Ralf F A Cox

Ralf F A Cox
University of Groningen | RUG · Heymans Institute for Psychological Research

PhD

About

109
Publications
33,264
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1,408
Citations

Publications

Publications (109)
Article
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Background Children with visual impairments (VI) are at risk for sensory processing difficulties. A widely used measure for sensory processing is the Sensory Profile (SP). However, the SP requires adaptation to accommodate for how children with VI experience sensory information. Aims (1) To examine sensory processing patterns in young children wit...
Preprint
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A complex dynamic systems perspective was applied to explore how mother and child mutually shape interpersonal coordination. Applying a microanalytic design, this study examined moment-to-moment interaction behavior of 39 Dutch mothers and their three- and four-year old children (53.8% girls, predominantly White) during a collaboration task. Fine-g...
Article
Full-text available
In the current study we investigated if drivers of conditionally automated vehicles can be kept in the loop through lane change maneuvers. More specifically, we examined whether involving drivers in lane-changes during a conditionally automated ride can influence critical takeover behavior and keep drivers' gaze on the road. In a repeated measures...
Poster
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Art is known for its ability to move people, figuratively but also literally. Researchers have tried to understand the groundings of aesthetic experience. The creation of art is also an embodied activity, which materializes in the artwork. In abstract modern paintings, for instance, the painter’s movements create a dynamical balance residing in the...
Poster
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Art is well-known for its emotional effects on perceivers. These emotions consist of physical reactions to the artwork, felt in various regions of the body, as well as an articulation of subjective feelings towards it (cf. Cupchik, 2016). The current study is the first to apply Bodily Sensation Maps (BSMs, Nummenmaa et al., 2014) in encounters with...
Article
Full-text available
Gestures and speech are clearly synchronized in many ways. However, previous studies have shown that the semantic similarity between gestures and speech breaks down as people approach transitions in understanding. Explanations for these gesture–speech mismatches, which focus on gestures and speech expressing different cognitive strategies, have bee...
Preprint
Full-text available
Art is known to give rise to a large range of emotions in people. These emotions are associated with bodily sensations felt in various regions of the body and subjective feelings. The current study applies Bodily Sensation Maps (BSMs, Nummenmaa et al., 2014) as a tool to measure art-elicited emotions by charting bodily sensations onto a body map. T...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we investigated if keeping the driver in the perception-action loop during automated driving can improve takeover behavior from conditionally automated driving. To meet this aim, we designed an experiment in which visual exposure (perception) and manual control exposure (action) were manipulated. In a dynamic driving simulator experim...
Article
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This study investigated the developing ability of children to identify emotional facial expressions in terms of the contexts in which they generally occur. We presented Dutch 6- to 9-year-old primary school children (N = 164, 98 girls) prototypical contexts for different emotion categories and asked them whether different kinds of facial expression...
Preprint
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The psychophysical description of one of the pillars of color science, the color-matching paradigm, forms the basis of the representation theory of colors. This description entails the weighted integration of a spectral distribution of radiant energy (i.e. a light ray) with three color-matching functions. Here these color-matching functions are con...
Poster
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How can you develop language if you are born without proper sight and hearing? Children with congenital deafblindness face profound difficulties in acquiring language, largely due to a lack of access to language in their environment. Indeed, only a few people with congenital deafblindness acquire language beyond the level of naming a limited amount...
Article
Full-text available
Children move their hands to explore, learn and communicate about hands-on tasks. Their hand movements seem to be "learning" ahead of speech. Children shape their hand movements in accordance with spatial and temporal task properties, such as when they feel an object or simulate its movements. Their speech does not directly correspond to these spat...
Article
Full-text available
The temporal structure of behavior contains a rich source of information about its dynamic organization, origins, and development. Today, advances in sensing and data storage allow researchers to collect multiple dimensions of behavioral data at a fine temporal scale both in and out of the laboratory, leading to the curation of massive multimodal c...
Code
This is the GitHub repository containing the five Matlab code modules with sample examples introduced in the paper, Finding Structure in Time: Visualizing and Analyzing Behavioral Time Series. These code modules aim to facilitate behavioral researchers with varying degrees of programming skills to interpret and analyze high-density multi-modal beha...
Article
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In the current study, we applied the dynamical systems approach to obtain novel insights into resilience losses. Dyads (n = 42) performed a lateral rhythmical pointing (Fitts) task. To induce resilience losses and transitions in performance, dyads were exposed to ascending and descending scoring scenarios. To assess changes in the complexity of the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The temporal structure of behavior contains a rich source of information about its dynamic organization, origins, and development. Today, advances in sensing and data storage allow researchers to collect multiple dimensions of behavioral data at a fine temporal scale both in and out of the laboratory, leading to the curation of massive multimodal c...
Data
To provide an accessible introduction to Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) to readers from diverse academic backgrounds, we will introduce the method in three main steps. First, we will illustrate how the box counting method is used to approximate the fractal dimension of objects. Second, we will illustrate how Detrended Fluctuati...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gestures and speech are clearly synchronized in many ways. However, previous studies have shown that the semantic similarity between gestures and speech breaks down as people approach transitions in understanding. Explanations for these gesture-speech mismatches which focus on gestures and speech expressing different cognitive strategies, have been...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dog-assisted therapy (DAT) is hypothesized to help children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down syndrome (DS). Methods: The present authors compared synchronous movement patterns of these children (n = 10) and their therapy dogs during the first and last session of a DAT programme, and their post-therapy changes in emotional...
Article
Full-text available
Synchronizing behaviors in interactions, such as during turn-taking, are often impaired in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Therapies that focus on turn-taking generally lead to increased social skills, less interruptions, and silent pauses, however a positive non-demanding environment is therefore thought to be beneficial. Such an environme...
Preprint
Full-text available
Children move their hands to explore, learn and communicate about hands-on tasks. Their hand movements seem to be “learning” ahead of speech. Children shape their hand movements in accordance with spatial and temporal task properties, such as when they feel an object or simulate it’s movements. Their speech does not directly correspond to these spa...
Preprint
The papers in the special issue of PPS on the origins and possible resolution of the crisis of confidence in psychological science hardly mention the word theory. We argue that all the excellent suggestions to reform the discipline will be in vain if it does not begin a discussion about the way it evaluates and revises its theories. We diagnose the...
Poster
Full-text available
Research on driving behavior from an ecological psychology perspective axiomatically assumes the drivers intention to perform the driving task. This assumption does not hold for drivers of conditionally automated vehicles who may engage in non-driving-related task but must remain capable of taking back control in response to the vehicle's request....
Article
Full-text available
Researchers from the complex dynamical systems perspective seek their explanations of human behavior and development in the dynamical interactions across many levels in an active, situated individual. That is to say, behavior and development are both constraining and constrained by the continuous exchange between a myriad of processes distributed a...
Poster
Full-text available
When two people collaborate, their movements and speech coordinate and synchronize. In other words, the dyad becomes a coupled social system. Recent studies show that modulating the degree of coupling is functional, and reflects task specific affordances. Thus, there is a tension between strong and weak coupling between individuals in a dyadic task...
Article
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Under the premise that language learning is bidirectional in nature, this study aimed to investigate syntactic coordination within teacher-student interactions by using cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA). Seven teachers' and a group of their students' interactions were repeatedly measured in the course of an intervention in early scien...
Article
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How can depression be associated with both instability and inertia of affect? Koval et al. (2013, Emotion, 13, 1132) showed that this paradox can be solved by accounting for the statistical overlap between measures of affect dynamics. Nevertheless, these measures are still often studied in isolation. The present study is a replication of the Koval...
Article
In the weaning period, infants are introduced to solid food after being fed solely on milk, which involves a deliberate reorganization of the infant-caregiver feeding interaction. This multiple case study, involving 5 dyads with 10 repeated observations, analyzed its dynamical structure using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis. The results sh...
Poster
Full-text available
After driving a vehicle with conditional automation (SAE Level 3) drivers display performance decrements when taking back manual control. This has been labeled the out-of-the-loop problem (OOTLP). This Poster investigates this pressing Human Factors problem from an ecological psychology perspective: corresponding “the loop” to perception-action cou...
Preprint
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Two experiments and a model on limb selection are reported. In Experiment 1 left-handed and right-handed participants (N = 36) repeatedly used one hand for grasping a small cube. After a clear switch in the cube's location, perseverative limb selection was revealed in both handedness groups. In Experiment 2 the cubes were presented in a clockwise a...
Article
Full-text available
Complex systems applications in human movement sciences have increased our understanding of emergent coordination patterns between athletes. In the current study, we take a novel step and propose that movement coordination between athletes is a multiscale phenomenon. Specifically, we investigated so-called "complexity matching" of performance measu...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal coordination in young children during dyadic problem solving, by using Cross-Recurrence Quantification Analysis (CRQA). We examined the interactions of seven dyads of children (Mage= 5.1 years) in a longitudinal design (6 sessions) with a sequence of problem-solving tasks increasing in difficul...
Chapter
Full-text available
As humans, we continuously adapt our behavior to changes in our environment, and our cognitive abilities continuously develop over time. A major question for scientists has been to discover the (cognitive) mechanism that underlies the control of human behavior in real-time, as well as cognitive development on the long-term. This chapter will discus...
Preprint
Full-text available
As humans, we continuously adapt our behavior to changes in our environment, and our cognitive abilities continuously develop over time. A major question for scientists has been to discover the (cognitive) mechanism that underlies the control of human behavior in real time, as well as cognitive development in the long term. This chapter will discus...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. Method: 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old children with visual impairment and 47 age-matched...
Article
Full-text available
The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors over time. Guided by the principles of the theory...
Preprint
The current study focuses on one child's (male, 3 years old) learning behaviors in an English as a Foreign Language classroom, and explores the coordination and developmental patterns of his nonverbal (gestures and body language) and verbal (verbal repetition and verbal responses) learning behaviors over time. Guided by the principles of the theory...
Chapter
Full-text available
Cross-recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) is a powerful nonlinear time-series method to study coordination and cooperation between people. This chapter concentrates on two methodological issues related to CRQA on categorical data streams, which are commonly encountered in the behavioral sciences . Firstly, we introduce a more general definiti...
Article
Purpose: This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. Methods: This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group...
Article
Full-text available
As children learn they use their speech to express words and their hands to gesture. This study investigates the interplay between real-time gestures and speech as children construct cognitive understanding during a hands-on science task. 12 children (M = 6, F = 6) from Kindergarten (n = 5) and first grade (n = 7) participated in this study. Each v...
Article
Full-text available
This study on psychological momentum (PM) in sports provides the first experimental test of an interconnection between short-term PM (during a match) and long-term PM (across a series of matches). Twenty-two competitive athletes were striving to win a prize during a rowing-ergometer tournament, consisting of manipulated races. As hypothesized, athl...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine (1) the temporal structures of variation in rowers’ (natural) ergometer strokes to make inferences about the underlying motor organization, and (2) the relation between these temporal structures and skill level. Four high-skilled and five lower-skilled rowers completed 550 strokes on a rowing ergometer. Detrende...
Article
Cooperation with peers is challenging for young children, and there are large individual differences in the development of cooperation. The roles of child characteristics and peer experiences for peer interaction during free play have been studied extensively, but it is unclear which factors predict young children's successful cooperation at differ...
Article
During social interaction, the behavior of interacting partners becomes coordinated. Although interpersonal coordination is well-studied in adults, relatively little is known about its development. In this project we explored how 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children spontaneously coordinated their drumming with a peer. Results showed that all children a...
Article
Full-text available
Insight into the typical motor development of children with visual impairment (VI) is necessary in order to recognise whether children with VI are at risk of motor developmental problems, and to evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions. In 2003 the ManuVis was published with reference values for children with VI of ages from 6 to 11 yea...
Conference Paper
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The study concerns the evaluation of treatment efficacy for childhood aggression using Recurrence Quantification Analysis, a nonlinear time-series analysis technique. The quantification of second-to-second dyadic interactions of parents and children during treatment sessions revealed the presence of characteristic fingerprints of phase-transitions...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Purpose. The effect of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome (INS) on the efficiency of goal-directed hand movements was examined. Methods. Thirty-seven children with INS and 65 control subjects with normal vision, aged 4 to 8 years, were recruited. Participants performed horizontally oriented, goal-directed cylinder displacements as if they displa...
Article
Full-text available
Research regarding the variability of state self-esteem (SSE) commonly focuses on the magnitude of variability. In this article we provide the first empirical test of the temporal structure of SSE as a real time process during parent–adolescent interactions. We adopt a qualitative phenomenological approach, whereby moment-to-moment emotional and be...
Article
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Social interactions between staff and clients with an intellectual disability contain synchronized turn-taking patterns. Synchrony can increase rapport and cooperation between individuals. This study investigated whether verbal interactional dominance and balance, an indication of attunement between staff and clients with ID, are associated with sy...
Article
This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple imp...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has shown that rapport and cooperation between individuals is related to the level of nonverbal synchrony they achieve in their interactions. This study investigates the extent to which staff and clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability achieve interactional synchrony in daily social interactions. Whilst there has been...
Article
Purpose: This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Methods: Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three...
Article
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The call for a daisy chain of replications by Daniel Kahneman (as cited in Yong, 201226. Yong , E. 2012. Nobel laureate challenges psychologists to clean up their act: Social-priming research needs “daisy chain” of replication. Nature, October 3 Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/news/nobel-laureate-challenges-psychologists-to-clean-up-their-act...
Article
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In previous studies we demonstrated that the speech of a language-acquiring child and that of her parent can be characterized as a transactional process of dynamic adaptation. We reported a striking attunement between child and parent in the global development of mean length of utterance and utterance length between the ages of 1.5 and 2.5 years. H...
Article
Background: This study compares the influence of two different types of magnification (magnifier versus large print) on crowded near vision task performance. Methods: Fifty-eight visually impaired children aged 4-8 years participated. Participants were divided in two groups, matched on age and near visual acuity (NVA): [1] the magnifier group (4...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we show that response facilitation in choice reaction tasks achieved by priming the (previously perceived) effect is based on stimulus-response associations rather than on response-effect associations. The reduced key-press response time is not accounted for by earlier established couplings between the key-press movement and its subse...