect on muscle hypertrophy is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the ability of krill oil to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition...
Conference Paper
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The training of novice and competitive athletes involves the incorporation of unaccustomed exercise, likely to result in skeletal muscle tissue damage. The initial response, known to result in muscle soreness and swelling, and decreased forced production, is followed by a secondary inflammatory response integral in the skeletal muscle repair and re...
Article
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We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 2...
Article
Objective: Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration has failed to increase plasma ATP levels; however, chronic supplementation with ATP has shown to increase power, strength, lean body mass, and blood flow in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ATP supplementation on postexercise ATP levels and...
Article
Full-text available
Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Effects of MusclePharm Assault BlackTM on lower extremity spinal excitability and postactivation potentiation: A pilot study Brian Wallace*, Haley Bergstrom, Kelly Wallace Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA Email: brian.wallace@uky.edu; brian.wallace@northern.edu Background: Caffeine h...
Article
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Objective: Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of...
Article
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Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle following high intensity or prolonged...
Conference Paper
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It is known that endothelial dysfunction (ED) may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). ED can be measured as a decreased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response, using occlusion and subsequent dilation response of the brachial artery. Increased levels of inflammatory molecules contribute to ED, and increase CVD. Curcumin, a highly pleio...
Poster
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Objective: Probiotics have been purported to reduce inflammation. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics in reducing inflammation and subsequent performance decrements associated with strenuous exercise in healthy athletes. Such evidence may allow greater training adaptation and subsequent increases in performance. There...
Article
Full-text available
Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-...
Article
Full-text available
Position statement The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of beta-alanine supplementation. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Four weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (4–6 g daily) significantly augments muscle...
Presentation
Full-text available
Probiotics have been shown to reduce the number, duration and severity of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and gastrointestinal (GI) distress in the general population and in at risk sub-groups such as the elderly, children attending care centers, or athletes. Strategies to prevent URTI in athletes include avoiding overtraining, providing...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction The probiotic GanedenBC30 (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086; Ganeden Biotech Inc., Maryfield Heights, OH) has been shown to support healthy digestive and immune function, including increased protein absorption. In a pilot study, daily co-administration of GanedenBC30 and protein in resistance-trained subjects performing full body workou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Whey protein is considered to be the optimal protein source to support muscle protein synthesis (MPS) with resistance training, based on its amino acid content (high in leucine), rapid digestibility, and high bioavailability within the muscle tissue [1]. Athletes can choose from different plant protein sources (e.g. soy, rice, pea, hemp)...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) and caffeine supplementation have been shown to improve mental and physical performance. Alpha-GPC administration increases the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and facilitates learning and memory. In athletes, Alpha-GPC supplementation prevents exercise-induced reductions in choli...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study investigated comparative concentrations of individual amino acids, total amino acids (TAA), non-essential amino acids (NEA) and essential amino acids (EAA) in the blood after the administration of Rice Protein Isolate (RPI) compared to Whey Protein Isolate (WPI). Methods: After a 12 hour overnight fast, 10 trained male subjec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background While growing evidence suggests beneficial effects of probiotics on the gut-brain-axis, only a limited number of studies have investigated the impact of gut microbiota modulation on muscle physiology (gut-muscle-axis). The probiotic BC30 (Ganeden Biotech Inc., Maryfield Heights, OH) has been shown to increase protein absorption and the a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Most pre-workout supplements are based on the stimulant caffeine, containing anywhere from 100-300 mg of caffeine in a serving. While research has confirmed increased mental focus and acuity from the use of caffeine, stimulant sensitive individuals should assess their tolerance before using pre-workout supplements containing caffeine. Ca...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background Human and cell culture studies have demonstrated that phosphatidic acid (PA) can increase muscle mass and anabolic signaling, respectively. However, no in vivo evidence to date has examined whether PA can increase intramuscular anabolic signaling in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine – a) if PA feeding acutely increases post-...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its a...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, dur...